Page images





Vulg. signifies LATIN VULGATE. (ap. S. Hieron. i. pp. 1694-1710. ed. Bened. Paris. 1693.)


Ver. 2. A. V. "all things that;" Vulg. " S. John xxi. 25, where oσa is used for å.

quæcunque vidit." See



6. Barileiav. (See also V. 10. where A. has Bariλeíav.) Vulg. num et sacerdotes." The abstract word, “a Kingdom,” shews that they are not literal Kings reigning only for a time, (see Harmony, § 50. ver. 4-6,) but a heavenly Kingdom,— -a Church. This is also a catchword connecting this passage with Exod. xix. 6.

8. "THE Alpha," &c. See below, xxi. 6. xxii. 13. These articles have a restrictive sense, shewing that Christ is the only Author and Finisher of all things. The word God is added to Lord in the best MSS., A. B. C., and is a clear assertion of the Divinity of Christ.

14. A. V. "white like wool, as white as snow;" but Vulg. (with the best MSS.)" candidi tanquam lana alba et tanquam nix.”


16. "proceedeth," present tense; A. V. “ went," in the past tense; Orig. ¿kπopevoμévn. The present tense is preferable in this and numerous other similar passages of the Apocalypse, where A. V. has the past. The objects described are eternal, and their actions continuous. See note to chap. iv. 2 and 5.

19. Vulg. "Scribe ergo:" so our in the best MSS.


7. Vulg. "in Paradiso Dei mei:" so pov in some of the best MSS. 9. Bλaopnuíav K, all the best MSS.: so Vulg. "et blasphemaris ab."

10. A. V. " behold." Some of the best MSS. add on, now, preannouncing immediate persecution.

20. A. V. " that woman." Griesbach and Scholz have admitted σov (Tηv yvvaîká σov) from the best MSS. into the text.

21. A. V. " she repented not." The best MSS. have où békei μetavonσai, and Vulg. "non vult pœnitere:" a strong text for the freedom of the human will, against necessitarian doctrines.


3. A. V. "hold fast;" but the Orig. is ripe, which A. V. renders "keep" in ten other places.

14. A. V. " of the Laodiceans;" but the best MSS. have ev Aaodikeia, and the address in all cases is to the Angel of the Church in the City.

17. A. V. "thou art wretched;" but the best MSS. have, much more emphatically, 'O raλaitwpòs, 'O èλecivòs, the wretched one, shewing the misery of pride and impenitence.


2. A. V. "one sat,” in the past tense: so ver. 3, "he that sat was :” so ver. 4, " about the throne were," and "they had on their heads crowns of gold :" so ver. 5, “ proceeded," and "there were seven lamps :" and ver. 6, "there was a sea:" and ver. 7," the first beast was like,” and "the fourth beast was like:" so ver. 8, "the four beasts had each,” and they were full of eyes.”

[ocr errors]

But in none of these passages does the Original use the past tense; in all, the present is either expressed or understood. This chapter represents the everlasting glory of God, and the perpetual adoration of Heaven. Hence the present tense is restored in the Harmony. 5. A. V. "before the throne."

A. V. "proceeded;" but the Orig. has éкπорevovτaι, which is far more expressive. See above, iv. 2. The reader will find that the past tense of A. V. has been changed into the present in numerous places of this Harmony.

6. A. V. “four beasts :" and so in verses 7, 8, 9, and V. 8, and other places, the word (@ov is rendered beast. The translation, Living Creature, is preferable on many accounts :—1. it is more accurate; 2. it

prevents the possibility of confusion between these heavenly animals and the Beasts in chap. xiii; 3. it identifies these living Creatures with the living Creatures in Ezekiel i. 20. x. 15. 17. 20. The Vulg. rightly renders them “animalia."

A remark may be introduced here concerning the figures of these four Living Creatures.

The first was like a Lion (iv. 7.); the second like a Calf, or, rather, an Ox*; the third had a face like a Man; the fourth like a flying Eagle.

The Tabernacle of the Israelites-the figure of the Universal Church -was quadrangular.

Encamped on the East side were three tribes, the chief being that of Judah, with the ensign of a Lion †.

On the West were three other tribes, the chief being Ephraim, with the ensign of an Ox.

On the South were three other tribes, the chief being Reuben, with the ensign of a Man.

On the North were three other tribes, the chief being Dan, with the ensign of an Eagle.

Thus these four Emblems typify the quadriform unity and completeness of the whole Church looking to the four Cardinal points of heaven, and to be diffused in the four quarters of the Earth. Hence we see

how aptly they represent the GOSPEL, to be borne as a Standard by the spiritual Israel-the Christian Church-to the four corners of the World.

