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Universal History,


Earliest Account of Time.


The GRECIAN and Asiatic History.

The History of the Cappadocians,


I The Description of Cappadocia.

HIS country was known to the antients by the name Name and
of Syria or Asyria, and the inhabitants by that of dizision.

Leucofyri. It borrowed the name of Cappadocia, according to Pliny b, from the river Cappadox ; according to Heredianus , from one Cappadocus, the founder of this nation and kingdom. Others fuppofe the name of Cappadocia deved from some barbarous word, whereof the meaning is unknown to us ; for the river Cappadox is mentioned only - Pliny, and Cappadocus, the pretended founder of the natia, is spoken of by none of the antient historians. Cappadocia, i ancient times, comprised all that country which lies betweea mount Taurus and the Euxine sea; and was divided



• Lib. vi. c. 3.


by the Persi.ins into two fatrapies or governments, by the Macedonians into two kingdoms; the one called Cappadocia aa Taurum, and Cappadocia Magna ; the other Cappadocia ad Pon tum, and commonly Pontus. Of the latter we have giver the history already ; of the former we are to write in thi: chapter. Cappadocia Magna, or Cappadocia, properly sc called, lies between the thirty-eighth and forty-first degree of north latitude; and was bounded by Pontus on the north; b Lycaonia, and part of Armenia Minor, on the south; by Gala: tia, on the welt; and by the Euphrates, and part of Armenia Minor, on the east. Under king Archelaus, and some of hi predeceffors, Cappadocia was divided, as Strabo informs us into ten prefectures, five of which lay near mount Taurus viz. Melitena, Cataonia, Cilicia, Tyanitis, Ifauritis ; th other five comprehended the remaining part of the kingdom but Strabo leaves us in the dark as to their situation, and th towns of note which they contained,

The metropolis of all Cappadocia, in antient times, wa Mazaca or Eusebia, called afterwards Cæsarea by Tiberius, i honour of Augustus. This latter name it still retains, bein called by the inhabitants Kefaria. It is built round a rock as Tavernier informs us, on the top of which stands á castle and is still a populous and considerable city. It was the se of the renowned St. Bafil, and its archbishop to this day hold the first rank among the prelates who are under the patriarcl of Constantinople. The other cities of note in Cappadocia are Comana, called Comana Cappadocia, to diftinguish it from an. other city of the same name in Pontus. This city was famous in antient times for a temple confecrated to Bellona, whose priests and attendants of both sexes amounted, in Strabo's time, to the number of fix thousand, and upwards. The chief priest was lord of the adjoining country, and, in honour, next to the king, being commonly of the royal family. Nyja in Christian times, the fee of Gregory, surnamed Nyllenus, and brother to St. Bafil. Nazianzum, the see and place of nativity of another Gregory, no less celebrated by the writers of ecclesiastical history. Archelais, so called from Archelaus king of Cappadocia, who either founded, or repaired and embellished it. Diocæsarea, placed by Pliny in Cappadocia, by others in Phrygia, and antiently called, as we read in Strabo, Cabria. Faujtinopolis, so called in honour of Faustina, wife to the emperor Antoninus. Cabistra, mentioned by Tully in his letters c. Pierium, memorable for the overthrow of Creesus by Cyrus, which was attended with the ruin of the Lydian kingdom.

Cic. lib. xv. epist. 11. ad fenat. & ad Attic. I. v. epift. 18.


The rivers of this country that deserve any notice, are, Rivers. the Melas, which indeed rises in the western borders of Galatia, but passes through the southern borders of this kingdom and Armenia, and falls into the Euphrates; the Halys, which rifes near Nazianzum; and, bending first to the west, and then to the north, passes through Galatia and Paphlagonia, and

discharges itself into the Euxine sea, between Synope and Ami0

fus; the Iris, now Cafalmac, which, as Strabo informs us, - pafled through Amafia, his own country, and, receiving the Themifeyra, falls into the Euxine fea, not far from Amisus.

This country produces excellent wines, and most kinds of soil and fruits; and was formerly rich in mines of silver, brass, iron, climate, and alum; affording also great store of alabaster, crystal, jafper, and onyx-stone. But it was chiefy celebrated by the antients for its breed of horses, which were, and still are, in great request. Some parts of Cappadocia are very mountainous and barren, the Antitaurus running through those provinces which border on the two Armenia's. In this part of Cappadocia stands mount Argaus, of such an extraordinary height, that one may fee, as fome authors relate, from the top of it, the Euxine sea on one side, and the Mediterranean on the other.

Cappadocia was probably peopled by Togarmah, the last Origin. son of Gomer, and his descendants . Bocharte observes, that the Cappadocians are said by the fathers to be descended from Caphtorim, the last of the offspring of Mizraim, and that Caphtor is rendered by the septuagint Cappadocia. In this, without all doubt, they followed the Jews, who explain those names the same way, as do the three Chaldee paraphrafts. But by Cappadocia, in these writings, is not to be understood

Cappadocia in Asia Minor, as Bochart judged; but some place t

in Egypt, generally supposed, by the rabbies, to be Demyat

or Demietta f; commonly confounded with Pelufium. 1 As to the state of this nation in the early times, we are Governa · quite in the dark. Ctefias, as quoted by Diadorus Siculus, tells ment. i us, that from the very beginning it was subject to foreign

princes. But that writer is no ways to be depended upon. · Cappadocia was, without all doubt,' a province of the king

dom of Lydia ; and after the overthrow of Crafus pafted from the Lydians to the Persians, to whom the Cappadocians paid an annual tribute, as Strabo writes , of fifteen hundred horses, two thousand mules, and fifty thousand sheep. The fif king of Cappadocia we find mentioned in history' is PharSee vol.i. p. 376, 377.

e . Bochart. phaleg. 1. iv. c. 31. * Rabbi SAADIAS & MAIMONIDBs apud LightFOOT. oper. ii. p. 398. & STRAB. L xii. p. 370.


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