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such imprisonment, and shall, moreover, be thereafter ineligible to hold any office, or place of honor, profit, or trust created by the Constitution or laws of the United States. (e) Limitation period.

Any person may be prosecuted, tried, and punished for any violation of this section at any time within ten years after the commission of such offense, notwithstanding the provisions of any other statute of limitations: Provided, That if at the time of the commission of the offense such person is an officer or employee of the United States or of any department or agency thereof, or of any corporation the stock of which is owned in whole or in major part by the United States or any department or agency thereof, such person may be prosecuted, tried, and punished for any violation of this section at any time within ten years after such person has ceased to be employed as such officer or employee. (f) Membership as not violation per se; registration as inadmis

sible in evidence. Neither the holding of office nor membership in any Communist organization by any person shall constitute per se a violation of subsection (a) or subsection (c) of this section or of any other criminal statute. The fact of the registration of any person under section 787 or section 788 of this title as an officer or member of any Communist organization shall not be received in evidence against such person in any prosecution for any alleged violation of subsection (a) or subsection (c) of this section or for any alleged violation of any other criminal statute. (Sept. 23, 1950, ch. 1024, title I, § 4, 64 Stat. 991.) 50 U.S.C., $ 853. Retention of registration statements; public

examination; withdrawal. The Attorney General shall retain in permanent form one copy of all registration statements [of certain persons trained in foreign espionage systems] filed under this subchapter. They shall be public records and open to public examination at such reasonable hours and under such regulations as the Attorney General prescribes, except that the Attorney General, having due regard for the national security and public interest, may withdraw any registration statement from public examination. (Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 849, § 4, 70 Stat. 900.) 50 U.S.C. Appendix, § 10. Acts permitted; applications for pat

ents, or registration of trade-marks or copyrights; payment of tax in relation thereto; licenses under enemy owned patent or copyright; statements by licensees; term and cancellation; suits against licensees; restraining infringements; powers of attorney; keeping secret inventions.

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(i) Whenever the publication of an invention by the granting of a patent may, in the opinion of the President, be detrimental to the public safety or defense, or may assist the enemy or endanger the successful prosecution of the war, he may order that the invention be kept secret and withhold the grant of a patent until the end of the war: Provided, That the invention disclosed in the application for said patent may be held abandoned upon it being established before or by the Commissioner of Patents that, in violation of said order, said invention has been published or that an application for a patent therefor has been filed in any other country, by the inventor or his assigns or legal representatives, without the consent or approval of the commissioner or under a license of the President.

When an applicant whose patent is withheld as herein provided and who faithfully obeys the order of the President above referred to shall tender his invention to the Government of the United States for its use, he shall, if he ultimately receives a patent, have the right to sue for compensation in the Court of Claims, such right to compensation to begin from the date of the use of the invention by the Government. (Oct. 6, 1917, ch, 106, § 10, 40 Stat. 420; Mar. 10, 1928, ch. 167, $ 19, 45 Stat. 277; Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 910, $ 13, 60 Stat. 944.)

50 U.S.C. Appendix, $ 2026. Enforcement; compliance with re

quirements; disclosure of information.

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(c) No department, agency, or official exercising any functions under this Act (sections 2021-2032 of this Appendix) [re export controls] shall publish or disclose information obtained hereunder which is deemed confidential or with reference to which a request for confidential treatment is made by the person furnishing such information unless the head of such department or agency determines that the withholding thereof is contrary to the national interest. (Feb. 26, 1949, ch. 11, 6, 63 Stat. 8.) 50 U.S.C. Appendix, 2255. Security regulations; oath.

(a) The Federal Civil Defense Administrator shall establish such security requirements and safeguards, including restrictions with respect to access to information and property as he deems necessary. No employee of the Administration shall be permitted to have access to information or property with respect to which access restrictions have been established under this section, until it shall have been determined that no information is contained in the files of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or any other investigative agency of the Government indicating that such employee is of questionable loyalty or reliability for security purposes, or if any such information is so disclosed, until the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall have conducted a full field investigation concerning such person and a report thereon shall have been evaluated in writing by the Administrator. No such employee shall occupy any position determined by the Administrator to be of critical importance from the standpoint of national security until a full field investigation concerning such employee shall have been conducted by the Civil Service Commission and a report theron shall have been evaluated in writing by the Administrator. In the event such full field investigation by the Civil Service Commission develops any data reflecting that such applicant for a position of critical importance is of questionable loyalty or reliability for security purposes, or if the Administrator for any other reason shall deem it to be advisable, such investigation shall be discontinued and a report thereon shall be referred to the Administrator for his evaluation in writing. Thereafter the Administrator may refer the matter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the conduct of a full field investigation by such Bureau. The result of such latter investigation by such Bureau shall be furnished to the Administrator for his action.

*** (Jan. 12, 1951, ch. 1228, title IV, $ 403, 64 Stat. 1255; Mar. 5, 1952, ch. 78, § 1(b), 66 Stat. 13.)

D. DISCLOSURE PROHIBITED; CONFIDENTIAL

GENERALLY 5 U.S.C., § 139b. Unlawful disclosure of information; penalties;

release of information to other agencies. (a) In the event that any information obtained in confidence by a Federal agency is released by that agency to another Federal agency, all the provisions of law (including penalties) which relate to the unlawful disclosure of any such information shall apply to the officers and employees of the agency to which such information is released to the same extent and in the same manner as such provisions apply to the officers and employees of the agency which originally obtained such information; and the officers and employees of the agency to which the information is released shall in addition be subject to the same provisions of law (including penalties) relating to the unlawful disclosure of such information as if the information had been collected directly by such agency.

