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Mortgage Corporation Act, the Farm Credit Act of 1933, and the Home Owners Loan Act of 1933, and shall not apply to contracts or agreements of a kind which the Secretary of Agriculture may enter into with farmers: Provided, That such exemption shall be made a matter of public record. R.S. § 3741; Feb. 27, 1877, ch. 69, § 1, 19 Stat. 249; Jan. 25, 1934, ch. 5, 48 Stat. 337; June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, $ 510, 48 Stat. 1264; Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 821, 50 Stat. 838. 50 U.S.C. Appendix, 8 569. Distribution of information concerning benefits of article; forms.

[Opportunity to perfect or defend rights in public lands

acquired before entry into military service] The Secretary of the Interior shall issue through appropriate military and naval channels a notice for distribution by appropriate military and naval authorities to persons in the military service explaining the provisions of this article [sections 560–574 of this Appendix] except as to sections 500, 513, and 514 hereof [sections 560, 573 and 574 of this Appendix) and shall furnish forms to be distributed in like manner to those desiring to make application for its benefits, except as to said sections. (Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, § 509, 54 Stat. 1189; Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, § 15, 56 Stat. 776.)

C. DISCLOSURE PROHIBITED; NATIONAL SECURITY

5 U.S.C., § 1163. Reports to Congress; confidential information

[from National Aeronautics and Space Administration and

other agencies]. (For text see p. 73.) 10 U.S.C., $ 1582. Professional and scientific services; reports to

Congress on appointments. The Secretary of Defense shall report to Congress each calendar year on the number of positions established under section 1581 of this title during that calendar year. The report shall list the name, rate of compensation, functions, and qualifications of each incumbent. However, the Secretary may omit any item, if he considers that a full public report on it would be detrimental to the national security. In such a case, he shall present the information, in executive session, to such committees of the Senate and the House of Representatives as are designated by the presiding officers of those bodies. (Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 118; Sept. 2, 1958, Pub. L. 85–861, § 1(35), 72 Stat. 1456.) 15 U.S.C., 1155. General standards and limitations; preserva

tions of security classification. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Secretary shall respect and preserve the security classification of any scientific or technical information, data, patents, inventions, or discoveries, in, or coming into, the possession or control of the Department of Commerce, the classified status of which the President or his designee or designees certify as being essential in the interest of national defense,

and nothing in this chapter shall be construed as modifying or limiting any other statute relating to the classification of information for reasons of national defense or security. (Sept. 9, 1950, ch. 936, § 5, 64 Stat. 824.)

18 U.S.C., $ 793. Gathering, transmitting, or losing defense infor

mation. (a) Whoever, for the purpose of obtaining information respecting the national defense with intent or reason to believe that the information is to be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation, *** obtains information concerning any *** place connected with the national defense owned or constructed or in progress of construction by the United States or under the control of the United States, or of any of its officers, departments, or agencies, or within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, or any place in which any vessel, aircraft, arms, munitions, or other materials or instruments for use in time of war are being made, prepared, repaired, stored, or are the subject of research or development, under any contract or agreement with the United States, or any department or agency thereof, or with any person on behalf of the United States, or otherwise on behalf of the United States, or any prohibited place so designated by the President by proclamation in time of war or in case of national emergency in which anything for the use of the Army, Navy, or Air Force is being prepared or constructed or stored, information as to which prohibited place the President has determined would be prejudicial to the national defense; or

(b) Whoever, for the purpose aforesaid, and with like intent or reason to believe, copies, takes, makes, or obtains, or attempts to copy, take, make, or obtain any sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, document, writing, or note of anything connected with the national defense; or

(c) Whoever, for the purpose aforesaid, receives or obtains or agrees or attempts to receive or obtain from any person, or from any source whatever, any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, or note, of anything connected with the national defense, knowing or having reason to believe, at the time he receives or obtains, or agrees or attempts to receive or obtain it, that it has been or will be obtained, taken, made, or disposed of by any person contrary to the provisions of this chapter; or

(d) Whoever, lawfully having possession of, access to, control over, or being entrusted with any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, or note relating to the national defense, or information relating to the national defense which information the possessor has reason to believe could be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation, willfully .communicates, delivers, transmits or causes to be communicated, delivered, or transmitted or attempts to communicate, deliver, transmit or cause to be communicated, delivered or transmitted the same to any person not entitled to receive it, or willfully retains the same and fails to deliver it on demand to the officer or employee of the United States entitled to receive it; or

(e) Whoever having unauthorized possession of, access to, or control over any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, or note relating to the national defense, or information relating to the national defense which information the possessor has reason to believe could be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation, willfully communicates, delivers, transmits or causes to be communicated, delivered, or transmitted, or attempts to communicate, deliver, transmit or cause to be communicated, delivered, or transmitted the same to any person not entitled to receive it, or willfully retains the same and fails to deliver it to the officer or employee of the United States entitled to receive it; or

(f) Whoever, being intrusted with or having lawful possession or control of any document, writing, code book, signal bok, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, note, or information, relating to the national defense; (1) through gross négligence permits the same to be removed from its proper place of custody or delivered to anyone in violation of his trust, or to be lost, stolen, abstracted, or destroyed, or (2) having knowledge that the same has been illegally removed from its proper place of custody or delivered to anyone in violation of his trust, or lost, or stolen, abstracted, or destroyed, and fails to make prompt report of such 'loss, theft,'abstraction, or destruction to his superior officer

Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(g) If two or more persons conspire to violate any of the foregoing provisions of this section, and one or more of such persons do any act to effect the object of the conspiracy, each of the parties to such conspiracy shall be subject to the punishment provided for the offense which is the object of such conspiracy. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 736; Sept. 23, 1950, ch. 1024, title I $ 18, 64 Stat. 1003.) 18 U.S.C., § 794. Gathering or delivering defense information to

aid foreign government. (a) Whoever, with intent or reason to believe that it is to be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of a foreign nation, communicates, delivers, or transmits, or attempts to communicate, deliver, or transmit, to any foreign government, *** formation relating to the national defense, shall be punished by death or by imprisonment for any term of years or for life.

