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brain affected, and in a manner overclouded, melancholy." "Amongst herbs to be eaten from that indissoluble sympathy between (he says) I find gourds, cucumbers, melons, the noble and less noble parts of the body disallowed; but especially CABBAGE. It which Dennis hints at? The unnatural and causeth troublesome dreams, and sends up painful manner of his sitting must also black vapours to the brain. Galen, Loc. greatly aggravate the evil, insomuch that I Affect. lib. iii. cap. 6, of all herbs condemus have sometimes ventured to liken tailors at CABBAGE. And Isaack, lib. ii. cap. 1, anima their boards to so many envious Junos, sitting gravitatem facit, it brings heaviness to the cross-legged to hinder the birth of their own soul." I could not omit so flattering a testifelicity. The legs transversed thus cross-mony from an author who, having no theory wise, or decussated, was among the ancients of his own to serve, has so unconsciously the posture of malediction. The Turks, who contributed to the confirmation of mine. It practise it at this day, are noted to be a is well known that this last-named vegetable melancholy people. has, from the earliest periods which we can discover, constituted almost the sole food of
Secondly, his diet.-To which purpose I find a most remarkable passage in Burton, this extraordinary race of people. in his chapter entitled "Bad diet a cause of
HOSPITA ON THE IMMODERATE INDULGENCE OF THE PLEASURES OF THE PALATE.
MR. REFLECTOR,-My husband and I are fond of company, and being in easy circumstances, we are seldom without a party to dinner two or three days in a week. The utmost cordiality has hitherto prevailed at our meetings; but there is a young gentleman, a near relation of my husband's, that has lately come among us, whose preposterous behaviour bids fair, if not timely checked, to disturb our tranquillity. He is too great a favourite with my husband in other respects, for me to remonstrate with him in any other than this distant way. A letter printed in your publication may catch his eye; for he is a great reader, and makes a point of seeing all the new things that come out. Indeed, he is by no means deficient in understanding. My husband says that he has a good deal of wit; but for my part I cannot say I am any judge of that, having seldom observed him open his mouth except for purposes very foreign to conversation. In short, Sir, this young gentleman's failing is, an immoderate indulgence of his palate. The first time he dined with us, he thought it necessary to extenuate the length of time he kept the dinner on the table, by declaring that he had taken a very long walk in the morning, and
came in fasting; but as that excuse could not serve above once or twice at most, he has latterly dropped the mask altogether, and chosen to appear in his own proper colours without reserve or apology.
You cannot imagine how unpleasant his conduct has become. His way of staring at the dishes as they are brought in, has absolutely something immodest in it: it is like the stare of an impudent man of fashion at a fine woman, when she first comes into a room. I am positively in pain for the dishes, and cannot help thinking they have consciousness, and will be put out of countenance, he treats them so like what they are not.
Then again he makes no scruple of keeping a joint of meat on the table, after the cheese and fruit are brought in, till he has what he calls done with it. Now how awkward this looks, where there are ladies, you may judge, Mr. Reflector,-how it disturbs the order and comfort of a meal. And yet I always make a point of helping him first, contrary to all good manners,-before any of my female friends are helped,—that he may avoid this very error. I wish he would eat before he comes out.
