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self or his agent, to any foreign government or the agents thereof for redress of any injury which he may have sustained from such government or any of its agents or subjects. (R. S. Sec. 5335. Comp. Stat. 1916, Sec. 10169.)

SEC. 6. If two or more persons in any State or Territory, or in any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, conspire to overthrow, put down, or to destroy by force the Government of the United States, or to levy war against them, or to oppose by force the authority thereof, or by force to prevent, hinder, or delay the execution of any law of the United States, or by force to seize, take, or possess any property of the United States contrary to the authority thereof, they shall each be fined not more than five thousand dollars, or imprisoned not more than six years, or both. (R. S. Sec. 5336. Comp. Stat. 1916, Sec. 10170.)

FOREIGN OR HOSTILE CONNECTIONS Sec. 7. Whoever recruits soldiers or sailors within the United States, or in any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof, to engage in armed hoso tility against the same, or opens within the United States, or in any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof, a recruiting station for the enlistment of such soldiers or sailors to serve in any manner in armed hostility against the United States, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars and imprisoned not more than five years. (R. S. Sec. 533 Comp. Stat. 1916, Sec 10171.)

Sec. 8. Every person enlisted or engaged within the United States or in any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof, with intent to serve in armed hostility against the United States, shall be fined one hundred dollars and imprisoned not more than three years. (R. S. Sec. 5338. Comp. Stat. 1916, Sec. 10172.)

SEC. 9. Every citizen of the United States who, within the territory or jurisdiction thereof, accepts and exercises a commission to serve a foreign prince, state, colony, district, or people, in war, by land or by sea, against any prince, state, colony, district, or people, with whom the United States are at peace, shall be fined not more than two thousand dollars and imprisoned not more than three years. (R. S. Sec. 5281. Comp. Stat. Sec. 10173.)

Sec. 10. Whoever, within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States, enlists or enters himself, or hires or retains another person to enlist or enter himself, or to go beyond the limits or jurisdiction of the United States with intent to be enlisted or entered in the service of any foreign prince, state, colony, district, or people as a soldier or as a marine or seaman on board of any vessel of war, letter of marque, or privateer shall be fined not more than $1,000 and imprisoned not more than three years: Provided, That this section shall not apply to citizens or subjects of any country engaged in war with a country with which the United States is at war, unless such citizen or subject of such foreign country shall hire or solicit a citizen of the United States to enlist or go beyond the jurisdiction of the United States with intent to enlist or enter

the service of a foreign country. Enlistments under this proviso shall be under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of War. (R. S. Sec. 5282. Comp. Stat. 1916, Sec. 10174, as amended by Act of May 7, 1917. 40 Stat. 39.)

PRETENDING TO BE AN OFFICER Sec. 32. Whoever, with intent to defraud either the United States or any person, shall falsely assume or pretend to be an officer or employee acting under the authority of the United States, or any Department, or any officer of the Government thereof, and shall take upon himself to act as such, or shall in such pretended character demand or obtain from any person or from the United States, or any Department, or any officer of the Government thereof, any money, paper, document, or other valuable thing, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned not more than three years or both. (R. S. Sec. 5448. Comp. Stat., 1916, Sec. 10196.)

CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT AN OFFENSE SEC. 37. If two or more persons conspire, either to commit any offense against the United States, or to defraud the United States in any manner or for any purpose, and one or more of such parties do any act to effect the object of the conspiracy, each of the parties to such conspiracy shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. (R. S. Sec. 5440. Comp. Stat., 1916, Sec. 10201.)

ENTICING DESERTION OR STRIKES SEC. 42. Whoever shall entice or procure, or attempt or endeavor to entice or procure any soldier in the military service or any seaman or other person in the naval service of the United States, or who has been recruited for such service, to desert therefrom, or shall aid any such soldier, seaman or other person in deserting or in attempting to desert from such service; or whoever shall harbor, conceal, protect or assist any such soldier, seaman or other person who may have deserted from such service, knowing him to have deserted therefrom, or shall refuse to give up and deliver such soldier, seaman or other person on the demand of any officer authorized to receive him, shall be imprisoned not more than three years and fined not more than $2,000. (R. S. Secs. 1553, 5455. Comp. Stat., 1916, Sec. 10206.)

SEC. 43. Whoever shall procure or entice any artificer or workman retained or employed in any arsenal or armory, to depart from the same during. the continuance of his engagement, or to avoid or break his contract with the United States; or whoever, after due notice of the engagement of such workman or artificer, during the continuance of such engagement, shall retain, hire, or in anywis- employ, harbor, or conceal such artificer or workman, shall be fined not more than fifty dollars, or imprisoned not more than three months, or both. (R. S. Sec. 1668. Comp. Stat., 1916, Sec. 10207.)

