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with the people they had formerly opposed. Be this as it may, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, Butcher Row, which had, for the purpose I have specified (the convenience of foreign butchers), been, in the twenty-first of Edward the First, granted to Walter le Barbur, took the form of an established market; in process of time, other shops, besides butchers, fisbmongers, and green-grocers, were opened. Many, I presume, can remember a scalemaker's, tinman's *, fine-drawer's, Betty's chop-house, cheesemonger's, grocer's, &c.; the houses of the whole stack 'were originally of wood, one story hanging over the other; and indeed the style of building, ornaments, &c. strongly indicated the date of its erection.”


They seem of about the age of Edward the Sixth, as we may judge from many of the same date still extant, and probably were ornamented with the fleur de lis and coronets, in compliment to the count Beaumont, of which there were two families: the first descended from Roger de

Bellamont of the Norman race, earl of Warwick; the o: her viscounts Borna Beaumont, still older; one of whom, when a single mansion, was its in

alej bitant, at the time the marquis of Rosny arrived in England. It ap[?] 39 pears from Sully's Memoirs (pages 91 and infra), that the marquis was

appointed ambassador from the king of France (Henry IV.), 1603, to congratulate the king (James I.) upon his accession to the English crown. His account of this embassy is curious. He states, among other particulars that the beginning of June he set out for Calais, with a retinue of upwards of two hundred gentlemen ; that he had express orders from the king his master that he should appear in mourning with all his train at his first audience; but was afterwards told, that this af. fectation of sorrow, for the death of queen Elizabeth, would disoblige that monarch, who would, doubtless, look upon it as a reproach to him for not having put on mourning on the same melancholy occasion. For zbe more solemn reception of this and other ambassadors, it also appears, that at this period a new office was instituted, with a salary of two hundred a year, namely, that of Master of the Ceremonies; the first of whom was Sir Lewis Lewkenor, whose debut in this situation was, accompanied by count Beaumont, the meeting M. Rosny at Dover.

It is further hinted, in the work to which I have alluded, that Sir Lewis had either exhausted his stock of politeness at his reception of the ambassador, or was alarmed at the numerous train of his attendants, for he gives him occasion to complain of his rudeness and parsimony with respect to horses and carriages, even before he set out for London,

and 2

The pavement of this quarter, as well as of other parts of Westminster, seems to have been in a deplorable state, so lately as 1762, when an act for new paving this city and its liberties was passed. Till that time, it appears every inhabitant, before his house, did what was right in his own eyes; the consequence of which was, that some doors were superbly paved, some indifferently, some very badly, and

and there is no question but that there were cogent reasons for his disgust, as we find that he was obliged to procure a conveyance in the car. riage of count Beaumont, while his retinue were almost suffered to take the chance of the road; that is, to make the best bargain they could with the Kentish innkeepers, from whom the Dover landlord, and those others who, in the year 1762, furnished accommodation for the duke de Nivernois and his suite, seem to have been the legitimate descendants.

Of the neglect of the Master of the Céremonies, or rather the court, with respect to the marquis of Rosny, there is a striking instance, in suffering him to reside, even for a night, in the house which we are now considering : at the same time his mode of treating it would have done honour to the school of Chesterfield. He states, without seeming of fended, “ As to myself, I sup'd and lay at Beaumont's, and din'd there the next day, for so short a time had not been sufficient to procure and prepare me lodgings until the palace of Arundel, which was destin'd for me, could be got ready: but this greatly embarras'd my retinue, which could not all be lodg'd at Beaumont's house, and, therefore, apartments were sought in the neighbourhood."

To any one who remembers the structure of these old houses, it will appear difficult to conceive how the ambassador himself, the represene tative of Henry the Great, could, in those days of state and splendor, be, even for a short period, accommodated in this place. Its internal (as was actually the case, for I observed the demolition of the whole pile) consisted of small incommodious rooms, four, nạy six, or eight, upon a floor, a well stair-case running up the middle in the rudest stile, ughted by a sky-light which only diffused a “ darkness visible over the upper stories, while the lower were, as Dr. Johnson says, totally obumbrated." The ceilings of these apartments were low, transversed by large unwrought beams in different directions, and lighted, if that phrase could with propriety be applied, by small casement windows : yer here we find that Gallic complaisance induced the marquis to reside without murmuring; though I believe before his settlement in Arundel Palace, as he terms it, he removed to Crosby House, in Bishopsgate Street; though how long he continued there is uncertain.


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others totally neglected, according to the wealth, avarice, or caprice of the inhabitants. ' And a proof of the filth and nastiness which prevailed, is detailed in the London Chronicle of that time. Speaking of the plan for new pavement; the writer exclaims, “ all sorts of dirt, and ashes, oyster-shells, and the offals of dead poultry, and other animals, will no longer be suffered to be thrown into the streets; but must be kept until the dustman comes; nor will the annoyances erected by coachmakers be permitted ; and when a house is pulled down, the rubbish must be car. ried to a proper place, and not left in the streets. Can we with any degree of justice commend our magnificent buildings, without taking shame to ourselves for the bad condition of our streets."*

Returning through the archway of the new buildings, we come to LITTLE SHIRE LANE, and into New COURT, where there is an Independent Meeting Ilouse, which had for its pastor Mr. DANIEL BURGESS, Mr. Thomas Bradbury, and Mr. RICHARD Winter, all eminent ministers. +


* Mr. Stratfora's Collections.