What makes his proceedings more particularly offensive at our house is, that my husband, though out of common politeness he is obliged to set dishes of animal food before his visitors, yet himself and his whole family, (myself included) feed entirely on vegetables. We have a theory, that animal food is neither wholesome nor natural to man; and even vegetables we refuse to eat until they have undergone the operation of fire, in consideration of those numberless little living creatures which the glass helps us to detect in every fibre of the plant or root before it be dressed. On the same theory we boil our water, which is our only drink, before we suffer it to come to table. Our children are perfect little Pythagoreans: it would do you good to see them in their nursery, stuffing their dried fruits, figs, I wonder, at a time like the 'present, when raisins, and milk, which is the only approach the scarcity of every kind of food is so to animal food which is allowed. They have painfully acknowledged, that shame has no no notion how the substance of a creature effect upon him. Can he have read Mr. that ever had life can become food for an- Malthus's Thoughts on the Ratio of Food other creature. A beef-steak is an absurdity to Population ? Can he think it reasonable to them; a mutton-chop, a solecism in that one man should consume the sustenance terms; a cutlet, a word absolutely without of many? any meaning; a butcher is nonsense, except so far as it is taken for a man who delights in blood, or a hero. In this happy state of innocence we have kept their minds, not allowing them to go into the kitchen, or to hear of any preparations for the dressing of animal food, or even to know that such things are practised. But as a state of ignorance is incompatible with a certain age, and as my eldest girl, who is ten years old next Midsummer, must shortly be introduced into the world and sit at table with us, where she will see some things which will shock all her received notions, I have been endeavouring by little and little to break her mind, and prepare it for the disagreeable impressions which must be forced upon it. The first hint I gave her upon the subject, I could see her recoil from it with the same horror with which we listen to a tale of Anthropophagism; but she has gradually grown
more reconciled to it, in some measure, from my telling her that it was the custom of the world, to which, however senseless, we must submit, so far as we could do it with innocence, not to give offence; and she has shown so much strength of mind on other occasions, which I have no doubt is owing to the calmness and serenity superinduced by her diet, that I am in good hopes when the proper season for her début arrives, she may be brought to endure the sight of a roasted chicken or a dish of sweet-breads for the first time without fainting. Such being the nature of our little household, you may guess what inroads into the economy of it,—what revolutions and turnings of things upside down, the example of such a feeder as Mr. is calculated to produce.
The young gentleman has an agreeable air and person, such as are not unlikely to recommend him on the score of matrimony. But his fortune is not over large; and what prudent young woman would think of embarking hers with a man who would bring three or four mouths (or what is equivalent to them) into a family? She might as reasonably choose a widower in the same circumstances, with three or four children.
I cannot think who he takes after. His father and mother, by all accounts, were very moderate eaters; only I have heard that the latter swallowed her victuals very fast, and the former had a tedious custom of sitting long at his meals. Perhaps he takes after both.
I wish you would turn this in your thoughts, Mr. Reflector, and give us your ideas on the subject of excessive eating, and, particularly, of animal food. HOSPITA
EDAX ON APPETITE.
MR. REFLECTOR,—I am going to lay before | period when it was thought proper, on you a case of the most iniquitous persecution account of my advanced age, that I should that ever poor devii suffered. mix with other boys more unreservedly than I had hitherto done. I was accordingly sent to boarding-school.
Here the melancholy truth became too apparent to be disguised. The prying republic of which a great school consists soon found me out there was no shifting the blame any longer upon other people's shoulders,-no good-natured maid to take upon herself the enormities of which I stood accused in the article of bread and butter, besides the crying sin of stolen ends of puddings, and cold pies strangely missing. The truth was but too manifest in my looks, -in the evident signs of inanition which I exhibited after the fullest meals, in spite of the double allowance which my master was privately instructed by my kind parents to give me. The sense of the ridiculous, which is but too much alive in grown persons, is tenfold more active and alert in boys. Once detected, I was the constant butt of their arrows, the mark against which every puny leveller directed his little shaft of scorn. The very Graduses and Thesauruses were raked for phrases to pelt me with by the tiny pedants. Ventri natus-Ventri deditus,— Vesana gula,-Escarum gurges,—Dapibus indulgens,-Non dans fræna gulæ,-Sectans lautæ fercula mensæ, resounded wheresoever I passed. I led a weary life, suffering the penalties of guilt for that which was no crime, but only following the blameless dictates of nature. The remembrance of those childish reproaches haunts me yet oftentimes in my dreams. My school-days come again, and the horror I used to feel, when, in some silent corner, retired from the notice of my unfeeling playfellows, I have sat to mumble the solitary slice of ginger
No, Sir, for none of these things; but an appetite, in its coarsest and least metaphorical sense,—an appetite for food.
