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From the Foot of London Bridge, down Tooley Street, to
Horslydown and Bermondsey ; return through Ber. mondsey Street to the Maze; and, by St. Thomas's Hospital, to High Strect; thence through Sl. Saviour's Churchyard to Montague Close, Bankside, Borough Market, and Blackman Street, to the Obelisk, St, George's Fields.
W E have in several preceding parts of this work plainly
VV shewn that the Borough of Southwark was made an essential part of the city of London, though lying in the county of Surrey, with a jurisdiction as antient as the first of king Edward III. confirmed, strengthened, enlarged, and fully established by the late grant of king Edward VI. Ne. vertheless, we find that the magistracy of the city of London have adopted this ward only as a sine cure for the senior alderman for the time being; and neglected the more essential interest of the inhabitants of said ward; and the justices of the county of Surrey have not failed to take the advantage of their indifference and neglect of their jurisdiction within the borough of Southwark, and now have so far encroached upon the chartered rights and privileges of the city of London, confirmed by parliament, as to contend with the ci. tizens for their jurisdiction within the said borough; eren so far as to take upon them, without interruption, to exercise the power of a justice of the peace within the said borough, and to appoint constables, to licence victuallers, and to exercise other powers, as justices of the peace for the county of Surrey in the borough of Southwark, to the great inconvenience and hardship of the inhabitants, who are entitled to the freedom and privileges of the city of Lon. don ; in an equal degree to any of their fellow citizens whose more fortunate situations in the heart of the city, have hitherto rendered their riglits undisputed.
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But in opposition to the royal grants made to the city of London in behalf of the Borough of Southwark, the county magistrates have illegally assumed, and preserve an authority to themselves of appointing constables, licensing victuallers, and exercising other powers, as justices of the peace for Surrey:
Leaving this matter in its present neglected, and repre. hensible state of incroachment by foreigners, we proceed to state that, of right, this börough is under the jurisdiction and protection of the city of London, without the INTERMEDDLING OF ANY SHERIFF, OR OTHER OFFICER WHATEver; agreeably to the charter of Edward VI.*, and by the corporation, it was and is still denominated .. 'BRIDGE WARD WITHQUT.
According to modern arrangements, this ward-is, how. ever, only nominal; for though it is governed by an alderman, yet it does not send any members to the court of common council. The senior alderman of London, who is termed FATHER OF THE CITY, is therefore removed to this ward as an Honourable sinecute, which releases him from the fatigues usually incurred in the other wards of the city. : * Vel. V, p. 130. .
Some authors suppose Southwark to have been the first place used for trade by the Romans in this island, and that London rose out of it many years after. Be this as it may, it is however certain, that ever since London began to flourish, Southwark has always been considered as one of its appendages, and connected with it in commerce.
The first mention we find of Southwark in history is, in the reign of Edward the Confessor, about the year 1053; at which time it appears to have been a corporation governed by a bailiff, and continued in that state till the year 1327, when the city of London obtained a grant of it from the crown, and the mayor was to appoint all its officers, Some few years after the inhabitants recovered their former privileges, and kept possession of them till the reign of Edward VI. when the crown made a second grant of it to the city of London, for a valuable consideration, as before related. - That part of the district which ought to be subject to the city of London, is called THE BOROUGH LIBERTY; the other division is called the THE CLINK, and belongs to the bishop of Winchester, who appoints a steward and bailiff, under whom that portion of the Borough is governed.
Southwark comprehends the parishes of St. Olave, St. Saviour, St. John, St. Thomas, and St. George; which, together with the adjacent parishes, compose that part of the district within the bill of mortality, situate south of the river Thames, in the bundreds of Kingston and Brixton, and county of Surrey.
The Borough extends southward from London Bridge to Newington; to the south-west, almost to Lambeth; and to Rotherhithe in the east. The principal streets in it are, the Borough, or High Street, Blackman Street, Long Lane, Kent Street, Tooley, or St. Olave's Street, and Bermondsey, corruptly called Barnaby Street.
The pecaliar traffic is in hops. Mr. Hasted, in bis His. tory of Canterbury, observes, that “ the plantation of hops in the castern division of Kent, pays in general a fourth
part nearly of the produce of the whole kingdom to the hop duty. In the circuit of two miles and an half round Canterbury, it is computed there are between two and three thousand acres of hop ground. The hops growing here are of a very fine rich quality, and if well managed are of a good colour; they are highly esteemed by the London brewers for their great strength; doing more execution in the copper than those of any other district. The returu of money from London, at the latter end of the year, upon the hops, is so great, that it is felt by all ranks of people, and diffuses a universal' plenty and prosperity.”
The Borough, or High Street, reaches from the south end of London Bridge to St. Margaret's Hill. It is a long spacious street, well built and inhabited. One side of it is principally occupied by butchers, and the other with bopfactors and other considerable tradesmen; on which side also are several large inns for the accommodation of carriages and passengers to and from the various parts of the counties of Surrey and Kent. From St. Margaret's Hill the high street takes the name of Blackman Street, till it reaches Newington Causeway..
We commence our survey at St. Olave's, corruptedly Tooley Street. This street is long, but in some parts parrow, and is in general exceedingly dirty, owing to the great number of carts continually passing with goods from the different wharfs on the south side of the river Thames.
Before we enter Tooley Street, looking northward over thc bridge, a grand entrance to the city presents itself. The fine steeple of St, Magnus, the Monument, the rise of Fish Street Hill, Fishmongers Hall, St. Michael, Crooked Lane, and a number of spires and towers in the back ground, form an assemblage very striking and magnificent. , At a small distance from London Bridge, on the north side of this street, stands the parish church of St. Olave, vulgarly denominated St. Tooley, whence the street takes its preseat name.