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That is rather conservative and does not quite comply with our own figures. Our own records show, if I recall correctly, 1.6 percent, or, in other words, the annual average hail loss in Iowa is equivalent to 1.6 percent of the crop, or based on the $1,000 would be equivalent. to $16 on every $1,000 of insurance.

Senator POPE. Do you know, Mr. Green, whether your Department: has the figures contained in these proposed exhibits?

Mr. Roy M. GREEN (Bureau of Agricultural Economics). Those Weather Bureau figures are, I believe, mostly estimates each year of the total loss from hail. I do not know that any other State has them as complete. They are prepared for Iowa through a cooperative arrangement with the State.

Senator POPE. I think it wouid be well then to have these figures included in the record.

Mr. RUTLEDGE. And this is in a little more condensed form.

Senator POPE. It might be well also to include the record of hail damage in Iowa as shown by this smaller exhibit here.

(The papers referred to follows:)

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Adams.
Allamakee...
Appanoose..
Audubon...
Benton..
Black Hawk.
Boone...
Bremer.
Buchanan.
Buena Vista.
Butler
Calhoun
Carroll...
Cass...
Cedar.
Cerro Gordo..
Cherokee...
Chickasaw...
Clarke...
Clay.--
Clayton..
Clinton..
Crawford..
Dallas.
Davis. ---
Decatur.
Delaware..
Des Moines.
Dickinson..
Dubuque...
Emmet..
Fayette.
Floyd...
Franklin
Fremont.---
Greene.---
Grundy...
Guthrie..
Hamilton

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$12, 390
24, 057
26, 274

9, 489
28, 606
46, 433
32, 758
41, 120
22, 147
41, 645
14, 173
31, 645
47, 381
26, 756
26, 380
48, 130
14, 186
91, 455
18, 058
10, 764
11, 540
46, 998
65, 950
101, 160

8,667
3, 409
10, 677
13, 887
11, 079
20, 453

9, 073
45, 500
85, 594
22, 603
54, 957
64, 418
48, 956
69, 782
10, 351
33, 370

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29, 990
2, 741

618
4, 420
2,085
35, 458
10, 030

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33, 737

8, 619
34, 734

240
24, 120
17, 425
14, 809
40, 883

7, 295
31, 545

17, 409
130, 074
75, 920
52, 065

9, 779
294, 271
64, 455
84, 619
52, 470
146, 954

195

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2, 950 4, 200

541 14, 560 2, 102

190

196
10, 002
3, 450
6, 772
55, 672

542

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157, 771

13, 447
380, 795

6, 567
10, 725
5, 668

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650
25, 858
11, 490
10, 743

903
37, 115

3,031

2,100
137, 837

345
2, 600
18, 630
22, 529

1, 481
23, 192
5, 219

120

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499

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6, 300
26, 601
23, 239
36, 611

240

1, 669

5,553
690, 259
75, 225

8, 225
53,683
28, 155

729

46, 217
60,052

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68, 378

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450
6, 243

918
222, 832

35
1,732

30

337

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497

6, 385
1, 840

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11, 215

111

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2, 702
8, 570

840
83, 928
99, 155
46, 096
10, 235

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Hardin
Harrison. -
Henry...
Howard
Humboldt

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Jefferson
Johnson
Jones.

Keokuk.
Co Kossuth.

Lee.------
Linn.
Louisa
Lucas.---
Lyon.
Madison.
Mahaska
Marion...
Marshall
M ills...--
Mitchell
Monona.
Monroe ------
Montgomery.
Muscatine...
O'Brien.--
Osceola..-
Page.----
Palo Alto..
Plymouth.
Pocahontas...
Polk.
Pottawattami
Poweshiek-
Ringgold.
Sac
Scott...
Shelby.
Sioux.
Story ----
Tama..
Taylor
Union..
Van Buren.

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95, 428
149, 629

62, 130
516, 054
74, 547
48, 466

6, 760
309, 262

9, 135
72, 023
119, 169
26, 565

220
592, 809
73, 124
72, 176
2,960
1, 620
10, 159
87, 020
35, 651
47,753

5, 745
71, 808
405, 790

16, 313
447, 245

7, 535
457, 181

1, 202
48, 435
3,622
4, 947
6, 286
33, 812
23, 192

3, 155
331, 050
214, 986

1, 658
26, 550
241, 315

83, 183
111, 457
50, 303
21, 525

2, 826
18, 350
2, 350

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77, 509 141, 480

1, 738
59, 901
163, 490

16, 278
62, 563
36, 157

120
8, 367
24, 146
58, 605

30
119, 914
46, 654

521
92, 073
11,757
8, 549
7, 110
25, 446
120, 786

1, 590
36, 066

219
26, 124
24, 895
3, 764

701
18, 143

1, 137
44, 790
19, 349
77, 669
56,982
28, 205
23, 718
23, 427
97, 421
3, 765

3, 394
131, 451
63, 284
63,599

470
193, 681
88, 969
25, 148

100

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530
13, 118

1, 991
57, 291
58, 100

225

548
8,059
12,880

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51, 562
60. 949
79, 182
80, 905
54, 616
53, 454
84, 681
60, 979
10, 806
39, 477
26, 334
15, 707

