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and met to animate the zeal and raise the expectations of each other'. They thought, with great reason, that the ministers were losing opportunities; that sufficient use was not made of the ardour of the nation; they called loudly for more changes and stronger efforts, and demanded the punishment of part, and the dismission of the rest, of those whom they considered as publick robbers.

Their eagerness was not gratified by the Queen or by Harley. 42 The Queen was probably slow because she was afraid, and Harley was slow because he was doubtful : he was a Tory only by necessity or for convenience?, and when he had power in his hands had no settled purpose for which he should employ it ; forced to gratify to a certain degree the Tories who supported him, but unwilling to make his reconcilement to the Whigs utterly desperate, he corresponded at once with the two expectants of the Crown, and kept, as has been observed, the succession undetermined. Not knowing what to do he did nothing; and with the fate of a double-dealer at last he lost his power, but kept his enemies.

Swift seems to have concurred in opinion with the October 43 Club; but it was not in his power to quicken the tardiness of Harley, whom he stimulated as much as he could, but with little effects. He that knows not whither to go, is in no haste to move. Harley, who was perhaps not quick by nature, became yet more slow by irresolution, and was content to hear that

On Feb. 18, 1710-11, Swift wrote: Hanover. Smollett's Hist. of Eng. -We are plagued here with an ii. 289. In Article iv of his impeachOctober Club; that is, a set of above ment he is charged with corresponda hundred parliamentmen of the ing with the Pretender's mother. country, who drink October beer at Pari. Hist. vii. 120. For his corhome, and meet every evening at a respondence with the Pretender in tavern near the parliament ... to 1716, see Dict. Nat. Biog. xxiv. 404. drive things on to extremes against Of earlier correspondence there is no the Whigs ... and get off five or six mention in the article. heads.' Works, ii. 177. On April 13 'He was a greater object of the he wrote :—'The Club is about 150. hatred of the Whigs than all the Ib. ii. 226. See also ib. iii. 188, v. rest of the ministry together.' Swift, 141, xv. 384, 400.

Works, v. 259. > Coxe describes him as 'a Whig S Swift mentions that incurable in his heart and a Tory from ambi- disease, either of negligence or protion.' Memoirs of Walpole, 1798, crastination, which influenced every

action both of the Queen and the 3 Bolingbroke accused him before Earl of Oxford.' Ib. iii. 165. See the Queen of ‘maintaining a private

also ib. v. 275. correspondence with the House of


i. 198.



dilatoriness lamented as natural, which he applauded in himself as politick.

Without the Tories, however, nothing could be done, and as they were not to be gratified they must be appeased; and the conduct of the Minister, if it could not be vindicated, was to be

plausibly excused. 45

Swift now attained the zenith of his political importance: he published (1712) The Conduct of the Allies, ten days before the Parliament assembled'. The purpose was to persuade the nation to a peace”, and never had any writer more success. The people, who had been amused with bonfires and triumphal processions, and looked with idolatry on the General and his friends who, as they thought, had made England the arbitress of nations, were confounded between shame and rage when they found that 'mines had been exhausted and millions destroyed 3,' to secure the Dutch or aggrandize the emperor, without any advantage to ourselves; that we had been bribing our neighbours to fight their own quarrel,

and that amongst our enemies we might number our allies. 46 That is now no longer doubted, of which the nation was then

first informed, that the war was unnecessarily protracted to fill the pockets of Marlborough, and that it would have been continued without end if he could have continued his annual plunder.

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' Ante, PRIOR, 21; Works, iv. beggars do, that their grandfathers 291. Swift wrote on Nov. 27, 1711 : were rich and great.' 16. iv. 357.

- The pamphlet is published. Ib. ii. s 1b. iv. 340, 361; ante, SOMER413. Parliament met on Dec. 7. Ib. VILE, 6. p. 423. Johnson was misled by the Swift wrote to Stella :-Dec. 31, date on the title-page of the first 1710. The Duke is as covetous as edition-1712. 'On those for the Hell, and ambitious as the prince of three following editions it is 1711. it; he would fain have been general Several editions were issued before for life, and has broken all endeavours the end of the year, and the publisher for peace to keep his greatness and was compelled to go back on his get money. ... Yet he has been a word.' Literature, Jan. 1, 1898, p. 346. successful general, and I hope he : 'Oct. 26, 1711.

