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ed up his eyes upon his disciples, and said, Blessed be ye psor; for yours is the kingdom of God. 21. Blessed are ye that hunger now; for ye shall be filled. Blessed are ye that weep now; for ye shall laugh, i. e. rejoice; for laughter is the expression of joy, as weeping is of sorrow. (See on Matth. v. 3, 4. Ø 26.) 22. Blessed are ye when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, in allusion to the custom of the Israelites, who put the unclean out of the camp, and banished them from
place, judged it unnecessary to give this repetition of it here. But if the reader is of opinion that the two sermons are the same, because this in Luke comes immediately after the election of the twelve apostles, and is followed by the cure of a centurion's servant in Capernaum, as that in Matthew comes after the calling of the four diciples, Simon, Andrew, James, and John, and je followed by the cure of a centurion's son, living also in Capernaum, let him consider, in the first place, that the two miracles following these sermons, viz. the curing of the centurion's son and slave, are in several respects different, and for that reason must have been performed on different persons, and at different times, as I have attempted to shew, $ 28. In the next place, the calling of the four disciples, which precedes the sermon in Matthew, is without doubt a fact entirely different from the election of the cwelve apostles, preceding the sermon in Luke, and happened long before it. Besides, the sermon in Luke was preached immediately after the election of the twelve, whereas a large cour through Galilee, which may have taken up some months, intervened between the calling of the four disciples, and the sermon in Matthew. And to name no more differences, the sermon recorded by Matchew was delivered on a mountain in a sitting posture; for he went up into a niountain, and sat down to pronounce it, Macch. v. 1. and after he had finished it, came down to the plain, Matth. viii. 1. whereas, when he pronounced this which Luke speaks of, he was in a plain cr valley, where he could not sit because of the multitude which surrounded him, but stood with his disciples, Luke vi. 17. Esnett TOT8 Tidive, a word which in the LXX. signifies a valley, and is always opposed to mountainous places. See Josh. xi. 16. Judith xv. 3. But though there was not such evident disagreement in the facts preceding and following these two sermons, the reader might easily have allowed that they were pronounced ac different times, because he will find other instances of things really different, notwithstanding in their nature they be alike, and were preceded and followed by like events. For instance, the commission and instructions given to the Seventy, were in substance the same with the conimission and instructions given to the cwelve, Matt. xii. and were introduced after the same manner. The barvest is plenteous, &c. Matth. ix. 37. Yet from Luke hiruself it appears they were different; that eva'gelist having related the niission of the twelve as a distinct fact, chap. ix. 1. So likewise the man in Samaria, who offered to follow Jesus whithersoever he should go, was evidently a different person from the Scribe who offered the same thing at the sea of Galilee, notwithstanding the answer recurned to both was precisely the same. The foxes bave boles, &c. and notwithstanding imme. diacely after both occurrences, we find a disciple excusing himself from following Christ on pretence of burying his father, to whom our Lord recurned the same answer, Let the dead bury their dead See $ 31. And to give no more examples, the evo miraculous dinners were not only like each other in their natures, but in their circunistances also, for they were in:roduced by the same discourses, and followed by like events; particularly at the conclusion of both, Jesus passed over che sea of Galilee. Nevertheless, both being found in the same evangelist, no reader can possibly think them the same. See Prelim. Ob. serv IV.