(b) Information obtained by a Federal agency from any person or persons may, pursuant to sections 139-139f of this title, be released to any other Federal agency only [under certain conditions] * * * (Dec. 24, 1942, ch. 811, § 4,56 Stat. 1079.) 7 U.S.C., § 12. Investigations and reports by Secretary [of Agri

culture on commodity exchange). (For text see p. 203.)

7 U.S.C., 8 13. Violations, generally; false reports; punishment.

Any person who shall violate * * * this title or who shall manipulate or attempt to manipulate the price of any commodity in interstate commerce, or for future delivery on or subject to the rules of any board of trade, or who shall corner or attempt to corner any such commodity, or who shall fail to evidence any contract mentioned * * * of this title by a record in writing as therein required, or who shall knowingly or carelessly deliver or cause to be delivered * * * through the mails or in interstate commerce by telegraph, telephone, wireless, or other means *** false or misleading or knowingly inaccurate reports concerning crop or market information or conditions that affect * * * the price of commodity in interstate commerce, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than one year; or both, together with the costs of prosecution. (Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, § 9, 42 Stat. 1003; June 15, 1936, ch. 545, $8 2, 11, 49 Stat. 1491, 1501.)

7 U.S.C., § 135f. Penalties.

[Violations of statutes dealing with insecticides, etc.]

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(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, in case any person, with intent to defraud, uses or reveals information relative to formulas of products acquired under the authority, of section 135b of this title, he shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than three years, or both such fine and imprisonment.

(June 25, 1947, ch. 125, § 8, 61 Stat. 170.) 7 U.S.C., $ 472. Information furnished of confidential character;

penalty for divulging information. The information furnished by any individual establishment under the provisions of this chapter (Cotton statistics and estimates] shall be considered as strictly confidential and shall be used only for the statistical purpose for which it is supplied. Any employee of the Department of Agriculture who, without the written authority of the Secretary of Agriculture, shall publish or communicate any information given into his possession by reason of his employment under the provisions of this chapter shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not less than $300 or more than $1,000, or imprisoned, at the discretion of the court. (Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 337, 8 2, 44 Stat. 1373.) 7 U.S.C., $ 507. Limitation on use of statistical information.

The information furnished under the provisions of sections 501508 of this title [Tobacco statistics] shall be used only for the statistical purposes for which it is supplied. No publication shall be made by the Secretary of Agriculture whereby the data furnished by any particular establishment can be identified, nor shall the Secretary of Agriculture permit anyone other than the sworn employees of the Department of Agriculture to examine the individual reports. (Jan. 14, 1929, ch. 69, $ 7,45 Stat. 1080.)

7 U.S.C., $ 608d. Books and records; disclosure of information.

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(2) *** all information furnished to or acquired by the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant to this section [dealing with payments under marketing agreements) shall be kept confidential by all officers and employees of the Department of Agriculture and only such information so furnished or acquired as the Secretary deems relevant shall be disclosed by them, and then only in a suit or administrative hearing brought at the direction or upon the request of the Secretary of Agriculture or to which he or any officer of the United States is a party. *** Any such officer or employee violating the provisions of this section shall upon conviction be subject to a fine of not more than $1,000 or to imprisonment for not more than one year, or to both, and shall be removed from office. (May 12, 1933, ch. 25, title I, § 8d, as added Aug. 24, 1935, ch. 641, $ 6, 49 Štat. 761, and amended June 3, 1937, ch. 296, § 1,50 Stat. 246.)

7 U.S.C., $ 955. Limitation on use of statistical information.

The information furnished under the provisions of this chapter [Peanut statistics] shall be used only for the statistical purposes for which it is supplied. No publication shall be made by the Secretary [of Agriculture) whereby the data furnished by any person can be identified, nor shall the Secretary permit anyone other than the sworn employees of the Department of Agriculture to examine the individual reports. (June 24, 1936, ch. 745, $ 5,49 Stat. 1899.)

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7 U.S.C., & 1373. Reports and records [concerning certain crops

to Secretary of Agriculture]. (For text see p. 88.) 8 U.S.C., & 1202. Application for visas. (f) Confidential nature of records.

The records of the Department of State and of diplomatic and consular offices of the United States pertaining to the issuance or refusal of visas or permits to enter the United States shall be considered confidential and shall be used only for the formulation, amendment, administration, or enforcement of the immigration, nationality, and other laws of the United States [with certain exceptions] (June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 3, § 222,66 Stat. 193.) 12 U.S.C., $ 77. Removal of director or officer.

Whenever, in the opinion of the Comptroller of the Currency, any director or Officer of a national bank, or of a bank or trust company doing business in the District of Columbia, or whenever, in the opinion of a Federal reserve agent, any director or officer of a State member bank in his district shall have continued to violate any law relating to such bank or trust company or shall have continued unsafe or unsound practices in conducting the business of such bank or trust company, after having been warned by the Comptroller of the Currency or the Federal reserve agent, as the case may be, to discontinue such violations of law or such unsafe or unsound practices, the Comptroller of the Currency or the Federal reserve agent, as the case may be, may certify the facts to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. * * * Provided, That such order and findings of fact upon which it is based shall not be made public or disclosed to anyone except the director or officer involved and the directors of the bank involved, otherwise than in connection with proceedings for a violation of this section. Any such director or officer removed from office as herein provided who thereafter participates in any manner in the management of such bank shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned for not more than five years, or both, in the discretion of the court. (June 16, 1933, ch. 89, $ 30,48 Stat. 193; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, 8 203 (a), 49 Stat. 704.)

(See transfer of functions notation following 5 U.S.C., § 282, on p. 1.) 12 U.S.C., & 1701d-3. Research [in housing policies by Housing

and Home Finance Agency]. (For text see p. 97.)

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