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"The ladies of the court followed next to her, very handsome and weil shaped, and for the most part dressed in white; she was guarded on each side by the gentlemen pensioners, fifty in number, with gilt battle-axes; in the antichapel next the hall where we were, petitions were presented to her, and she received them most graciously, which occasioned the acclamation of : Long live queen Elizabeth. She answered it with, • I thank you, my good people. In the chapel was excellent music; as soon as it and the service was over, which scarce exceeded half an hour, the queen returned in the same state and order, and prepared to go to din. ner.”
With respect to the royal robes, when it is known that this monarch bad not less than three thousand in her wardrobe, to aim at particular description would be unnecessary, more especially as they are sufficiently exbibited in the many prints of this queen.
Hentzner, also informs us, " that the English in this reig, cut the hair close on the middle of the forehead, but suffered it to grow on each side.” The large jutting coats became out of fashion, and were supplied by a coat resembling a waistcoat. covered with a short cloak of black or crimson velvet, or cloth. The ruffs of gentlemen were moderate in size* ; but those of ladies were as extravagant as their farthingales.
The breeches, or to speak more properly, drawers, fell far short of the knees, and the defect was supplied with long hose, the tops of which were fastened under the drawers.
William earl of Pembroke was the first who wore knit svorsted stockings in England, in this reign. f
Edward tioned by Fox in his Acts and Monuments, that, when the lord chancellor went out to apprehend queen Catharine Parr, he spoke to the king on his knees. Lord Bacon says, that king James I. suffered his courtiers to omit it.
Some beaux about this time introduced long swords and high ruffs, which approached the royal standard. This roused the jealousy of the queen, who appointed officers to break every man's sword, and to clip all ruffs which were beyond a certain length.
+ “ It is generally understood,” says Mr. Strutt, « that stockings of silk were an article of dress unknown in this country before ihe middle of the sixteenth century; and a pair of long Spanish silk hose, at that period, was considered as a donative worthy of the acceptance of a mobarch, and accordingly was presented to king Edward V1.by Sir Thomas Gresham. This record, though it be indisputable in itself, does not by any means prove that silk stockings were not used in England prior to the reign of that prince, notwithstanding it seems to have been considered in that light by Howe, the continuator of Stow's Chronicle, who, at the same time assures us that Henry VIII, never wore any hose, but such as were made of cloth. Had he spoken in general terms, or confined his observations to the early part of king Henry's reign, I should have rea,
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Edward Vere, earl of Oxford, introduced embroidered gloves and perfumes, which he brought from Italy into Eng. land, and presented the queen with a pair of perfumed gloves; her portrait was painted with them upon lier barris. At this period was worn a hat of a singular form, which resembled a close stool pan with a broad brim.* Philip II. iu a former reign, sceins to wear one of these utensils upon his head, with a narrower brim than ordinary, and makes at least as grotesque an appearance as his countryman Don Qaixote with the barber's bason.t
The Rev. Mr. John More, of Norwich, one of the wor. thiest clergymen in the reign of Elizabeth, gave the best reason that could be given for wearing the longest and largest beard of any Englishman of his time, namely, “ that no act of his life might be unworthy of the gravity of his appear. ance."