all intercourse with their brethren, and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, i. e. anathematize or excommunicate you, for the Son of man's sake; 23. Rejoice ye in that day, and leap for j24, i. e. be exceeding glad, for behcid your requard is great in heaven; in proportion to what you suffer for my sake here, shall your happiness be in heaven. Besides, you may comfort yourselves with this consideration, that all God's servants have ever been treated in like manner; for in like manner did their fathers tonto the prophets. "In this discourse, our Lord not only pronounced blessings, but cursings; in which respect it differs from the sermon recorded by Matthew. Luke vi. 24. But woe unto you that are rich, for ye have received your consolation. As poverty, which is neither good nor bad in itself, does not recommend one to God, unless it is accompanied with the virtues which are suitable to an afflicted state; so riches does not make us the object of God's hatred, unless they be accompanied with those vices, which oftentimes spring from an opulent fortune, namely pride, luxury, love of pleasure, covetousness. Rich men, infected with such vices as these, are the objects of the woe here denounced; and not they who make a proper use of their wealth, and possess the virtues which should accompany affluence. Wherefore, though there is no restriction added to the word rich in the malediction, as there is to the word poor in the complete elunciation of the beatitude, Matth. v. 3. it is equally to be understood in both: Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Wo unto you That'are rich in spirit, you who are proud, covetous, lovers of pleasure, for ye have received your consolation. The parable of the rich man and Lazarus, may be considered as an illustration both of the beatitude and the malediction.-25. Woe unto you that are full, for ye shall hunger; the pains which you shall suffer in the life to come shall be sharp, like those which persons who place their happiness in eating and drinking, suffer from famine. Our Lord often made use of images drawn from the pleasures and pains of this life, to represent the joys of the blessed, and the punishments of the damned in the life to come.W ce unto you that laugh now, for ye shall mourn and weep. A modern author has explained this well in the following terms: “ Our Lord's malediction is not inconsistent with the apostle's precepts, which command Christians always to rejoice. Neither is the mirth against which the woe is here denounced, to be understood of that constant cheerfulness of temper which arises to the true Christian, from the comfortable and cheerful doctrines with which they are enlightened by the gospel, the assurance they have of reconciliation with God, the hope they have of everlasting life, and the pleasure they enjoy in the practice of piety, and the other duties of religion. But it is to be understood of that turbulent carnal mirth, that excessive levity and vanity of spirit which arises not from any solid foundation, but from immoderate sensual pleasure, or those vain amusements of life by which the giddy and the
gay contrive to make away their time; that sort of mirth which dissipates thought, leaves no time for consideration, and gives them an utter aversion to all serious reflections.” Persons who continue to indulge themselves in this sort of mirth through life, shall weep and mourn eternally, when they are excluded from the joys of heaven, and banished for ever from the presence of God, by the light of whose countenance all the blessed are enlivened and made transcendently happy.-26. Woe unto you when all men shall speak well of you, for so did their fathers to the false prophets. Dr Clarke has paraphrased this malediction excellently: “ Woe unto you if by propagating such doctrine as encourages men in sin, you shall gain to yourselves the applause and flattery of the generality of men; for thus in old times did the false prophets and deceivers, who, accommodating their doctrines to the lusts and passions of men, were more caressed and better hearkened to, than the true prophets of God.” See on Matth. v. 12. 6 26.
Luke vi. 27. But I say unto you which hear, you who hear me now,
my gospel, Love your enemies, do good to them that hate you, 28. Bless them that curse you, and pray for them that despitefully use you. The disposition which my gospel cherishes in its votaries, is that of love and kindness, even to the evil and unthankful; and therefore all who hear the gospel ought to be of this disposition. See on Mat. y. 44. § 26.--29. And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek, offer also the other, and him that taketh away thy cloak, forbid not to take thy coat also. You who hear my gospel, ought to be patient under injuries as well as benevolent towards the unthankful. See on Matth. v. 39. ♡ 26.-30. Give to every man i hat asketh of thee, and of him that taketh away thy goods, * ask
• Ver. 30. Ask :hem not again.] in the original it is, mavri de TW HITBITI 68 δ.δε, και απο το αιροντG- τα σα, μη απαιτει, which some commentators think might be better rendered, Lend to every man that asketh of thee, and from him that receiveth thy goods, ex act not interest. They imagine that dodoso being a general word, may signify to lend, as well as simply to give; and that aizesu here is not used in its strictest propriety, but has the signification of nou omvc. And with respect to 46 CIT84, they observe that the I.XX. have made use of it more than once, to denote the taking of interest for things lent. They think this interpretation is supported by reason, and by the plain sense of the parallel passage, Matt. v. 42. and that it agrees well with the following verse, 34. If ye ler.d to them of wbem ye hope to receive, the just, equal, or stated premium, (TC vu) as it is in the subsequent clause, what reward have ye? what reward can ye claim? for sinner's also lend to sinners, ove concouri Tabru, in order tbat they may receive the
them not again. 31. And as you would that men should do 10 you,
