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it. The large flaxen perriwigs were by a wag called the silver fleece. Charles the Second's reign might be so called " that of black, this that of white wigs." **
Indeed the wigs had gotten to such an extraordinary pitch of protuberance at this time in Europe, that pope Benedict XIII. strove all in luis power to reform what she considered as " a scandalous abuse."
The ladies of William's and Mary's court wore their dresses long and flowing, and were servile copyists of the French. They flounced their petticoats; the ruffles were worn long and double, and the hair frizzled, and orna-mented with jewels, pearls, and amber, ear-rings, decklaces ; bracelets decorated the stomacher and the shoulderst.
The lead dress had more the appearance of a veil than a cap thrown back, the sides of which hung below the bosom: 'from this the head dress, which gradually shrunk to a cául with two lappets, known by the name of mob. The shoes had raised heels and square toes; were high on the instep, worked with gold, and were always of the most costly materials. The gloves of both sexes were of white leather worked, but not so extravagantly as in Charles the First's reign. Hoops did not encumber the fair sex at this rime; but not to be without something more than a gentle swell, they had their commode, which set out the hinder part, and gave additional grace, it was thought to the swimming train. If however we allow that there was too much exuberance of hair to the men, and rather more size 'behind to the ladies, than was necessary, the dress of both sexes was appropriate: the men studied manliness, the other sex modesty I.
The habit of the citizens, which had very little variation from that of their superiors, is to be seen in the prints of Sir THOMAS PILKINGTON, lord mayor, 1691; Sir WilLHAM ASHURST, lord mayor, 1694; Sir John HOUBLON, lord mayor, 1696; and Sir RICHARD LEVET, lord mayor, 1700.
QUEEN ANNE. No important revolution in dress, took place at the commencement of this reign. The queen was a strict ohserver of decorum, the study of which, she even condescended to impose 'on subordinate persons of her court; 'even her domestics of either sex -attracted her notice, respecting the appropriate disposition of a wig as a ruffle.
Noble's Continuation of Granger. + The ladies following the queen's example, began to work with their needles. Noble.
The peace with France, however, soon altered this economy; the manners and fashions of that country were soon imported into England. The wigs of the gentlemen were .contracted, and the long, flowing curls were tiéd; these re. ceived the title of Ramillie wigs*, and afterwards tie wigs; these only were used in the undress.
The kats were either turned up on one side, or cocked Joosely, similar to the mode at present used by the clergy, judges, and the Quakers. , The coats were embroidered, aud laced with gold or silver; the shoulders were decorated with epaulets, and the whole garment was long, and open at the bottom of the sleeyes, without cuffs; they were not collared, but edged with gold and silver clasps, or buttons, from the top to the bottom, as well as at the openings of the sleeves, : Young gentlemen frequevtly had the sleeves only balf way down the arm, and the short sleeve very full, and deeply ruffled. An ornamented belt kept the coat tight at the bottom of the waist. The vest, and the lower part of the dress had little clasps, and was seldom seen.
The 2:01l-up stocking came into vogue at this period, and the sandal was much used by the young men; these were finely wrought The elder gentlemen had the shoe fastened with small buckles on the instep, and raised, but not high heels
The ladies were becoming; whilst the hair was curled round the face, the fowing coif, of the finest linen, was fastened on the head, and fell back; this was succeeded by the restoration of the high projecting head dress, after a disuse for the space of fifteen yearst.
The large necklace was still used, though not constantly worn, but the ear-ring was discontinued. The bosom was cither entirely exposed, or merely shaded with gauze, an indecency that gave great offence. The chemise had a tucker or border f.
Lord Bolivgbroke was once sent for in haste by the queen, and went to her majesty in a Ramillie, or tie wig, instead of a full-bottomed one, which so offended his sovereign, that she said, " I suppose that his lordship will come to court the next time in his night-cap.--Noble's Continuation,
+ Swift observed, when dining with Sir Thomas Hanmer, that the dutchess of Grafton, who was there, wore this unbecoming, ungraceful head dress, and who looked, said the cynic, “ like a mad woman." Noble's Continuation.
# It is usual for our silver money to have the royal bust with drapery, and the gold pieces without any. Queen Anne commanded that the drapery should appear upon both the gold and silver coin. It did honour zo her delicacy.-- Ibid. Vol. IV. No. 101,
The boddice was open in front, and fastened with gold of silver 'clasps, or jewellery; the sleeves full. The large tub 11ooo made its appearance in this reign, and was of all things the most absurd. However, the apology for its absurdity was its coolness in summer, by admitting a free circulation of air. Granger says, “it iras no more a pektieoat than Diogenes's tub was bis breeches *." Flotnces and furbiloes, which began in this reign, became enormously ridiculous; einbroidered shoes continued in fashion, and both ladies and gentlemen wore richly embroidered gloves.
The pictures of Sir Thomas Rawlinson, and Sir William Withers, in Bridewell Hospital, exhibit the dresses of the citizens during this period.
George I. The age of this sovereign, when he ascended the British throne, and various concomitant circumstances, obstructed the progress of fashion. The peace, however, which had been seeretly cukivated by the king, and the re'gent of France, was more serviceable to costume than any other mode of innovation; and the great intercourse between the two kingdoms, which had been interrupted for many years, induced reciprocal manners and customs. To prove, that 'the new fashions were not approved of be the generality of people, we find that Dr. John Harris, prebenckıry of Canterbury, published in 1715, his “ Treatise on the Noctes; or, a Farewell to French Kicks," which was well received: and it is not improbable but that this publication induced Jolin, duke of Argyle, the patriotie reprobater of French modes, particularly to recommend Dr. Harris to be bishop of Llandaff, to which he after wards succeeded t.