We have no will continue his command. quiet with the Whigs, they are so 'Jan.7, 1710-11. I question whether violent against a peace; but I'll cool ever any wise state laid aside a them with a vengeance very soon.' general who had been successful nine Works, ii. 387.

years together, whom the enemy so This quotation is not from Swift's much dreaded, and his own soldiers pamphlet.

cannot but believe must always conIt will no doubt be a mighty quer.' Works, ii. 126, 141. comfort to our grandchildren when ['Marlborough really desired and they see a few rags hung up in expected peace, but it cannot be said Westminster Hall, which cost a that he fully exerted his influence in hundred millions, whereof they are favour of practicable terms. LESLIE paying the arrears, to boast, as STEPHEN, Dict. Nat. Biog.x. 333. See


But Swift, I suppose, did not yet know what he has since written, that a commission was drawn which would have appointed him General for life, had it not become ineffectual by the resolution of Lord Cowper, who refused the seal'.

Whatever is received,' say the schools, 'is received in propor-47 tion to the recipient ?' The power of a political treatise depends much upon the disposition of the people: the nation was then combustible, and a spark set it on fire. It is boasted that between November and January eleven thousand were sold 3; a great number at that time, when we were not yet a nation of readers *. To its propagation certainly no agency of power or influence was wanting. It furnished arguments for conversation, speeches for

. debate, and materials for parliamentary resolutions 5.

Yet, surely, whoever surveys this wonder-working pamphlet 48 with cool perusal will confess that its efficacy was supplied by the passions of its readers; that it operates by the mere weight of facts, with very little assistance from the hand that produced them.

This year (1712) he published his Reflections on the Barrier 49

my book.

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Coxe's Mem. iii. 40, and Priv. Corres. many severe votes about our being of the Duch. of Marlb. i. 172-9.] abused by our allies. Those who

Works, iii. 172, iv. 255. See spoke drew all their arguments from also ib. iii. 310.

[Through the kindness of Mr. *Feb. 8. The Resolutions printed C. C. J. Webb, Fellow of Magdalen t'other day in the Votes are almost College, Oxford, my attention has quotations from it.' Works, ii. 473, been directed to the following pas- 476. See also post, SWIFT, 110. sages in St. Thomas, wherein the JOHNSON. Sir, bis Conduct of maxim is implied—' in inferioribus the Allies is a performance of very quandoque recipitur aliquid in eadem little ability. "Surely, Sir,” said virtute quae est in eo a quo recipitur, Dr. Douglas, "you must allow it has quando scilicet recipiens est pro- strong facts.” JOHNSON. Why yes, portionatum ad recipiendum totam Sir; but what is that to the merit virtutem dantis. S. Thom. i. Sent., of the composition? In the Sessionsdist. 20, qu. 2, art. 2 ad zum 'influen- paper of the Old Bailey there are tiam agentis recipit patiens per mo

strong facts.

Housebreaking is a dum virtutis suae et non per modum strong fact; robbery is a strong fact; virtutis ipsius agentis.' Ib. ii. Sent., and murder is a mighty strong fact : dist. 18, qu. 2, art. 2 ad eum.]

but is great praise due to the historian Jan. 28, 1711-12. The sixth of those strong facts ? No, Sir, Swift edition of 3,000 is sold, and the printer has told what he had to tell distinctly talks of a seventh; 11,000 of them enough, but that is all. He had to have been sold.' Works, ii. 468. In count ten, and he has counted it the fifth edition the price was re- right. Why, Sir, Tom Davies duced from a shilling to sixpence. might have written The Conduct of Ib. pp. 421, 433. There were three the Allies.' Boswell's Johnson, ii. 65. Dublin editions. Ib. p. 477.

? Some Reinarks on the Barrier * Ante, MILTON, 135.

Treaty between Her Majesty and the S'Feb. 4, 1711-12. The House States-General, &c. of Commons have this day made


Treaty', which carries on the design of his Conduct of the Allies, and shews how little regard in that negotiation had been shewn to the interest of England, and how much of the conquered

country had been demanded by the Dutch. 50 This was followed by Remarks on the Bishop of Sarum's

Introduction to his third Volume of the History of the Reformation?; a pamphlet which Burnet published as an alarm, to warn the nation of the approach of Popery 3. Swift, who seems to have disliked the Bishop with something more than political aversion, treats him like one whom he is glad of an opportunity

to insult. 51 Swift, being now the declared favourite and supposed con

fidant of the Tory Ministry, was treated by all that depended on the Court with the respect which dependents know how to pay. He soon began to feel part of the misery of greatness ; he that could say he knew him, considered himself as having fortune in his power. Commissions, solicitations, remonstrances crowded about him; he was expected to do every man's business, to procure employment for one, and to retain it for another 5. In assisting those who addressed him, he repre

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Ib. xii. 179.

