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able aboral Acalephae Actinians activity Annelids aquarium Arthropods Ascidian associative memory Bethe body brain causes cells central nervous system centre cerebellum cerebral hemispheres cesophageal changes chemical chemotropism commissure comparative physiology connected consciousness contraction coordination crawl crayfish determined direction disturbances earthworm effect elements experiments extirpation fact fibres Flourens frog functions ganglion-cells geotropism Goltz head heliotropic higher animals hind-legs Hydromedusa images of memory innervation instance instincts ions irritability larvae legs lesion light Limulus localisation longitudinal meat mechanism medulla medulla oblongata Medusae ments motions motor mouth move muscles negatively heliotropic Nereis nerve-ring nerves observed occur operation oral organs orientation peripheral phenomena Planarians plants positively heliotropic possess possible processes produced progressive movements protoplasmic psychic reactions reflex removed respiratory rhythmical Schrader segmental ganglia sensations sensory shock-effects spinal cord spontaneous starfish stereotropism stimulated subcesophageal ganglion substances supracesophageal ganglion surface tension tentacles Thysanozoon tion tropisms Vertebrates visual worms
Page 301 - New Haven Leader. 3. — Rivers of North America. A Reading Lesson for Students of Geography and Geology. By ISRAEL C, RUSSELL, Professor of Geology, University of Michigan, author of " Lakes of North America," " Glaciers of North America," " Volcanoes of North America,
Page 301 - Springfield Republican. 6. — Bacteria : Especially as they are related to the economy of nature, to industrial processes, and to the public health. By GEORGE NEWMAN, MD, FRS (Edin.), DPH (Camb.), etc., Demonstrator of Bacteriology in King's College, London. With 24 micro-photographs of actual organisms and over 70 other illustrations. 8°, $2.00.
Page 1 - Our criterion puts an end to the metaphysical ideas that all matter, and hence the whole animal world, possesses consciousness. We are brought to the theory that only certain species of animals possess associative memory and have consciousness, and that it appears in them only after they have reached a certain stage in their ontogenetic development. This...
Page 301 - A timely and useful volume. . , . The author wields a pleasing pen and knows how to make the subject attractive. . . . The work is calculated to spread among its readers an attraction to the science of anthropology. The author's observations are exceedingly genuine and his descriptions are vivid.
Page 185 - Human happiness is based upon the possibility of a natural and harmonious satisfaction of the instincts. One of the most important instincts is usually not even recognized as such, namely, the Instinct of workmanship. Lawyers, criminologIsts and philosophers frequently imagine that only want makes man work. This Is an erroneous view.
Page xii - ... by which a stimulus brings about not only the effects which its nature and the specific structure of the irritable organ call for, but by which it brings about also the effects of other stimuli which formerly acted upon the organism almost or quite simultaneously with the stimulus in question.1 If an animal can be trained, if it can learn, it possesses associative memory.
Page 301 - Age," etc. Fully illustrated. 8°, $2.00. " This volume is the best popular and yet scientific treatment we know of of the origin and development of land-forms, and we immediately adopted it as the best available text-book for a college course in physiography. . . . The book is full of life and vigor, and shows the sympathetic touch of a man deeply in love with nature."— Science.
Page vii - ... symmetry of the body. Symmetrical elements at the surface of the body have the same irritability; unsymmetrical elements have a different irritability. Those nearer the oral pole possess an irritability greater than that of those near the aboral pole. These circumstances force an animal to orient itself toward a source of stimulation in such a way that symmetrical points on the surface of the body are stimulated equally. In this way the animals are led without will of their own either toward...
Page xii - It should consist in the right understanding of the fundamental process which recurs in all psychic phenomena as the elemental component. This process, according to my opinion, is the activity of the associative memory, or of association. Consciousness is only a metaphysical term for phenomena which are determined by associative memory. By associative memory I mean that mechanism by which a stimulus brings about not only the effects which its nature and the specific structure of the irritable organ...
Page vii - These tropisms are identical for animals and plants. The explanation of them depends first upon the specific irritability of certain elements of the body-surface, and, second, upon the relations of symmetry of the body. Symmetrical elements at the surface of the body have the same irritability ; unsymmetrical elements have a different irritability. Those nearer the oral pole possess an irritability greater than that of those near the aboral pole. These circumstances force an animal to orient itself...