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TITLE VII. EXPORT EMBARGOES Sec. 1. Whenever during the present war the President shall find that the public safety shall so require, and shall make proclamation thereof, it shall be unlawful to export from or ship from or take out of the United States to any country named in such proclamation any article or articles mentioned in such proclamation, except at such time or times, and under such regulations and orders, and subject to such limitations and exceptions as the President shall prescribe, until otherwise ordered by the President or by Congress: Provided, however, That no preference shall be given to the ports of one State over those of another.

Sec. 2. Any person who shall export, ship, or take out, or deliver or attempt to deliver for export, shipment, or taking out, any article in violation of this title, or of any regulation or order made hereunder, shall be fined not more than $10,000, or, if a natural person, imprisoned for not more than two years, or both; and any article so delivered or exported, shipped, or taken out, or so attempted to be delivered or exported, shipped, or taken out, shall be seized and forfeited to the United States; and any officer, director, or agent of a corporation who participates in any such violation shall be liable to like fine or imprisonment, or both.

Sec. 3. Whenever there is reasonable cause to believe that any vessel, domestic or foreign, is about to carry out of the United States any article or articles in violation of the provisions of this title, the collector of customs for the district in which such vessel is located is hereby authorized and empowered, subject to review by the Secretary of Commerce, to refuse clearance to any such vessel, domestic or foreign, for which clearance is required by law, and by formal notice served upon the owners, master, or person or persons in command or charge of any domestic vessel for which clearance is not required by law, to forbid the departure of such vessel from the port, and shall thereupon be unlawful for such vessel to depart. Whoever, in violation of any of the provisions of this section shall take, or attempt to take, or authorize the taking of any such vessel, out of port or from the jurisdiction of the United States, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both; and, in addition, such vessel, her tackle, apparel, furniture, equipment, and her forbidden cargo shall be forfeited to the United States. (40 Stat. 225, 226.)

TITLE VIII. FOREIGN RELATIONS Sec. 1. Whoever, in relation to any dispute or controversy between a foreign government and the United States, shall willfully and knowingly make any untrue statement, either orally or in writing, under oath before any person authorized and empowered to administer oaths, which the affiant has knowledge or reason to believe will, or may be used to influence the measures or conduct of any foreign government, or of any officer or agent of any foreign government, to the injury of the United States, or with a view or intent to influence any measure of or action by the Government of the United States, or any branch thereof, to the injury of the United States, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

Sec. 2. Whoever within the jurisdiction of the United States shall falsely assume or pretend to be a diplomatic or consular, or other official of a foreign government duly accredited as such to the Government of the United States with intent to defraud such foreign government or any person, and shall take upon himself to act as such, or in such pretended character shall demand or obtain, or attempt to obtain from any person or from said foreign government, or from any officer thereof, any money, paper, document, or other thing of value. shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

Sec. 3. Whoever, other than a diplomatic or consular officer or attaché, shall act in the United States as an agent of a foreign government without prior notification to the Secretary of State shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

[Sec. 4 defines the words “foreign government,” as used in this Act and in sections 156, 157, 161, 170, 171, 172, 173, and 220 of the Criminal Code, so as to include any faction, or body of insurgents within a country with which the United States is at peace.]

SEC. 5. If two or more persons within the jurisdiction of the United States conspire to injure or destroy specific property situated within a foreign country and belonging to a foreign Government or to any political subdivision thereof with which the United States is at peace, or any railroad, canal, bridge, or other public utility so situated, and if one or more of such persons commits an act within the jurisdiction of the United States to effect the object of the conspiracy, each of the parties to the conspiracy shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. Any indictment or information under this section shall describe the specific property which it was the object of the conspiracy to injure or destroy. (40 Stat. 226.)

TITLE IX. PASSPORTS SEC. 1. Before a passport is issued to any person by or under authority of the United States such person shall subscribe to and submit a written application duly verified by his oath before a person authorized and empowered to administer oaths, which said application shall contain a true recital of each and every matter of fact which may be required by law or by any rules authorized by law to be stated as a prerequisite to the issuance of any such passport. Clerks of the United States courts, agents of the Department of State, or other Federal officials authorized, or who may be authorized, to take passport applications and administer oaths thereon, shall collect, for all services in connection therewith, a fee of $1, and no more, in lieu of all fees prescribed by any statute of the United States, whether the application is executed singly, in duplicate, or in triplicate.