The exorbitancies of my arrow-root and pappish days I cannot go back far enough to remember; only I have been told that my mother's constitution not admitting of my being nursed at home, the woman who had the care of me for that purpose used to make most extravagant demands for my pretended excesses in that kind; which my parents, rather than believe anything unpleasant of me, chose to impute to the known covetous-bread allotted me by the bounty of conness and mercenary disposition of that sort siderate friends, and have ached at heart of people. This blindness continued on their because I could not spare a portion of it, as part after I was sent for home, up to the I saw other boys do, to some favourite boy;
You must know, then, that I have been visited with a calamity ever since my birth. How shall I mention it without offending delicacy? Yet out it must. My sufferings, then, have all arisen from a most inordinate appetite
Not for wealth, not for vast possessions, then might I have hoped to find a cure in some of those precepts of philosophers or poets, those verba et voces which Horace speaks of :
"quibus hunc lenire dolorem Possis, et magnam morbi deponere partem;"
not for glory, not for fame, not for applause, -for against this disease, too, he tells us there are certain piacula, or, as Pope has chosen to render it,
"rhymes, which fresh and fresh applied,
nor yet for pleasure, properly so called: the strict and virtuous lessons which I received in early life from the best of parents, a pious clergyman of the Church of England, now no more,-I trust have rendered me sufficiently secure on that side :
for if I know my own heart, I was never except for its long sitting. Those vivacious, selfish, never possessed a luxury which I long-continued meals of the latter Romans, did not hasten to communicate to others; indeed, I justly envy; but the kind of fare but my food, alas! was none; it was an which the Curii and Dentati put up with, I indispensable necessary; I could as soon could be content with. Dentatus I have have spared the blood in my veins, as have been called, among other unsavoury jests. parted that with my companions. Doublemeal is another name which my acquaintance have palmed upon me, for an innocent piece of policy which I put in
played was humanely represented as being nothing more than a symptom and an effect of that. I used even to be complimented upon it. But this temporary fiction could not endure above a year or two. I ceased to grow, but, alas! I did not cease my demands for alimentary sustenance.
Well, no one stage of suffering lasts for ever: we should grow reconciled to it at length, I suppose, if it did. The miseries of practice for some time without being found my school-days had their end; I was once out; which was going the round of my more restored to the paternal dwelling. The friends, beginning with the most primitive affectionate solicitude of my parents was feeders among them, who take their dinner directed to the good-natured purpose of about one o'clock, and so successively dropconcealing, even from myself, the infirmity ping in upon the next and the next, till by which haunted me. I was continually told the time I got among my more fashionable that I was growing, and the appetite I dis- intimates, whose hour was six or seven, I have nearly made up the body of a just and complete meal (as I reckon it), without taking more than one dinner (as they account of dinners) at one person's house. Since I have been found out, I endeavour to make up by a damper, as I call it, at home, before I go out. But alas! with me, increase of Those times are long since past, and with appetite truly grows by what it feeds on. them have ceased to exist the fond conceal- What is peculiarly offensive to me at those ment-the indulgent blindness-the delicate dinner-parties is, the senseless custom of overlooking the compassionate fiction. I cheese, and the dessert afterwards. I have and my infirmity are left exposed and bare a rational antipathy to the former; and for to the broad, unwinking eye of the world, fruit, and those other vain vegetable substiwhich nothing can elude. My meals are tutes for meat (meat, the only legitimate scanned, my mouthfuls weighed in a balance; | aliment for human creatures since the Flood, that which appetite demands is set down to as I take it to be deduced from that perthe account of gluttony,-a sin which my mission, or ordinance rather, given to Noah whole soul abhors-nay, which Nature her- and his descendants), I hold them in perfect self has put it out of my power to commit. contempt. Hay for horses. I remember a I am constitutionally disenabled from that pretty apologue, which Mandeville tells, very vice; for how can he be guilty of excess who much to this purpose, in his Fable of the never can get enough? Let them cease, Bees:-He brings in a Lion arguing with a then, to watch my plate; and leave off their Merchant, who had ventured to expostulate ungracious comparisons of it to the seven with this king of beasts upon his violent baskets of fragments, and the supernaturally-methods of feeding. The Lion thus retorts: replenished cup of old Baucis: and be thankful that their more phlegmatic stomachs, not their virtue, have saved them from the like reproaches. I do not see that any of them desist from eating till the holy rage of hunger, as some one calls it, is supplied. Alas! I am doomed to stop short of that continence.