TRESPASSES AT MILITARY PLACES SEC. 44. Whoever shall willfully trespass upon, injure, or destroy any of the works or property or material of any submarine mine or torpedo or fortification or harbor-defense system owned or constructed or in process of construction by the United States, or shall willfully interfere with the operation or use of any such submarine mine, torpedo, fortification, or harbor-defense system, or shall knowingly, willfully, or wantonly violate any duly authorized and promulgated order or regulation of the President governing persons or vessels within the limits of defensive sea areas, which defensive sea areas are hereby authorized to be established by order of the President from time to time as may be necessary in his discretion for purposes of national defense, shall be punished on conviction thereof in a district or circuit court of appeals of the United States for the district or circuit in which the offense is committed, or into which the offender is first brought, by a fine of not more than $5,000, or by imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years, or by both, in the discretion of the court. (Comp. Stat., 1916, Sec. 10208, as amended by Naval Appropriation Act of March 4, 1917, ch. 180.39 Stat., 1194.)

Sec. 45. Whoever shall go upon any military reservation, army, post, fort, or arsenal, for any purpose prohibited by law or military regulations made in pursuance of law, or whoever shall re-enter or be found within any such reservation, post, fort or arsenal after having been removed therefrom or ordered not to re-enter by any officer or person in command or charge thereof, shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than six months, or both. (Comp. Stat., 1916, Sec. 10209.)

SEC. 60. Whoever shall willfully or maliciously injure or destroy any of the works, property or material of any telegraph, telephone or cable line or system operated or controlled by the United States, whether constructed or in process of construction, or shall willfully or maliciously interfere in any way with the working or use of any such line or system, or shall willfull, or i aliciously obstruct, hinder or delay the transmission of any communication over any such line or system, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. (Comp. Stat., 1916, Sec. 10228.)

FALSELY CLAIMING CITIZENSHIP Sec. 79. Whoever shall knowingly use any certificate of naturalization heretofore or which hereafter may be granted by any court, which has been or may be procured through fraud or by false evidence, or which has been or may hereafter be issued by the clerk or any other officer of the court without any appearance and hearing of the applicant in court and without lawful authority; or whoever, for any fraudulent purpose whatever, shall falsely represent himself to be a citizen of the United States without having been duly admitted to citizenship, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. (R. S. Sec. 5428. Comp. Stat., 1916, Sec. 10247.)

AIDING OR COUNSELING OFFENSE SEC. 332. Whoever directly commits any act constituting an offense defined in any law of the United States, or aids, abets, counsels, commands, induces, or procures its commission, is a principal. (R. S. Secs. 5323, 5427. Comp. Stat., 1916, Sec. 10506.)

MISCELLANEOUS CRIMINAL ACTS

WEARING UNIFORM UNLAWFULLY Act of June 3, 1916, ch. 134. Sec. 125.—It shall be unlawful for any person not an officer or enlisted man of the United States Army, Navy, or Marine Corps, to wear the duly prescribed uniform of the United States Army, Navy, or Marine Corps, or any distinctive part of such uniform, or a uniform any part of which is similar to a distinctive part of the duly prescribed uniform of the United States Army, Navy, or Marine Corps: Provided [here follow clauses excepting the National Guard, the Boy Scouts of America, Naval Militia, or such other organizations as the Secretary of War may designate, ex-officers of U. S. forces, honorably discharged men proceeding home within three months, military societies of veterans, public military schools, colleges, etc., certain other military schools, etc., official courses of military instruction, and excepting any person wearing the uniform in “any playhouse or theater or in moving-picture films while actually engaged in representing therein a military or naval character not tending to bring discredit or reproach upon the United States Army, Navy, or Marine Corps :"]-Provided further, That the uniforms worn by officers or enlisted men of the National Guard, or by the members of the military societies or the MISCELLANEOUS CRIMINAL ACTS instructors and members of the cadet corps referred to in the preceding proviso shall include some distinctive mark or insignia to be prescribed by the Secretary of War to distinguish such uniforms from the uniforms of the United States Army, Navy and Marine Corps: And provided further, That the members of the military societies and the instructors and members of the cadet corps hereinbefore mentioned shall not wear the insignia of rank prescribed to be worn by officers of the United States Army, Navy, or Marine Corps, or any insignia of rank similar thereto.

Any, person who offends against the provisions of this section shall, on conviction, be punished by a fine not exceeding $300, or by imprisonment not exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. (Part of National Defense Act, Public No. 85—64th Congress. *39 Stat. 216-217.)