6, 435
188, 941
44, 795
10, 286
29, 507
6, 368
4, 012
65, 673
25, 793
31, 696

4, 279
40, 856
77, 860
78, 676
81, 120
16, 082
60, 337

6, 119
53, 854
17, 640
17, 305
17, 526
183, 129
22, 370
28, 295
77, 767
85,761

3, 569
64, 432
66, 429
38, 610
234, 360
49, 518
63, 320
19, 151
22, 703
13, 149

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337

13, 823

1, 010
15, 768
106, 016

650
415

818
182, 839

1, 968
3, 075

1

1, 130

407
3,045
8, 492

200
3, 651
36, 060

1,700
22, 736

1, 517
18, 089
14, 904
115, 959

1, 343
3, 103
56, 567

3, 124
14, 626

989
134, 959
45, 444
47, 262
8, 820
4, 264
2, 364
42, 147
5, 428

1, 800
193. 112

5, 538
10, 356

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22

798
137, 042
136, 519
38, 141

25
96, 382
57, 897
448, 513
29, 237

202
12, 087

1, 713
81, 683
76, 726

2, 826
22, 016
558, 966

69, 189
115, 158
24, 940
2,095

4, 119
192, 017

1, 741
96, 640
379, 760
218, 153
18, 380

4, 636
88, 824

1

66, 862

1,030

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401
16, 203
2,576

324
20, 617

6, 577
11, 758

7, 545
103, 255

9, 785
28, 831
37, 666
2, 755

40
26, 035

7, 107
12, 208

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53

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10, 770
39, 528

820
9, 524
23, 387
504, 863

1, 647

8, 115
132, 676
128, 178

588
184, 765
127, 601

4,374
16, 673
14, 980
137,000

178
7,872
1, 040

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3, 492
72, 334
2, 319
5, 332
464

68
62, 830
233, 336
15, 965

6, 125
15, 514
42, 299

5, 907
103, 945

9, 140
46, 773
19, 685

730
3,050

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51

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28, 095

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34, 421

1, 273

5, 088
1,076, 280

2, 751
114, 312

2, 871

1,814 101, 603

3,517

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2, 166
3, 441
1, 335

18, 597

1

100

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Hail damage in Iowa, 1923 to 1930, inclusive-Continued

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Hail DAMAGE IN IOWA

By CHARLES D. REED [Weather Bureau, Des Moines, Iowa, reprinted from Monthly Weather Review, vol. 59, June 1931, pp. 229-230)

Assessors in Iowa are required to ask each farmer on about 210,000 farms as to the amount of hail damage to crops on his farm the preceding crop season. These data are tabulated and summarized by the weather and crop bureau of the Iowa Department of Agriculture.

Eight years of these data are available at the close of 1930. In that period the average annual hail loss in the State was $4,513,760, while the average value of the crops at risk was $391,483,456. The greatest loss, $7,975, 686, was in 1925, and most of it occurred in the storm of August 18, extending from the southeast corner of Poweshiek and the southwest corner of Iowa Counties, almost due southeastward about 60 miles across Keokuk, Washington, Jefferson, and Henry Counties and into Lee County. The total damage in this storm was approximately $5,000,000, making it probably the most destructive in the history of the State. The least damage was $1,598,963 in 1930.

The greatest county damage was $1,076,280 in Woodbury County in 1929, and the greatest township damage was $321,380 in Liberty Township, Keokuk County, in 1924. The average number of townships reporting hail damage in the past 8 years is 563, or 35 percent of the total number of townships. In 1929, only 387 townships, or 24.1 percent, reported hail, which is the least in the 8 years, but the damage in these townships was rather intense, so the total was greater than in 1930.

Data are insufficient to work out definite zones of damage, but it now appears that the counties along the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers and those adjacent are more subject to hail than other portions of the State, while a good many counties in southeast Iowa, particularly Davis, are nearly immune. In the 8 years, 24 counties had one or more years with no damage; 14, mostly in the southeast, had only 1; 4 counties, Dallas, Henry, Louisa, and Monroe, had 2 years; 5 counties, Des Moines, Jefferson, Lee, Van Buren, and Wayne, had 3 years; and 1 county, Davis, had 4 years without hail damage.

In the 8 years, 159 townships, or about 10 percent of the area of the State, reported no hail. It was found that in several cases considerable damage was reported by monthly crop reporters and others in some of these 159 townships from which the assessors reported no damage. This discrepancy may be explained by the fact that crop reporters make their reports immediately after the storms occur, and at certain stages crops, especially corn, in a favorable season, have been known to largely recover from what at first appeared to be almost total destruction. Some months later when the assessor visits the farmer, the crop harvested is so nearly normal in yield that the farmer has forgotten all about the damage.

On the other hand, hail damage is so extremely localized, being large on one farm and amounting to nothing on an adjoining farm, that the actual acreage that escaped damage in the 8 years is no doubt greater than the 10 percent shown by using the township as a unit, and may be twice that amount.

It is recognized that the fluctuating values of crops of nearly equal quantity, or the inflation and deflation of the dollar, makes the dollar an unsatisfactory unit for measuring and comparing hail damage over a long period of years; yet it is convenient; a more complicated method might break down the cooperation of assessors and farmers; and eventually refinement may be effected by applying some commercial index number. The percent of damage requires no such refinement. It is found by dividing the total damage (times 100) by the total value of crops at risk. In this 8-year period it averaged 1.15 percent, the greatest being 1.99 percent in 1925 and the least 0.50 percent in 1930.

Further details are shown in the accompanying table.

Experience of hail insurance companies shows a larger percent of damage than these figures indicate, for the reason that it is easy to write policies in a territory where devastating hail storms are of almost annual frequency, and relatively hard to write policies in a county like Davis, where damage is rare. The rates of the companies must therefore be basically higher and must, in addition, include the cost of getting the business, adjusting the losses, setting up reserves, maintaining offices and employees, and general overhead expenses.

If this line of industry is continued long enough, possibly when 20 years of data are available, a more satisfactory scale of county or even township rates for hail insurance may be worked out.

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