"Savage I am; but no creature can be called cruel but what either by malice or insensibility extinguishes his natural pity. The Lion was born without compassion; we follow the instinct of our nature; the gods have appointed us to live upon the waste and spoil of other animals, and as long as we can meet with dead ones, we never hunt after the living; 'tis only man, mischievous man, that can make death a sport. Nature
What am I to do? I am by disposition inclined to conviviality and the social meal. I am no gourmand: I require no dainties: I taught your stomach to crave nothing but should despise the board of Heliogabalus, vegetables.—(Under favour of the Lion, if he
meant to assert this universally of mankind, Rather let me say, that to the satisfaction it is not true. However, what he says of that talent which was given me, I have presently is very sensible.)-Your violent been content to sacrifice no common expectfondness to change, and greater eagerness ations; for such I had from an old lady, a after novelties, have prompted you to the near relation of our family in whose good destruction of animals without justice or graces I had the fortune to stand, till one necessity. The Lion has a ferment within fatal evening- You have seen, Mr. him, that consumes the toughest skin and Reflector, if you have ever passed your time hardest bones, as well as the flesh of all much in country towns, the kind of suppers animals, without exception. Your squeamish which elderly ladies in those places have stomach, in which the digestive heat is weak lying in petto in an adjoining parlour, next and inconsiderable, won't so much as admit to that where they are entertaining their F of the most tender parts of them, unless periodically-invited coevals with cards and above half the concoction has been performed muffins. The cloth is usually spread some by artificial fire beforehand; and yet what half-hour before the final rubber is decided, animal have you spared, to satisfy the whence they adjourn to sup upon what may caprices of a languid appetite? Languid, I emphatically be called nothing;—a sliver of say; for what is man's hunger if compared ham, purposely contrived to be transparent with the Lion's? Yours, when it is at the to show the china-dish through it, neighworst, makes you faint; mine makes me bouring a slip of invisible brawn, which mad: oft have I tried with roots and herbs abuts upon something they call a tartlet, as to allay the violence of it, but in vain; that is bravely supported by an atom of nothing but large quantities of flesh can any marmalade, flanked in its turn by a grain of ways appease it."-Anowing for the Lion potted beef, with a power of such dishlings, not having a prophetic instinct to take in minims of hospitality, spread in defiance of every lusus naturæ that was possible of the human nature, or rather with an utter human appetite, he was, generally speaking, ignorance of what it demands. Being engaged in the right; and the Merchant was so at one of these card-parties, I was obliged to impressed with his argument that, we are go a little before supper time (as they facetold, he replied not, but fainted away. O, tiously called the point of time in which Mr. Reflector, that I were not obliged to they are taking these shadowy refections), add, that the creature who thus argues was and the old lady, with a sort of fear shining but a type of me! Miserable man! I am through the smile of courteous hospitality that Lion! "Oft have I tried with roots that beamed in her countenance, begged me and herbs to allay that violence, but in vain ; to step into the next room and take somenothing but thing before I went out in the cold,-a Those tales which are renewed as often as proposal which lay not in my nature to deny. the editors of papers want to fill up a space Indignant at the airy prospect I saw before in their unfeeling columns, of great eaters, me, I set to, and in a trice despatched the people that devour whole geese and legs of whole meal intended for eleven persons,— mutton for wagers,—are sometimes attempted fish, flesh, fowl, pastry,-to the sprigs of to be drawn to a parallel with my case. garnishing parsley, and the last fearful This wilful confounding of motives and custard that quaked upon the board. I need circumstances, which make all the difference not describe the consternation, when in due of moral or immoral in actions, just suits the time the dowagers adjourned from their sort of talent which some of my acquaintance cards. Where was the supper?-and the pride themselves upon. Wagers!—I thank servants' answer, Mr. — had eat it all. Heaven, I was never mercenary, nor could-That freak, however, jested me out of a consent to prostitute a gift (though but a good three hundred pounds a year, which I left-handed one) of nature, to the enlarging afterwards was informed for a certainty the of my worldly substance; prudent as the old lady meant to leave me. I mention it necessities, which that fatal gift have involved not in illustration of the unhappy faculty me in, might have made such a prostitution which I am possessed of; for any unlucky to appear in the eyes of an indelicate world. wag of a schoolboy, with a tolerable appetite,