« PreviousContinue »
the rest of her dress flowed in rieh folds and a train, which she set off in a peculiar manner by the extraordinary beauty of her person.
Ladies wore their hair low on the forehead, and parted in small ringlets; others curled like a peruke, or braided, and Founded in a knot on the top of the crown. They frequently suspended strings of pearls in their hair; ear-rings, necklaces, bracelets, and other jewels, were also much in use.
Laced handkerchiefs, resembling the large falling band worn by the men, were in fashion among the ladies: this ar-ticle of dress has been revived during the reign of George III. and called a Vandyck, by the countess of Dysart, who was said to have taken her pattern from a portrait of queen Hen- ' Tictta Maria.
Cowley, in his Discourse “ of Greatness;" censures some enormities in the dress of his time in the following terms: ** Is any thing more common than to see our ladies of quality wear such high shoes as they cannot walk in withoạt one to lead them? And a gown as long again as their body; se that they cannot stir to the next room without a page or two to hold it up?"
: Many ladies, at this period, are painted with their arms and their bosoms bare; and there is no doubt but they sometimes went with those parts exposed.
About this time came also into use the ridiculous.custom of masks and patching, of which Dr. Bulwey has exhibited some curious specimens.
The wives of the citizers in this reign, seem to have bad their domestic sumptuary laws, and to have adopted the frugal maxims of their husband. There appears, from Hollar's Habits, to have been a much greater disparity JA point of dress betwixt thein and the ladies of quality, than betwixt the former and the wives of our present yeomanry,
INTERREGNUM. The gaieties we are mentioning, were clouded by the treasons, rebellion, and assassinations which followed the murder of the sovereign; it affected the habits of the body as well as the mind; all was, sable or demure; hypocrisy succeeded cruelty, and deception was the reigning fashion. “ Short hair, short beards, short cloaks, and Jong faces, frequently occur in the portraits of this period.”
The dress of OLIVER CROMWELL, as lord protector, 65.consisted of a laced holland shirt; a pair of breeches Joose upwards, and elose at the knees, with a doublet of the 4 D. 2.
Spanish fashion of uncut grey velvet; a pair of silk stock ings, and Spanish leather shoes, tjed with gold lace, the garters of the same, and golden buttons fastened the habit
. The shoulders were ornamented with a surcoat of purple velvet, reaching to the knees, laced with gold, all which were covered by a robe of purple velvet, lined with ermine, laced with cordings, with embossments of gold and purple." He is represented in the print of the Dissolution of the Long Parliament, in a white hat. His wife wore a velvet hoop, and plain cap, a broad plain handkerehief, with a narrow edge, ending in a point at the bosom; and a gova with broad open sleeves, with knots of laces at the sto macher, constituted her whole habit.
The broad seal of Charles II. in Sandford's Genealogical History, dated 1653, represents him in long hair and whiskers; he sometimes wore a large cravat; at other times a long falling band, with tassels, which, in many instances
, was imitated by the royalists; his ruffles rere long and wide; he often appeared in a short doublet, and short boots, with large tops; he also wore his hair with a lock on the right side much longer than the rest.
A beau of this time is described by Benlones, in his " Theophila,” published 1652, in the following manner : “ In his hat, the brim of which is extended horizontally, is a large feather: it inclines much to the right side, as if it were falling off his head. His hair is very long, bis rutiles are double, his doublet reaches no lower than the waistband of his breeches; his sword is enormous, and suspended to a belt, which comes over his right shoulder; his breeches are large, with puffs like small blown bladders, quite round the knees; his boots are very short, with fringed tops, which are near as ample in their dimensions as the brim of his hat." The same author informis us, that these beaus often “ wore patches."
“ Two prints, engraved by Hallar, furnish us with the resemblance of ladies in a simmer and winter habit, The first is without a cap, her hair combed like a wig, which na the crown of her head is nearly braided in a round knot, Her neck handkerelief is surrounded with a deep scalloped lace, fier cutts laced in a similar manner; the sleeves of her gown inuch slashed, through which her hven is conspicuous; a fan, not unlike those used at present, is in her hand, The lady in the winter babit is represented in a close black hood, and black mask, which just conceals her nose:
She wears a sable tippet, and holds a large muff of the same kind, which entirely hides her arms."
Eachard tells us," that we had a great plenty of religious face makers in the late zealous times." " Then it was, says he, “ that Godliness chiefly consisted in the management of the eye; and he that had the least pupil was the most righteous, because most easily concealed by the rolling white. Then it was that they would scarce let a round faced man go to heaven; but if he had but a little blood in his cheeks his condition was counted very dangerous; and it was almost an infallible sign of absolute reprobation." Nothing is more, certain than that black satin caps, tipped and edged with white, were then worn by some divines, to give an appearance of langour, and a mortification to the countenance.
It has been gravely asserted by some Presbyterian writers *, that the cloak is apostolical, as we read that St. Paul left his cloak at Troas.' But for this very reason, it may be coucluded that he did not constantly preach in it +.