dily agreed with him; but in the present case, he is certainly mistakes; stockings of silk were not only known to that monarch but worn by him; and several pairs were found in his wardrobes after his decease. I shall notice only ihe following articles of this kind, taken from an inventorv, in manuscript, preserved in the British Museum, (Harl. Lib. No. 1419, 1420): “ One pair of short hose, of black silk and gold woven together; one pair of hose of purple silk and Venice gold, woven like unto a cawi, and lined with blue silver sarsenet, edged with a pas:emain of purple silk and of gold, wrought at Millan ; one pair of hose of white silk and gold knit, bought of Christopher Millener; six pair of black silk hose, knit.ba
In the third year of the reign of Elizabeth, mistress Montague, the queen's silk woman, presented in her majesty a pair of black knit silk stockings, which pleased her so well that she would never wear any cloth hose afterwards. These stockings were made in England, and for that reason, as well as for the delicacy of the article itself, the qucen was desirous of encouraging this new species of manufacture by her own example. Soon alier, WILLIAM RIDER, then apprentice to Thomas Burdet, at the Bridge Foot, opposite the church of St. Magnus, seeing a pair of knit worsted stockings at an Italian merchant's, brought from Mantua, borrowed them; and, having made a pair like unto them, presented the same to the earl of Pembroke; which was the first pair of worsted stockings known to be knit in this country. Al the latter end of the reign of this queen, WILLIAM LEE, M.A. fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, invented the stocking frame. The company of frame-work knitters have commemorated the circumstance by having the machine as their armorial bearing, and the support. ers a man in a collegiate, habit, and a young woman in the dress of the time when the frame was invented.
“This indecent idea," says Mr. Granger, to whose History we are obliged for many of our notices," forcibly obtrudes itself; and I am usder a kind of necessity or using the comparison, as I know nothing else that in any degree resembles it. See the head of the Earl of Morton, by Houbraken, &c."
+ " See his head by Werix, or in Lucius's Sylloge Nummism elegang Argentinae, 1620, rol."
Sir William Dugdale, in his “ Origines,” observes “ It was ordered in the first year of this reign, that no fellow of Lincoln's Inn should wear any beard of above a fortnight's growth."
Respecting the ladies; the stays or boddice, were worn long waisted; Lady Hunsdon, the foremost of the ladies in the print of the procession to Hunsdon House, appears with a much longer waist than those of the ladies that follow her: she might possibly have beeo a leader of the fashion as well as of the procession.
In the year 1582, the luxury of the times having greatly prevailed among the people of all degrees, in their apparel, particularly apprentices, the lord mayor, and commoncouncil enacted, “That no apprentice whatsoever should presume, 1. To wear any apparel but what he receives from his master. 2. To wear no hat, nor any thing but a woollen cap, without any silk in or about the same. 3. To wear neither suffles, cuffs, loose collars, nor other thing than a ruff at the collar, and that only of a yard and half long. 4. To'wear no doublets but what are made of canvas, fustian, sackcloth, English leather, or woollen, without any gold, silver, or silk trimming. 5. To wear no other coloured cloth or kersey in hose or stockings, than white, blue, or russet. 6. To wear no other breeches but what shall be of the same stuffs as the doublets, and neither stitched, laced, or bordered. 7. To wear no other than a plain upper coat, of cloth or lea. aber, without pinking, stitching, edging, or silk about it. 3. To wear no other surtout than a cloth gown or cloak, lined or faced with cloth, cotton or baize, with a fixed round col. lar, without stitching, guarding, lace or silk. 9. To wear no pinps, slippers or shoes, hut of English leather, without being pinked, edged, or stitched: nor girdles, nor garters, other than of crowel, woollent, thread, or leather, without being garnished. 10. To wear no sword, dagger, or other weapon, but a knife; nor a ring, jewel of gold, nor silver, nor silk, in any part of his apparel, on pain of being punished at the discretion of the master for the first offence; to be publicly whipped at the hall of his company for a second offence; and to serve six months longer than specified in his indentures for a third offence." And it was further enacted, “ that no apprentice should frequent or go to any dancing, fencing, or musical schools: nor keep any chest,
press, or other place, for keeping of apparel or goods, but · in his master's house, under the penalties aforesaid."