(5) Whoever, in time of war, with intent that the same shall be communicated to the enemy, collects, records, publishes, or communicates, or attempts to elicit any information *** relating to the public defense, which might be useful to the enemy, shall be punished by death or by imprisonment for any term of years or for life.

(c) If two or more persons conspire to violate this section, and one or more of such persons do any act to effect the object of the conspiracy, each of the parties to such conspiracy shall be subject to the punishment provided for the offense which is the object of such conspiracy. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 737; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1261, title II, $ 201, 68 Stat. 1219.)

any in

18 U.S.C., 8798. Disclosure of classified information.

(a) Whoever knowingly and willfully communicates, furnishes, transmits, or otherwise makes available to an unauthorized person, or publishes, or uses in any manner prejudicial to the safety or interest of the United States or for the benefit of any foreign government to the detriment of the United States any classified information

Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

*** (Added Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, $ 24(a), 65 Stat. 719.)

18 U.S.C., $ 952. Diplomatic codes and correspondence.

Whoever, by virtue of his employment by the United States, obtains from another or has or has had custody of or access to, any official diplomatic code or any matter prepared in any such code, or which purports to have been prepared in any such code, and without authorization or competent, authority, willfully publishes or furnishes to another any such code or matter, or any matter which was obtained while in the process of transmission between any foreign government and its diplomatic mission in the United States, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 743.) 22 U.S.C., § 414. Information regarding [defense] articles ex

ported; reports to Congress. (For text see p. 119.) 35 U.S.C., § 186. Penalty.

Whoever, during the period or periods of time an invention has been ordered to be kept secret and the grant of a patent thereon withheld pursuant to section 181 of this title, shall, with knowledge of such order and without due authorization, willfully publish or disclose or authorize or cause to be published or disclosed the invention, or material information with respect thereto, or whoever, in violation of the provisions of section 184 of this title, shall file or cause or authorize to be filed in any foreign country an application for patent or for the registration of a utility model, industrial design, or model in respect of any invention made in the United States, shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than two years, or both. (July 19, 1952, ch. 950, 66 Stat. 807.) 22 U.S.C., § 1436. Restriction on disclosure of information.

Nothing in this chapter [establishing U.S. Information and Educational Exchange programs] shall authorize the disclosure of any information or knowledge in any case in which such disclosure (1) is prohibited by any other law of the United States, or (2) is inconsistent with the security of the United States. (Jan. 27, 1948, ch. 36, title X, $ 1003, 62 Stat. 13.)

35 U.S.C., § 181. Secrecy of certain inventions and withholding of

patent [in interest of national security). (For text see p. 216.) 42 U.S.C., § 2161. Policy of Commission.

It shall be the policy of the [Atomic Energy] Commission to control the dissemination and declassification of Restricted Data in such a manner as to assure the common defense and security, Consistent with such policy, the Commission shall be guided by the following principles:

(a) Until effective and enforceable international safeguards against the use of atomic energy for destructive purposes have been established by an international arrangement, there shall be no exchange of Restricted Data with other nations except as authorized by section 2164 of this title; and

(b) The dissemination of scientific and technical information relating to atomic energy should be permitted and encouraged so as to provide that free interchange of ideas and criticism which is essential to scientific and industrial progress and public understanding and to enlarge the fund of technical information. (Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, § 141, as added Aug. 30, 1954, 9:44 a.m., E.D.T.,

ch. 1073, § 1, 68 Stat. 940.) 42 U.S.C., 8 2162. Classification and declassification of restricted

data. (a) Periodic determination.

The [Atomic Energy] Commission shall from time to time determine the data, within the definition of Restricted Data, which can be published without undue risk to the common defense and security and shall thereupon cause such data to be declassified and removed from the category of Restricted Data. (b) Continuous review.

The Commission shall maintain a continuous review of Restricted Data, and of any Classification Guides issued for the guidance of those in the atomic energy program with respect to the areas of Restricted Data which have been declassified in order to determine which information may be declassified and removed from the category of Restricted Data without undue risk to the common defense and security. (c) Joint determination on atomic weapons; Presidential deter

mination on disagreement. In the case of Restricted Data which the Commission and the Department of Defense jointly determine to relate primarily to the military utilization of atomic weapons, the determination that such data may be published without constituting an unreasonable risk to the common defense and security shall be made by the Commission and the Department of Defense jointly, and if the Commission and the Department of Defense do not agree, the determination shall be made by the President. (d) Same; removal from Restricted Data category.

The Commission shall remove from the Restricted Data category such data as the Commission and the Department of Defense jointly

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