DESECRATING FLAG IN D. C. Act of February 8, 1917, ch. 34.—That hereafter any person who, within the District of Columbia, in any manner, for exhibition or display, shall place or cause to be placed any word, figure, mark, picture, design, drawing or any advertisement of any nature upon any flag, standard, colors or ensign of the United States of America; or shall expose or cause to be exposed to public view any such flag, standard, colors or ensign upon which shall have been printed, painted or otherwise placed, or to which shall be attached, appended, affixed or annexed any word, figure, mark, picture, design or drawing, or any advertisement of any nature; or who, within the District of Columbia, shall manufacture, sell, expose for sale or to public view or give away or have in possession for sale or to be given away or for use for any purpose, any article or substance being an article of merchandise, or a receptacle for merchandise or article or thing for carrying or transporting merchandise, upon which shall have been printed, painted, attached or otherwise placed a representation of any such flag, standard, colors or ensign, to advertise, call attention to, decorate, mark or distinguish the article or substance on which so placed; or who, within the District of Columbia, shall publicly mutilate, deface, defile or defy, trample upon or cast contempt, either by word or act, upon any such flag, standard, colors or ensign, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine not exceeding, $100 or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or both, in the discretion of the court. The words "flag, standard, colors, or ensign," as used herein, shall include any flag, standard, colors, ensign or any picture or representation of either, or of any part or parts of either, made of any substance or represented on any substance, of any size evidently purporting to be either of said flag, standard, colors or ensign of the United States of America or a picture or a representation of either, upon which shall be shown the colors, the stars and the stripes, in any number of either thereof, or of any part or parts of either, by which the average person seeing the same without deliberation may believe the same to represent the flag, colors, standard or ensign of the United States of America. (Public No. 305 64th Congress. 39 Stat. 900.)

THREATENING THE PRESIDENT Act of February 14, 1917, ch. 64.–That any person who knowingly and willfully deposits or causes to be deposited for conveyance in the mail or for delivery from any post office or by any letter carrier any letter, paper, writing, print, missive, or document containing any threat to take the life of or to inflict bodily harm upon the President of the United States, or who knowingly and willfully otherwise makes any such threat against the President, shall upon conviction be fined not exceeding $1,000 or imprisoned not exceeding five years, or both. (Public No. 319–64th Congress. 39 Stat. 919.)

MISCELLANEOUS CRIMINAL ACTS

FORGING DISCHARGE CERTIFICATE Act of March 4, 1917, ch. 180.—Whoever shall forge, counterfeit, or falsely alter any certificate of discharge from the military or naval service of the United States, or shall in any manner aid or assist in forging, counterfeiting, or falsely altering any such certificate, or shall use, unlawfully have in his possession, exhibit, or cause to be used or exhibited, any such forged, counterfeited, or falsely altered certificate, knowing the same to be forged, counterfeited, or falsely altered, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both, in the discretion of the court. (Part of Naval Appropriation Act. Public No. 391—64th Congress. 39 Štat. 1182.)

INTERFERING WITH HOMING PIGEONS Act of April 19, 1918.—That it be, and it hereby is, declared to be unlawful to knowingly, entrap, capture, shoot, kill, possess, or in any way detain an Antwerp, or homing pigeon, commonly called carrier pigeon, which is owned by the United States or bears a band owned and issued by the United States having thereon the letters “U. S. A.or “U. S. N.” and a serial number.

SEC. 2. That the possession or detention of any pigeon described in section one of this Act by any person or persons in any loft, house, cage, building, or structure in the ownership or under the control of such person or persons without giving immediate notice by registered mail to the nearest military or naval authorities, shall be prima facie evidence of a violation of this Act.

Sec. 3. That any person violating the provisions of this Act shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than $100, or by imprisonment for not more than six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. (Public No. 134-65th Congress. S. 3980.)

ESPIONAGE ACT

("An Act To punish acts of interference with the foreign relations, the neutrality, and the foreign commerce of the United States, to punish espionage, and better to enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and for other purposes.” Public No. 24—65th Congress. Approved June 15, 1917, ch. 30. As amended by Act of May 16, 1918. Public No. 150—65th Congress. H. R. 8753.)

TITLE I. ESPIONAGE Sec. 1. That (a) whoever, for the purpose of obtaining information respecting the national defense with intent or reason to believe that the information to be obtained is to be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation, goes upon, enters, flies over, or otherwise obtains information concerning any vessel, aircraft, work of defense, navy yard, naval station, submarine base, coaling station, fort, battery, torpedo station, dockyard, canal, railroad, arsenal, camp, factory, mine, telegraph, telephone, wireless, or signal station, building, office, or other place connected with the national defense, owned or constructed, or in progress of construction by the United States or under the control of the United States, or of any of its officers or agents, or within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, or any place in which any vessel, aircraft, arms, munitions, or other materials or instruments for use in time of war are being made, prepared, repaired, or stored, under any contract or agreement with the United States, or with any person on behalf of the United States, or otherwise on behalf of the United States, or any prohibited place

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