We conclude this part of our essay by relating a short story from “ Camden's Remains," in which the propensity
of persons of low estate to imitate the fashion of their supe. riors is justly satirized : “ I will tell you how Sir Philip Cal. thorp purged Jobn Drakes, the shoemaker of Norwich, in the time of Henry the Eighth, of the proud humour which our people have to be of the gentleman's cut. This knight bought on a time as much fine French tawney cloth as should make him a gown, and sent it to his taylor's to be made.John Drakes, a shoemaker of that town, coming to the said taylor's, and seeing the knight's gown-cloth lying there, and liking it well, caused the taylor to buy for him as much of the same cloth, at the like price, to the same intent; and, further, he bad him make it in the same fashion that the knight would have his made of. Not long after, the knight coming to the taylor to take measure of his gown, he perceived the like gown.cloth lying there, and asked the taylor whose it was. It belongs,' quoth the tavlor,' to John Drakes, who will have it made in the scif-same fashion that your's is made of.' 'Well,' said the knight, ' in good time be it; I will have mine as full of cuts as thy sheers can make it.' It shall be done,' said the taylor. Whereupon, because the time drew near, he made haste to finish both their garments. John Drakes had no time to go to the taylor's till Christmas-day, for serving of his customers, when he had hoped to bare worn his gown; perceiving the same to be full of cuts, he began to swear at the taylor for making his gown after that sort. I have done nothing,' quoth the taylor, but what you bad me; for, as Sir Philip Calthrop's gown is, eren so have I made your's.' • By my hatchet,' quoth John Drakes, "I will never wear a gentleman's fashion again."
Previously to the year 1599, “ Master John Tyre, dwelling near Shoreditch church, was the first Englisbinan that devised and attained the perfection of making all manner of tufted taffeties, cloth of tissue, wrought velvets, branched sattins, and all other kinde of curigus silk stuffs."
In this reign also pins were first manufactured in this country, which in time excelled ail others; the profit gained by foreigners in this article only, before the invention took place, amounted to the annual sum of 60,0001.; women of the mid. dling classes of life used the points of thorns instead of pins, The making of Spanish needles was taught in England by Elias Crowse: in queen Mary's reign a negro was the only manufacturer; he kept a shop in Cheapside, but would im. part the secret to no one.
JAMES I. When this monarch came to the crown, there was in the wardrobe in the Tower, a great variety of dresses belonging to our ancient kings, which, to the regret of an,
tiquaries, were soon given inway and dispersed. “ Such a collection, "says Grang er, i must have been of much greater use to the studious in venerable antiquity than a review of the 'ragged regiment' in Westminster Abbey." *
The ordinary dress of this monarch consisted of a silk doublet, over which was a rich velvet short cloak, lined with satin; the doublet was broad at the shoulder and tapering at the waist; the sleeves were also of silk, at the wrists of which were pointed lace ruffles, turned over. The breeches were trunked, to which were fastened silk hose; the knees had puffed silk garters, and shoes and knees were ornamented with roses. The hat was round and broad, with a moderate crown, much in the modern shape, decorated with an ostrich feather. It is well known that James used to hunt in a ruff and trowsers.
Henry Vere, the gallant earl of Oxford, was the first no. bleman that appeared at court in this reign with a hat and white feather. The long love lock seems to have been first in fashion among the beaus, who sometimes stuck Mowers in their ears. William earl of Pembroke, a man far from an effeminate character, is represented with ear-rings.
Wrought night caps were in use in the reigos of Elia zabeth, James, and Charles I. Privy-counsellors and physicians wore them embroidered with gold and silk; thosc worn by the clergy were only black and white.
The beard was left in much the same state as it was found on James's accession to the throne.
The cloak, a dress of great antiquity, was more worn in this, than in any of the preceding reigns. It continued to be in fashion after the restoration of Charles II. The cloak, worn from time immemorial by the Spaniards, was in use among the Romans. Horace informis us that Lucullus had more cloaks than he ever had dishes at his table; they were said to have amounted to five thousand.
Sir Thomas Overbury, in his “ Character of a Country Gentleman,” says, the ordinary country gentleman wore yellow stockings.
The principal citizens at this period were only distin. guished from the courtiers by their magisterial habiliments, and round Hat caps; the ordinary dress was the broad velvet or felt bat, the slashed doublet, and short cloak, the ruff, and sometimes the plain collar.
* Tattered effigies of our kings, so called, formerly dressed in royal tobes, for funeral processions, after which they werç left at the Abbey, as a customary perquisite,