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* Works, iv. 371. Feb. 20, 1711- In later years Swift wrote of him :12. I went into the City to my • After all, he was a man of generosity printer, to correct some sheets of and good-nature, and very commuThe Barrier Treaty and Remarks, nicative; but in his last ten years which must be finished to-morrow.' was absolutely party-mad, and fancied Ib. ij. 486.

he saw Popery under every bush.' "A Preface to the B-pof S-r-um's

For Burnet see ante, Introduction to the third volume, &c. MILTON, 101; post, POPE, 141. By Gregory Miso-Sarum.' lb. iv. 141. 5. June 30, 1711. I am now envied,

He Burnet] has been poring and thought in high favour, and have so long upon Fox's Book of Martyrs every day numbers of considerable that he imagines himself living in the men teazing me to solicit for them. reign of Queen Mary, and is resolved March 8, 1711-12. I can serve to set up for a knight-errant against everybody but myself. popery. ... To do him justice, he 'Sept. 18, 1712. Pray God that seems to have nothing else left but I may live free from the discontent to cry out, halters, gibbets, faggots, and envy that attends those who are Inquisition, popery, slavery, and the thought to have more favour at Court Pretender. Ib. p. 177.

than they really possess.' Works, * Burnet was one of the Whigs ii. 289, iii. I, 50. who, in 1702, 'were (Swift wrote) See post, POPE, 107, for Kennet's very liberal in promising me the description of the scene in the antegreatest preferments I could hope chamber in 1713, when 'Dr. Swift for, if ever it came into their power.' acted as a master of requests,' and 16. iii. 180. Moreover he attacked Works, xii. 307, where Swift deSwift's patron, Temple, as 'a cor- scribes the levee in his Imitation of rupter of all that came near him.' Part of the Sixth Satire of the Second History of my own Time, i. 423. Book of Horace.

sents himself as sufficiently diligent; and desires to have others believe, what he probably believed himself, that by his interposition many Whigs of merit, and among them Addison and Congreve, were continued in their places?. But every man of known influence has so many petitions which he cannot grant, that he must necessarily offend more than he gratifies, because the preference given to one affords all the rest a reason for complaint. When I give away a place,' said Lewis XIV., 'I make an hundred discontented, and one ungrateful?.!

Much has been said of the equality and independence which 52 he preserved in his conversation with the Ministers, of the frankness of his remonstrances, and the familiarity of his friendship . In accounts of this kind a few single incidents are set against the general tenour of behaviour. No man, however, can pay a more servile tribute to the Great, than by suffering his liberty in their presence to aggrandize him in his own esteem. Between different ranks of the community there is necessarily some distance* : he who is called by his superior to pass the interval


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''Dec. 27, 1712. I have taken May 19, 1711. Mr. Secretary more pains to recommend the Whig told me the Duke of Buckingham wits to the favour and mercy of the desired myacquaintance. I answered ministers than any other people. it could not be, for he had not made Steele I have kept in his place. Con- sufficient advances. Then the Duke greve I have got to be used kindly of Shrewsbury said he thought that and secured (ante, CONGREVE, 28). duke was not used to make advances. Rowe I have recommended, and got I said I could not help that; for I a promise of a place [ante, Rowe, always expected advances in propor20). Philips I should certainly have tion to men's quality, and more from provided for, if he had not run party

a duke than other men. mad (post, A. PHILIPS, 4); ... I set ‘Dec. 12. I make no figure but at Addison so right at first that he might Court, where I affect to turn from a have been employed, and have partly lord to the meanest of my acquaintsecured him the place he has.' Works, ance.' Works, ii, 259, iii. 70. See iii. 80. See also ib. ii. 201, v. 15, also ib. ii. 214, 310, 367, xv. 411, xvi. 39, 47, 266, 341. For Addison's treatment of Swift, see ante, ADDI- 'He never thought an honour done SON, 105.

him, 2 "Toutes les fois que je donne une Because a duke was proud to own place vacante, je fais cent mécontents et un ingrat.' Euvres de Voltaire, Would rather slip aside, and choose xviii. 112.

To talk with wits in dirty shoes.' South says of suitors:-'All but one will be sure to depart grumbling, 'JOHNSON. Sir, I would no because they miss of what they think more deprive a nobleman of his retheir due, and even that one scarce spect than of his money. I consider thankful, because he thinks he has myself as acting a part in the great no more than his due.' Sermons, system of society. ... There would be

See also Boswell's Johnson, a perpetual struggle for precedence ji. 167 ; Rasselas, ch. xxvii.

xvii. 310.

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16. xiv. 330.

were there no fixed invariable rules

i. 22.

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