+ The first of these was the son of a clergyman at Collinburn Ducis, in the county of Wilts, where he was born in 1645. At the Restoration he became a Non-conformist, without being a Puritan ; for he was as facerious as his sovereign. Preaching concerning Job's “ robe of righteousness:" “11,” says he, “any of you would have a suit for a twelvemonth, let him repair to Monmouth Street ; if for his life time, let him apply to the court of Chancery; and, if for all eternity, let him put on righteousness." Observing but a small congregation one day at his sermon, he suddenly called out “ Fire! Fire !” The affrighted congregation exclaimed, “ Where! Where?« In Hell; to burn such wretches as regard not the glad tidings of the Gospel!” A mischievous wag having trained a magpie for the purpose, let it loose in Mr. Burgess's meeting; when the creature exclaiming “ What the p-x would you be at?" was the occasion of a very popular song at that period. . His chapel was burnt by Sacheverel’s mob, in the reign of queen Anne. His successor, Mr. BRADBURY, whose meeting honse in Nevil's Court, Fetter Lane, was also lawlessly destroyed, gained universal esteem as a man and a minister. His sermon of “the Ass and the Serpent," had very nearly involved him in great trouble, Mr. Noble informes us, that “Mr. Granger saw a friendly letter from archbishop


Hence cressing Carey Street, the avenue of Searle Street, leads to

LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS. This is allowed to be the largest, and one of the most beautiful squares in London, if not in Europe. It formerly was denominated Ficket's Fields, and Whetstone's Park, being tben a dangerous place, on account of robberies ; but seems to have been partially covered with buildings in 1580, when queen Elizabeth issued a proclamation, forbidding the laying of new foundations of houses about London. Probably the owners of these fields had acted in opposition to the royal command; for we find that the privy council sent a mandate, dated September 4, 1612, to certain justices of the peace for the county of Middlesex, in which it is stated “ to be his majesty's express pleasure and commandment, that the erection of new buildings in Lincoln's Inn Fields should be restrained; and requiring the said justices to apprehend and commit to gaol any who should be found so offending, or to take sureties of him' or them to appear before the privy council to answer the charges.” This measure was adopted at the request of the benchers and students of Lincoln's Inn,

Wake to hiin, which was part of a correspondence between the metropolitan of all England, and the patriarch of Dissenters of the same kingdom. In private Mr. Bradbury was the social, pleasant companion, and more famed for his mirth, than long harangues. He had a very strong voice, could sing excellently well; and was supposed to sing “ The roast Beef of Old England,” better than any other man. He died September 9, 1759, aged eighty-six. Such was “brave old Tom Bradbury, a good preacher, and a facerious companion.” It is not the cheerful man that disturbs the state, nor often the rich; but the sour, disappointed, needy man. Bradbury was happy in his temper, rich in the gifts of fortune, and possessed the esteem of a wide circle of friends.—Noble's Continuation of Granger. The late Mr. RICHARD WINTER, whose brother, John, had married one of Mr. Bradbury's daughters, assisted him in the ministry at New Court; and after his death, took the whole.charge of the flock, where he continued sole mi. nister till his decease, about four years since, at a very advanced age; highly respected, and sincerely lamented by his congregation and the body of the Dissenters. VOL. IV. No. 83.


However, within six years, à contrary mode of pro. ceeding was adopted; the government revoked its order, and, in 1618, a commission from James I. was entrusted to the care of lord chancellor Bacon, the earls of Worcester, Pembroke, Arundel, and other noblemen and gentry, for the better disposition of these grounds. The commission alledges, “ that more public works, near and about the city of London, had been undertaken in the sixteen years of that reign, than in ages heretofore: and that the grounds called Lincoln's Inn Fields were much planted round with dwellings and lodgings of noblemen and gentlemen of qualitie: but at the same time it was so deformed by cottages and mean buildings, incroachments on the fields, and nuisances to the neighbourhood. The commissioners were therefore directed to reform those grievances; and, according to their discretion, to frame and reduce those fields both for sweetness, uniformitie, and comeliness, into such walkes, partitions, or other plottes, and in such sorte, manner, and forme, both for publique health and pleasure, as by the said Inigo Jones (recited in the commission) is or shall be accordingly drawn, by way of map.”

Thus authorized, Mr. Jones drew the ground-plot; it was intended to have been built all in the same stile; but the taste of the projectors not according with the great genius and abilities of the architect, the work was unaccomplished. A specimen of the whole is exhibited in the centre house on the west side, formerly inhabited by the earls of Lindsey, and their descendants, the dukes of Ancaster, and now divided into two dwellings, which pos. sesses that simple grandeur for which the designs of Inigo Jones have been so much celebrated. The four sides of this vast square were thus namedthe north, called Newman's Row; the west, Arch Row; the south, Portugal Row; and the east, Lincoln's Inn Wall.

In the eighth year of the reign of George II. an act was passed for the better regulation of this plot, which is there stated to have been formerly called Cup and Purse Field.

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