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diction on lambs, in shearing season, to lished, each party endeavoured to cir. preserve them from catching cold. St. cumvent the other as much as possible, Peter became patron of lambs, from and laid plans to steal upon the tower Christ's metaphorical expression, “ Feed unperceived, in the night time, and level my lambs," having been construed into it with the ground. Great was the a literal injunction.* Raphael makes this honour that such a successful exploit coninisconstruction the subject of one of his veyed to the undertakers; and, though great cartoons, by representing Christ as the tower was easily rebuilt, and was speaking to Peter, and pointing to a flock soon put into its former state, yet the of lambs.

news was quickly spread by the success

ful adventurers, through the whole disLammas Towers in Mid-Lothian.

trict, which filled it with shouts of joy

and exultation, while their unfortunate There was a Lammas festival, which neighbours were covered with shame. To prevailed in the Lothians from very early war off this disgrace, a constant nightly times among the young persons employed guard was kept at each tower, which was during summer in tending the herds at made stronger and stronger, as the tower pasture. The usage is remarkable.

advanced ; that frequent nightly It appears

that the herdsmen within a skirmishes ensued at these attacks, but certain district, towards the beginning of were seldom of much consequence, as summer, associated themselves

the assailants seldom came in force to bands, sometimes to the number of a

make an attack in this way, but merely hundred or more. Each of these com

to succeed by surprise; as soon, theremunities agreed to build a tower in some fore, as they saw they were discovered, conspicuous place, near the centre of they made off in the best manner they their district, which was to serve as the could. place of their rendezvous on Lammas

To give the alarm on these, and other day. This tower was usually built of occasions, every person was armed with sods ; for the most part square, about a “ tooting horn;" that is, a horn perfour feet in diameter at the bottom, and forated in the small end, through which tapering to a point at the top, which was

wind can be forcibly blown from the seldom above seven or eight feet from the mouth, so as to occasion a loud sound; ground. In building it, a hole was left and, as every one wished to acquire as in the centre for admitting a flag-staff, on

great dexterity as possible in the use of which to display their colours. The the “ tooting horn,” they practised upon it tower was usually begun to be built during the summer, while keeping their about a month before Lammas, and was beasts; and towards Lammas they were carried up slowly by successive additions

so incessantly employed at this business, froin time to time, being seldom entirely answering to, and vying with each other, completed till a few days before Lam- that the whole country rang continually mas; though it was always thought that with the sounds; and it must no doubt those who completed their's soonest, and have appeared to be a very harsh and kept it standing the longest time before unaccountable noise to a stranger who Lammas, behaved in the most gallant

was then passing through it. manner, and acquired most honour by

As the great day of Lammas aptheir conduct.

proached, each community chose one From the moment the foundation of from among themselves for their captain, the tower was laid, it became an object and they prepared a stand of colours to of care and attention to the whole com

be ready to be then displayed. For this munity; for it was reckoned a disgrace purpose, they usually borrowed a fine to suffer it to be defaced ; so that they table napkin of the largest size, from resisted, with all their power, any at some of the farmer's wives within the tempts that should be made to demolish district; and, to ornament it, they borit, either by force or fraud ; and, as the rowed ribbons, which they tacked upon the honour that was acquired by the demoli- napkin in such fashion as best suited tion of a tower, if affected by those be- their fancy. Things being thus prepared, longing to another, was in proportion to they marched forth early in the morning the disgrace of suffering it to be demo

on Lammas day, dressed in their best

apparel, each armed with a stout cudgel, * Mr. Brady's Clavis Calendara.

and, repairing to their tower, there dis

played their colours in triumph; blowing some time, with such rural

sports as horns, and making merry in the best suited their taste, and dispersed quietly manner they could. About nine o'clock to their respective homes before sunset. they sat down upon the green; and each When two parties met, and one of them taking from his pocket, bread and cheese, yielded to the other, they marched togeor other provisions, made a hearty breaks ther for some time in two separate bodies, fast, drinking pure water from a well, the subjected body behind the other; and which they always took care should be then they parted good friends, each pernear the scene of banquet.