Sec. 2. Whoever shall willfully and knowingly make any false statement in an application for passport with intent to induce or secure the issuance of a passport under the authority of the United States, either for his own use or the use of another, contrary to the laws regulating the issuance of passports or the rules prescribed pursuant to such laws, or whoever shall willfully and knowingly use or attempt to use, or furnish to another for use, any passport the issue of which was secured in any way by reason of any false statement, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years or both.

Sec. 3. Whoever shall will ully and knowingly use, or attempt to use, any passport issued or designed for the use of another than himself, or whoever shall willfully and knowingly use or attempt to use any passport in violation of the conditions or restrictions therein contained, or of the rules prescribed pursuant to the laws regulating the issuance of passports, which said rules shall be printed on the passport; or whoever shall willfully and knowingly furnish, dispose of, or deliver a passport to any person, for use by another than the person for whose use it was originally issued and designed, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years,

Sec. 4. Whoever shall falsely make, forge, counterfeit, mutilate, or alter, or cause or procure to be falsely made, forged, counterfeited, mu

or both.

tilated, or altered any passport or instrument purporting to be a passport, with intent to use the same, or with intent that the same may be used by another; or whoever shall willfully or knowingly use, or attempt to use, or furnish to another for use any such false, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered passport or instrument purporting to be a passport, or any passport validly issued which has become void by the occurrence of any condition therein prescribed invalidating the same, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (40 Stat. 227.)

TITLE X. COUNTERFEITING SEAL Sec. 1. Whoever shall fraudulently or wrongfully affix or impress the seal of any executive department, or of any bureau, commission, or office of the United States, to or upon any certificate, instrument, commission, document, or paper of any description; or whoever, with knowledge of its fraudulent character, shall with wrongful or fraudulent intent use, buy, procure, sell, or transfer to another any such certificate, instrument, commission, document, or paper, to which or upon which said seal has been so fraudulently affixed or impressed, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

SEC. 2. Whoever shall falsely make, forge, counterfeit, mutilate, or alter, or cause or procure to be made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered, or shall willingly assist in falsely making, forging, counterfeiting, mutilating, or altering, the seal of any executive department, or any bureau, commission, or office of the United States, or whoever shall knowingly use, affix, or impress any such fraudulently made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, commission, document, or paper, of any description, or whoever with wrongful or fraudulent intent shall have possession of any such falsely made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered seal, knowing the same to have been so falsely made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altened, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

Sec. 3. Whoever shall falsely make, forge, counterfeit, alter, or tamper with any naval, military, or official pass or permit, issued by or under the authority of the United States, or with wrongful or fraudulent intent shall use or have in his possession any such pass or permit, or shall personate or falsely represent himself to be or not to be a person to whom such pass or permit has been duly issued, or shall willfully allow any other person to have or use any such pass or permit, issued for his use alone, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (40 Stat. 227-228.)

TITLE XI. SEARCH WARRANTS Sec. 1. A search warrant authorized by this title may be issued by a judge of a United States district court, or by a judge of a State or Territorial court of record, or by a United States commissioner for the district wherein the property sought is located.

SEC. 2. A search warrant may be issued under this title upon either of the following grounds:

1. When the property was stolen or embezzled in violation of a law of the United States; in which case it may be taken on the warrant from any house or other place in which it is concealed, or from the possession of the person by whom it was stolen or embezzled, or from any person ia whose possession it may be.

2. When the property was used as the means of committing a felony; in which case it may be taken on the warrant from any house or other place

in which it is concealed, or from the possession of the person by whom it was used in the commission of the offense, or from any person in whose possession it may be.

3. When the property, or any paper, is possessed, controlled, or used in violation of section twenty-two of this title; in which case it may be taken on the warrant from the person violating said section, or from any person in whose possession may be, or from any house or other place in which it is concealed.

[Sec. 3 forbids issue except upon probable supported by descriptive affidavit.]

(Sec. 4 requires examination of the complainant, etc.) (Sec. 5 requires the affidavits to set forth the facts.]

Sec. 6 directs the judge or commissioner, if satisfied that there is probable cause, to issue the warrant and regulates the issue and purport thereof.)

[Sec. 7 forbids the service of the warrant by any unauthorized person.j

SEC. 8. The officer may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house, or any part of a house, or anything therein, to execute the warrant, if, after notice of his authority and purpose, he is refused admittance.

Sec. 9. He may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house for the purpose of liberating a person who, having entered to aid him in the execution of the warrant, is detained therein, or when necessary for his own liberation.