also to them likewise. 32. For if ye love them only (See on Luke xiv. 12.5 92. for the reason of adding the word only here) which love you, what thank have ye? for sinners also love those that love them. 33. And if ye do good to them only which do good to you, what thank have ye? for sinners also do even the same. 34. And if ye lend to them only of whom ye hope to receive such loans as ye stand in need of, what thank have ye ? for sinners also lend to sinners, to receive as much again, To 15% equal favours in return, or the sum lent. 35. But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, * hoping for nothing again; do good and lend, ev in to those from whom ye have no expectation of any favour in return, nor even of receiving again the sum
just premium: and that in this precept our Lord is speaking to his hearers under the character of Jews, who by their law were bound to lend niores to their brethren without interest, not because the taking of interest was sinful, for they were allowed to exact it from heathens, but because they were to shew especial kindness to one another, and be examples of every social virtue to their heathen neighbours. Nevertheless, atliTo Cannot well signify the exaction of interest for sums lent, because the word cigav, to which it relates, in no author that I know of, signifies to borrow. And therefore it is more natural io interpret ACT CITEV, of the exaction of such debes only as the law appointed to be remitted every seven:h year, Deui. xv. 2, 8. Accordingly it is added, ver. 34. And if you lend to those from whom ge bope to receive, what thank bave ye? for sinnets alss load to sinners, to receive as musb again. Ye do not by your obedience to the law, distinguish yourselves from the bear hers, who exact the payment of the least sums which they lend to one another. Or we may suppose, that one's reclaiming the goods that have been taken from him without his consent, is here prehibited; a sense of the passage agreeable to the force of the word escortos, which commonly signifies to take a thing away violently or by fraud. In the mean time, whatever sense we put on our Lord's precept, it must be understood with the limitations which conimon sense directs us to make; namely, that we give and lenů freely to all who ask, or permit them to retain what they have unjustly taken, provided only that it be a thing of small account, which we can easily spare, and the persons who ask or take such things be in real necessity, and the reclaiming of them would occasion more trouble than they are worth, which without doubt was the meaning of the Mosaical precepts, alluded to by our Lord in this part of his sermon.
• Ver. 35. Hoping for notbing again Modev at ENTI Ortes. Because art. tiçav, in no Greek author, has the sense given it is most translations of this passage, its proper meaning being despero and desperare facio, Junius, De Dieu, Fesselius, Hammond, Knatchbul, Le Clerc, and other commentators, have declar. ed in favour of the signification affixed to this clau e, by the Syriac, Arabic, and Persic versions; neminem desperare facientes, causing no mar to despair: the copies from which these translations were made, seading Mnèir' with an apostrophe, for Mudiva. Boc the common reading makes the ser.se fully as elegant, thus : Shew these acts of kindness to your brethren, not at all despairing, either of your present sustenance, or of your future reward. On the other hand, Hackspan and Wolf contend, that though no instance can be produced, in which «TiATILAV has the signification affixed to it by modern translators, the antitheses in the passage necessarily determine it to that meaning. Sinners also lend to sinners, to receive as much again. But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, boping for sorbing or thing lent; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Highest; for he is kind to the unthankful, and to the evil. 36. Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful.
Luke vi. 37. Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: See on Matth. vii. 1. 9 26. condemn niot, and ye shall not be condemned : forgive, and ye shall be forgiven. 38. Give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. Our Lord makes use of these three phrases, to express all the different kinds of good measure, according to the different natures of the things measured. Some of them, to make the measure good, must be pressed and trodden; some of them must be shaken, as the several kinds of grain ; and some of them must be running over, such as all sorts of liquors. The figure of giving this good measure into one's bosom, is an allusion to the eastern habits, which were long pieces of cloth wrapped round their bodies, and girded up with a girdle. Their garments being of this kind, they could receive into their lap or bosom, a considerable quantity of such dry goods as they sold by measure. See Psal. lxxix. Ruth. iii. 15. For with the same measure that ye mete withal, it shall be measured to you again. 39. And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch? 40. The disciple is not above his master; but every one that is perfect shall be as his master. So ratngtiouevo signifies, Heb. xiii. 21. The meaning is, the scholar is in a fair way to be tinctured with the opinions of his master. If therefore the master is ignorant and illiterate, the scholar will probably be so likewise ; for which reason those who pretend to instruct others, ought to be well informed themselves in the doctrine they are to deliver. Moreover, if those who exhort others are faulty in point of practice, their rebukes must be given with a very bad grace, and have little influence upon mankind. 41. And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but perceivest not the beam that is in thine own eye? 42. Either, how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, let me pull out the mote that is in thine eye, when thou thyself beholdest not the beam that is in thine own eye? (See on Matth. vii. 3. 5 26.) Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam out of thine own eye, and then shalt thou see clearly to pull out the mote that is in thy brother's eye. 43. For a good tree bringeth not forth corrupt fruit; neither doth a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. 44. For every tree is known by his own fruit; for of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble-bush gather they grapes. The
different again. In like manner, Beza acknowledges that this sense of ritiker is altogether unusual. At the same time he supports it by observing, that as it resembles απεχειν, απολαμβανειν, απογραψαν, and a number of other words in its formation, it may resemble them likewise in their signification. See Beza upon