forming their races at their own appointed In the mean time, scouts were sent out place Next day, after the ceremony was towards every quarter, to bring them over, the ribbons and napkin that formed notice if any hostile party approached; the colours, were carefully returned to for it frequently happened, that on that their respective owners, the tower was day the herdsmen of one district went no longer a matter of consequence, and to attack those of another district, and to the country returned to its usual state of bring them under subjection to them by tranquility. main force. If news were brought that a The above is a faithful account of this hostile party approached, the horns singular ceremony which was annually resounded to arms, and they immediately peated in all the country, within the disarranged themselves in the best order they tance of six miles west from Edinburgh, could devise; the stoutest and boldest in about thirty years before Dr. Anderson front, and those of inferior prowess wrote, which was in the year 1792. How behind. Seldom did they wait the ap- long the custom prevailed, or what had proach of the enemy, but usually went given rise to it, or how far it had extended forth to meet them with a bold counte on each side, he was uninformed. He nance, the captain of each company carry- says, “ the name of Lammas-towers will ing the colours, and leading the van. remain, (some of them having been built When they met, they mutually desired of stone,) after the celebration of the feseach other to lower their colours in sign tival has ceased. This paper will at least of subjection. If there appeared to be preserve the memory of what was meant a great disproportion in the strength by them. I never could discover the of the parties, the weakest usually sub- smallest traces of this custom in Abermitted to this ceremony without much deenshire, though I have there found difficulty, thinking their honour was several towers of stone, very like the saved by the evident disproportion of the Lammas-towers of this country; but match ; but, if they were nearly equal these seem to have been erected without in strength, none of them would yield, any appropriated use, but merely to look and it ended in blows, and sometimes

I have known some of those erected bloodshed. It is related, that, in a battle in my time, where I knew for certain of this kind, four were actually killed, that no other object was intended, than and many disabled from work for weeks. merely to amuse the persons who erected

If no opponent appeared, or if they them.” themselves had no intention of making an attack, at about mid-day they took down their colours, and marched with

The COBBLERS' FESTIVAL AT PARIS horns sounding, towards the most con

ON THE FIRST OF AUGUST, 1641. siderable village in their district; rare old “broadside" in French, where the lasses, and all the people, came printed at the time, with a large and out to meet them, and partake of their curious wood-cut at the head, now before diversions. Boundaries were immedi- the editor, describes a feast of the cobblers ately appointed, and a proclamation made, of Paris in a burlesque manner, from that all who intended to compete in the whence he proposes to extract some acrace should appear. A bonnet ornamented count of their proceedings as closely as with ribbons was displayed upon a pole, may be to the original. as a prize to the victor; and sometimes

First, however, it is proper to observe five or six started for it, and ran with as

that the wood engraving, on the next page, great eagerness as if they had been to

is a fac-simile of one third, and by far the gain a kingdom; the prize of the second

most interesting portion of the original. race was a pair of garters, and the third a knife. They then amused themselves for * Dr. James Anderson, in Trans. Soc. Aptiq. Scot.


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Festival of the Cobblers of Paris, August 1, 1641,

The entire oecupation of the preceding and seems a "joculator" of the first page by a cut, which is the first of order ;—and laying aside his dress, and dhe kind in the Every-Day Book, may the jaunty set of his hat, which we may startle a few readers, but it must gratify almost imagine had been a pattern for a every person who regards it either as a recent fashion, his face of infinite hufaithful transcript of the most interesting mour” would distinguish him any where, part of a very rare engraving, or as a However rudely the characters are cut, representation of the mode of feasting in they are well discriminated. The serving the old pot-houses of Paris.

man, with a spur on one foot and without Nothing of consequence is lost by the a shoe on the other, who pours wine omission of the other part of the engrav- into a glass, is evidently a personing; for it is merely a crowd of smaller

" contented in his station figures, seated at the table, eating and

who minds his occupation." drinking, or reeling, or lying on the floor inebriated. The only figure worth Vandyke himself could scarcely have notice, is a man employed in turning afforded more grace to a countess, than a spit, and he has really so lack-a-daisical the artist of the feast has bestowed on a an appearance, that it seems worth while cobbler's wife. to give the top corner of the print in facsimile.

From the French of the author who drew up the account referring to the engraving, we learn that on the first day of August, 1641, the “Society of the Trade of Cobblers,” met in solemn festival (as, he observes, was their custom) in the church of St. Peters of Arsis, where, after having bestowed all sorts of praises on their patron, they divided their consecrated bread between them, with which not one third of them was satisfied ; for while going out of the church they murmured, while the others chuckled.