(Sec. 10 restricts the time of service.]
(Sec. 11 fixes a limit of ten days for execution and return.)
(Sec. 12 requires the giving of receipt, etc., when taking property.]

[Sec. 13 regulates the return of the warrant and delivery of the property to judge, etc.)

(Sec. 14 provides for delivery of copy of inventory.)
(Sec. 15 regulates procedure where the grounds are controverted.

Sec. 16 directs restoration where taking was error.eous or unjustified; but authorizes retention if probable cause appears.]

(Sec. 17 regulates the disposition of the papers.!

ŠEC. 18. Whoever shall knowingly and willfully obstruct, resist, or oppose any such officer or person in serving or attempting to serve or execute any such search warrant, or shall assault, beat, or wound any such officer or person, knowing him to be an officer or person so authorized, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than two years.

Sec. 19. Sections one hundred and twenty-five and one hundred and twenty-six of the Criminal Code of the United States shall apply to and embrace all persons making oath or affirmation or procuring the same under the provisions of this title, and such persons shall be subject to all the pains and penalties of said sections.

Sec. 20. A person who maliciously and without probable cause procures a search warrant to be issued and executed shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year.

Sec. 21. An officer who in executing a search warrant willfully exceeds his authority, or exercises it with unnecessary severity, shall be fined, not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year.

SEC. 22. Whoever, in aid of any foreign government, shall knowingly and willfully have possession of or control over any property or papers designed or intended for use or which is used as the means of violating any penal statute, or any of the rights or obligations of the United States under any treaty or the law of nations, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both.

[Sec. 23 preserves existing laws regulating search and the issue of search warrants.] (40 Stat. 228-230.)

TITLE XII. USE OF MAILS Sec. 1. Every letter, writing, circular, postal card, picture, print, engraving, photograph, newspaper, pamphlet, book, or other publication, matter or thing, of any kind, in violation of any of the provisions of this Act is hereby declared to be nonmailable matter and shall not be conveyed in the mails or delivered from any post office or by any letter carrier: Provided, That nothing in this Act shall be so construed as to authorize any person other than an employee of the Dead Letter Office, duly authorized thereto, or other person upon a search warrant authorized by law, to open any letter not addressed to himself. [Made applicable to Section 3 of Title I as amended in 1918, by Sec. 2 of Act of May 16, 1918; Public No. 150—65th Congress; H. R. 8753.]

SEC. 2. Every letter, writing, circular, postal card, picture, print, engraving, photograph, newspaper, pamphlet, book, or other publication, matter or thing, of any kind, containing any matter advocating or urging treason, insurrection, or forcible resistance to any law of the United States, is hereby declared to be nonmailable.

Sec. 3. Whoever shall use or attempt to use the mails or Postal Service of the United States for the transmission of any matter declared by this title to be nonmailable, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Any person violating any provision of this title may be tried and punished either in the district in which the unlawful matter or publication was mailed, or to which it was carried by 'mail for delivery according to the direction thereon, or in which it was caused to be delivered by mail to the person to whom it was addressed. (40 Stat. 230-231.)

Sec. 4. (Added by Act of May 16, 1918, Sec. 2]. When the United States is at war, the Postmaster General may, upon evidence satisfactory to him that any person or concern is using the mails in violation of any of the provisions of this Act, instruct the postmaster at any post office at which mail is received addressed to such person or concern to return to the postmaster at the office at which they were originally mailed all letters or other matter so addressed, with the words “Mail to this address undeliverable under Espionage Act” plainly written or stamped upon the outside thereof, and all such letters or other matter so returned to such postmasters shall be by them returned to the senders thereof under such regulations as the Postmaster General may prescribe. (Public No. 150—65th Congress; H. R. 8753.)

TITLE-XIII. GENERAL PROVISIONS (Sec. 1 defines the term “United States” as including all territory and waters subject to U. S. jurisdiction.]

[Sec. 2 gives certain jurisdiction to courts in the Philippine Islands and the Canal Zone and extends Criminal Code, Sec. 37, to those regions, and empowers and directs the district attorneys there accordingly.)

[Sec. 3 preserves the effect of prior laws as to prior offenses.]

(Sec. 4 provides that partial invalidity shall not impair the remainder of the Act.] (40 Stat. 231.)

TRADING-WITH-ENEMY ACT

("An Act To define, regulate, and punish trading with the enemy, and for other purposes.” Public No. 91–65th Congress. Approved October 6,

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