The author dissuaded his countryment " from applying to foreigners in 'matters of dress, because we have a right, and power, and genius, to supply ourselves." * The French tailors," he observed, “invent new modes of dress, and dedicate them to great men, as authors do books; as was the case with the roquelaure cloak, which then dis
* Swifi says, in one of his legters to a friend in Ireland, “Hare you 2of the whalebone pericoat amongst you yet? I hate them : a woman bure niay hide a moderate gallant under thein" Henry IV. of France, it is well known, was saved from assassination by hiding bimself under his queen's (Margaret of Valois) hoop. Every thing, bowever preposteri us, may be made useful.-- Noble's Continuation,
** Printed calicoes were introduced in this reign, and used to such extent, that on the first of December 1719, the company of weaven, and other bodies, petitioned parliament against the manufacture which had occasionad a great decay of irade.
placed the surtout; and was called the Roquelaure, from being dedicated to the duke of Roquelarre, whose title was spread, by this means, throughout France: but its present modifications and adjuncts were all entirely owing to them; as the pockets and pocket flaps, as well as the magnitude of the plaits, which differ from time to time in number, but always agree in the mystical efficacy of an unequal."
The ladies reduced their shapes to the distortion of their bodies, and the destruction of their health. The only novelty that is noticeable is the Pantine, a stiffened pasteboard, invented by madamoiselle Pantine, marshał Saxe's mistress, for the purpose of increasing the deformity of narrow shapes.
Spanish broad cloth, trimmed with gold lace, was still in use among the ladies; and furbellowed scarfs were ge, nerally worn; riding hoods on horseback, and the mask, which continued in use till the following reign.
The portrait of Sir Samuel Garrard, bart. in Bridewel! Hospital, explains very fully the costume of the citizens.
George II. At the marriage of his royal highness Frea derick, prince of Wales, to the princess of Saxe Gotha, on the 27th of April, 1736, the king was dressed in a gold brocade, turned up with silk, embroidered with large Aowers in silver and colours; as was the waistcoat; the buttons and star, were diamonds. The queen was in a plain yellow silk, robed and faced with pearl diamonds, and other jewels of immense value. The bridegroom and bride were habited in rich white brocaded suits; the princess wearing the crown of England, with only one bar, as princess of Wales; her robe was of crimson velvet, turned back with several rows of ermine. On this occasion the dukęs of Grafton, St. Alban's, Newcastle, and other noblemen, were in dresses of gold brocade, to the value of 500l. each; the duke of Marlborough was in a white velvet, and gold brocade, upon which was an exceedingly rich point d'Espagne; other no. blemen were in cloaths dowered or sprigged with gold; and the duke of Montague in a gold brocaded tissue. The waisteoats were universally brocades, with large flowers.
To the honour of the court, it was observed, that most of this rich costume was British manufacture; and, in ho. nour to our own artists, the few which were French did not come up to them, much less exceed them, in richness, goodness, or fancy; which was peculiarly observable in the dresses of the royal family, entirely of British workmanship. The cuffs of the sleeyes were wniversally deep and.. 4 E 2
open, the waists long; and the plaits sticking out. The ladies were principally in brocades of gold and silver, and wore their sleeves much lower than tliey had formerly been accustomed. his birth-day courts, he asked the carl of iegtare, who
It is highly to the credit of this monarch, that at one of appeared in a rich suit, “ Whether his cloaths were French ?" To which his lordship replying in the affirinative, his majesty added, that " he hoped never to see the like again." His son Frederick, prince of Wales, and his amiable consort, were also great enemies to French, in opposition to English, manufacture, and, in 1443, before the war with that country, ordered the countess of Middlesex to acquaint those who came to theit court, that it would be paying them a very bad compliment, if they came bither in French cloaths."
A regular system of polished manvers having taken place, in consequence of restoring the court, at which queen Ca roline presided; the effect was a circulation of fashions, agreeably to the various changes which constantly operated upon the human invention. Still, however, the costume both of ladies and gentlemen partook of the stiff formality of the preceding reigns. A gentleman' in a large bushy wig, tied at the ends; a coat broad laced, with quarters below the knees, the sleeves large, and the cuffs half at the elbows; a waistcoat nearly as long as the coat, fively em. broidered and fringed; the breeches buckled close upon the knees; the stockings long, and unhandsoniely terminated by large insteps to the shoes, which were decorated with small buckles. The cravat long, drawn through the waistcoat button-hole, and the wig covered with a three cocked hat, laced.
The lady was equally encumbered with a heavy brocade gown, the waist reduced almost to a point; a large unweildy hoop, and embroidered shoes with high heels, and pointed at the ends, rendered the body not only uncomfortable but unhealthy. The sleeves of the gown were wide, and from the elbows hung five or sis scolloped pieces of dress, called ruffled cuffs; at the backs of the gowns, especially of young ladies, were two trailing appendages, called hanging sleeves. The shoulders and neck were covered with fine handkerchiefs, either of lawn or cambric*
Cambric, so called from Cambray, where it was inanufactured, had arisen to such extravagant wear, that an act of parliament passed in 1747, by which it was enacted, “ that all persons who shall wear in