CHARLES II. The private dress of this monarch consisted, instead of a doublet, of a long vest down to the inidleg, and above that a loose coat, the sword girt over the vest; straight Spanish breeches; and instead of shoes and stockings, a pair of buskins. His head was decorated with an enormous flowing black wig, in multifarious ringlets, which covered his shoulders ; his cravat was of beautiful point lace; and he wore a round hat, with a shallow crown.
The Monmouth, or military cock of the hat, was much worn in this reign, and continued a considerable time in fashion. The periwig, which had been long used in France, was introduced into England soon after the Resto ration. There is a tradition, that the large black wig which Dr. Richard Rawlinson bequeathed, among other things of much less consideration, to the Bodleian library, was worn by Charles II. It has been also asserted that Mr. Liston, the comedian, is decorated with one of this monarch's wigs, in the farce of Tom Thumb, at Covent Garden Theatre.
Tender consciences were greatly scandalized at the peruke, as equally indecent with long hair; and more culpable, because more unnatural. Many preacliers inveighed against it in their sermons, and cut their hair shorter, to express their abhorrence of the reigning mode....pir
Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, 4to. p. 89.
It was observed, that'a peruke procured many persons à respect, and even veneration, which they were strangers to before, and to which they had not the least claim from their personal merit. The judges, and physicians, who thoroughly understood this magic of the wig, gave it all the advantage of length as well as size.
The extravagant fondness of some men for this ornament is scarcely credible: “I have heard,” says Mr. 'Granger, “ of a country gentleman who employed a painter to place periwigs upon the heads of several of Vandyke's portraits.”
Nath. Vincent, D. D. chaplain in ordinary to the king, preached before him at Newmarket in a long periwig, and Holland sleeves, according to the then fashion for gentle sen; his majesty was so offended at this innovation, that he commanded the duke of Monmouth, chancellor to the university of Cambridge, to see the statutes concerning decency of apparel put in execution; which was done ac. cordingly.
The satin cap was no longer worn : the lacc ncckcloth became in fashion in this, and continued to be worn in the two following reigns: as were open sleeves, pantaloons, and shoulder knots. This was also the æra of shoe buckles: but such as affected plainness in their garb, continued for a dong time after to wear strings in their shoes.
The hair of the ladies iras curled and frizzled with the hicest art; sometimes a string of pearl, or an ornament of ribbon, was worn on the head; and in the latter part of this reign, hoods of various kinds were in fashion, " Patching and painting the face, than which nothing was more common in France, was also too common among the ladies in England. “ But what was much worse, they affected a mean betwixt dress and nakedness, which occasioned the publication of a book, entitled, • A just and seasonable Reprehension of naked Shoulders, with a Préface, by Richard Baxter." .: The count de Grammont informs us, “ that green stockings were worn by one of the greatest beauties of the English court.”
The dress of the principal citizens is exbibited in the portrait of Sir ROBERT CLAYTON,' lord mayor, 1680, in Drapers? Hall; or his statne in St. Thomas's Hospital; Sir OHN Moon's statue in Christ's Hspitals a fine print of SLINGSBY Bethel, Esq. (sheriff the same year jointly with the unfortunate alderman CORNISH;) is habited in a long velvet coat, with small buttons, and reaching below his knees, fonig square-toed shoes, with very small buckles,
the imstep leather up the front of his leg, the sleeves of his coat short, the edge embroidered, shirt sleeves hanging over long laced ruffles; his neckcloth broad, of point lace, and a large wig flowing over his shoulder : he is in his gown and gold chain.
JAMES II. There does not seem much variations in the dresses of this reign, except that the coats of the gentle. men were ornamented with gold lace down the seams; that
they wore high-heeled shoes; and that the fashion of high - laced pokes in the front of the head dresses of ladies, seemed to preval.
. WILLIAM HIL. and MARY II. The rigid and unaccom. modating mamers of William, did not allow him to submit to any extraordinary changes in dress, which was rather in the Dutch than any other stile; and the queen, in compliance with her consort's phlegmatic reserved disposition,
confined her habiliments within a compass suited to his - tempera..
The costume of the gentlemen was the coat cut straigbt before, reaching below the knee, laced in front, and mostly buttoned to the bottom, without pockets on the outside; the . cuffs were large, buttoned and laced, but the coat had no : collar. The vest also reached almost to the knee; it was
frequently fringed with gold or silver, and had frogs, or tasselled button holes. The breeches fitted close, and J'eached below the knee; the shirt was generally with laced ruffles; the cravat long, plain, or entirely of point lace; the shoes were square-toed, with high heels, and large - buckles; or boots worn high, and stiffened; the hat broad, and cocked on one side, with a gold button and Joop. But the greatest 'extravagance of this reign was the perake, which was so enormous, as almost to include the countenance. These were frosted with powder, and the beaus were profuse in the use of this article, for they powdered their great coals on the back and shoulders.
There were however degrees of distance respecting the wear of the wig: it would have been considered the height of luman insolence for the counsellor to have worn as large a wig as a judge, or an attorney as a counsellor. The clergy at length copied the example of their metropolitan; even the modest Tillotson became wiggified, and the fashion gradually descended to the humble curate.” Shammeree was wig maker in ordinary to the London beaus in this reign, who had for their undress the scratch, requiring neither frizzling nor buckling, but rectified instantly from any little chisorder by passing the comb through