After interchanging the reciprocal honours, they were accustomed to pay to each other, (which we may fairly presume to have been hard blows,) many of the most famous of their calling departed to a pot-house, and had a merry-making. They had all such sorts of dishes at their diuner as their purses would afford; par

ticularly a large quantity of turnip-soup, We perceive from the page-cut that al on account of the number of persons the period when the original was executed, present; and as many ox-feet and fricasees the French landlords “chalked up the of tripe, as all the tripe-shops of the city score” as ours do, and tlat cobblers had and its suburbs could furnish, with vamusic at their dinners as well as their rious other dishes which the reporter says betters. The band might not be so he does not choose to name, lest he complete, but it was as good as they should give offence to the fraternity. He could get, and the king and his nobles mentions cow-beef, however, as one of could not have more than money could the delicacies, and hints at their excesses procure. The two musicians are of some having disordered their stomachs and consideration, as well suited to the scene; manners. He speaks of some of them nor is the mendicant near them to be dis- having been the masters, and of others as regarded ; he is only a little more needy, more than the masters, for they denomiand, perhaps, a little less importunate than nated ihemselves Messieurs le Jurez, of certain suitors for court favours. The their honourable calling. He further singer who accompanies himself on the says, that to know the whole history of guitar at the table, is tricked out with a their assembly, you must go to Gentily, standing ruff and ruffles, and ear-rings, at the sign of St. Peter, where, when it

VOL. 11-88.


no sooner

leisure, they all play together at bowls. opulence as to vie with princes, and enHe adds, that it is not necessary to de- able him to build several rich monasteries; scribe them all, because it is not the but his great pomp and immense wealth custom of this highly indispensable fra- having drawn upon him the jealousy of ternity to do kindness, and they are the king and the archbishop of Canteralways indignant at strong reproaches. bury, he was exiled. After an absence Finally, he says,


God to turn of ten years he was allowed to return to them from their wickedness.” He subjoins his see, and died in the monastery of a song which he declares if you read and Oundle in 711, aged seventy-six, and was sing, will show he has told the truth, and interred there. In 940, his remains were that you will be delighted with it. removed to Canterbury, by Odo, archHe alleges, that he drew it up to make you bishop of that see. Amongst all the better acquainted with the scene repre- miracles recorded of Wilfrid by the author sented in the wood-cut, in order that you of his life,* one, if true, was very extramight be amused and laugh. Whether ordinary, and would go far to convert the it had that tendency cannot be deter most obdurate pagan. It is said, that at mined, for unluckily the song, which · no this time, God so blessed the holy man's doubt was the best part, has perished endeavours towards the propagation of from the


of the singular paper now the faith, that, on a solemn day for bapdescribed.

tizing some thousands of the people of Sussex, the ceremony was

ended but the heavens distilled such LAMMAS Day

plentiful showers of rain, that the country Exeter Lammas Fair.

was relieved by it from the most prodiThe charter for this fair is perpetuated gious famine ever heard of. So great was by a glove of immense size, stuffed and the drought, and provision so scarce, that, carried through the city on a very long in the extremity of hunger, fifly at a time pole, decorated with ribbons, flowers, &c. joined hand in hand and Aung themselves and attended with music, parish beadles, into the sea, in order to avoid the death and the mobility. It is afterwards placed of famine by land. But by Wilfrid's on the top of the Guildhall, and then the

their bodies and souls were fair commences; on the taking down of preserved. the glove, the fair terminates.

The town of Rippon continues to this P. day to honour the memory of its bene

factor by an annual feast. On the

Saturday following Lammas-day, the effigy RIPPON LAMMAS FEAST.

of St. Wilfrid is brought into the town To the Editor of the Every-Day Book.

with great ceremony, preceded by music,

when the people go out to meet it in Sir,-If the following sketch of St. commemoration of the return of their Wilfrid's life, as connected with his feast favourite saint and patron from exile. at Rippon, be thought sufficiently interest- The following day called St. Wilfrid's ing for insertion, you will oblige an old Sunday is dedicated to him. On the contributor.

Monday and Tuesday there are horseThe town of Rippon owes its rise to the races for small sums only; though forpiety of early times, for we find that merly there were plates of twenty, thirty, Eatá, abbot of Melross and Lindisfarne, forty, and fifty pounds.f in the year 661 founded a monastery The following is a literal copy of part there, for which purpose he had lands of an advertisement from the “ Newcastle given him by Alchfrid, at that time king Courant" August 28, 1725. of Deira, and afterwards of the Northumbrians; but before the building was TOBERUN KopBon The usual four miles completed, the Scottish monks retired from the monastery, and St. Wilfrid was county of York, according to articles. On appointed abbot in 663, and soon after- Monday the thirteenth of September a purse wards raised to the see of York. This

of twenty guineas by any horse, mare, or prelate was then in high favour with Oswy the last grass, to be certified by the breeder ;

gelding that was no more than five years old and Egfrid, kings of Northumberland, and the principal nobility, by whose

• V. Wilfridi inter xx Scriptores. liberality he rose 10 such a degree of + Genileman's Magazine,


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