The reader will peruse with pleasure the comment of Irenæus. (iii. 11.) "Since there are four quarters of the globe, and four cardinal Winds, and the Church is diffused over the whole world; and since the GOSPEL is the pillar and ground of the Church, and is the breath of life, therefore it may well have four columns of Winds breathing life and immortality to all. Christ, the Word, by Whom all things were made, Who sitteth upon the Cherubim and upholdeth all things, having revealed Himself to men, gave us the fourfold GOSPEL held together by One Spirit. . . . And the Figures of the Cherubim are significant of the offices of Christ. The first Living Creature is like a Lion, and characterizes His Royal dignity; the second, a Calf, and intimates His Hierarchichal; the third, a Man, and designates His Incarnation; the fourth, an Eagle, declares the winged illapses of His grace.”

10. A. V. “fall," "worship," "cast." The majority of MSS. have these verbs in the future tense, πεσοῦνται, προσκυνήσουσι, βαλοῦσι.

* 66

Móoxos Hellenistis Bos est." Mede's Works, p. 439.

† See the authorities in Mede's Works, book iii. p. 437, Com. Apoc. Pars I.

[ocr errors]

11. A. V." to receive glory, and honour, and power." The Original has the articles, which intimate that Thine, O Lord, is the glory," &c., i. e. it belongs to Thee only. See here, ch. v. 13, note.

A. V. " for thy pleasure they are." The MSS. have dià tò Oéλŋμa σoû, per voluntatem tuam.


1. A. V. "sealed with seven seals." The original has κaTeσ payoμévov, closely sealed up.

[ocr errors]

3. A. V. " no man in heaven nor in earth."

5. A. V. " to open the book, and to loose the seven seals."

7. A. V. " he came and took." The Orig. has eïλŋpe, and Vulg. accepit."

8. A. V. "when he had taken the book."

9. A. V. "they sung." The Orig. has adovσi.

A. V. " to take the book."

[ocr errors]

10. A. V. 'hast made us kings and priests." The Alexandrine MS. has here Baoiλeíav, (see above, i. 6.) and the Vulg. has “ fecisti nos regnum," a Kingdom.

A. V. " and we shall reign." The third person ("they reign") has the preponderance of MSS. in its favour; it intimates that the redemption effected by Christ is for "every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation," i. e. is universal.

11. A. V." the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand." The Original has pvpiádes pvpiádov, ten thousands of ten thousands,-myriads of myriads.

12. A. V. "to receive power." The best MSS. have the article here. See next note.

13. " Blessing, and honour," &c. All these substantives have the article in the Original, intimating (as in the Doxology of the Lord's Prayer) that the Blessing, &c. is restrained to those to whom it is ascribed, i. e. that to God alone and to the Lamb is to be ascribed divine honour, &c., and to no one else. See above, ch. iv. 11, note; and below, ch. vii. 12.


1. A. V. "one of the seals;" Vulg. "unum de septem sigillis :" so ETTά in the best MSS.


2. The order of the words in the Original is ππоя λeνкòs, a Horse, white so ver. 4, iππоs πʊрρòs, where A. V. renders it "a horse that was red:" so ver. 5, îñños μéλas, which, however, A. V. translates “ black horse" so ver. 8, ππоs xλwpòs, "a pale horse." The Vulg.


follows this order of the Original, which has an advantage over the English translation.

The animal in each case is similar, a horse: so far Satan counterfeits Christ; but the colours of the horses of Satan are different, and all are opposed to the unchanging colour of the horse of Christ.

A. V. “conquering, and to conquer." VIKńon, shewing the intention of Christ; vinceret."

The Original is vɩkôv, kaì ïva

hence Vulg. has " vincens, ut

3. A. V. "had opened :" and so in ver. 5, 6, 7. 9. 12, and viii. 1; but in all, the Original has voiέe, he opened.

6. A. V. " and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine."

8. The Original is ἐν θανάτῳ καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν θηρίων τῆς γῆς: Α.V. "with the Beasts."

9. A. V. "which they held." Cp. xii. 17. xix. 10.

10. A. V. "Holy and true."


11. A. V. “ And white robes" (plural) “ were given unto every one of them.” The best MSS. read καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς ἑκάστῳ στολὴ λευκή, i.e. the same white robe of Christ's righteousness was given to each.

12. A. V. “the moon became as blood." σeλývn öλn is the reading of the best MSS.: so Vulg. has “luna tota."

15. πâs éλeú¤epos wâs is omitted by many MSS. and Versions; and Vulg. has "omnis servus et liber." The meaning seems to be,-Every one who boasteth himself free, and yet is the servant of corruption. (2 Pet. ii. 19.)

17. A. V. " who shall be able to stand ?" The MSS. read ris δύναται σταθῆναι ;


1. A. V. "standing on the four corners." In xx. 8, A. V. has "four quarters."

2. A. V. "ascending from the East." The Orig. has ἀνατολῆς τοῦ Míov: Vulg. "ab ortu Solis." Cf. xvi. 12.

4. A. V. " of all the tribes." The Original is ek táoŋs puλñs, every tribe; Vulg. "ex omni tribu," which is not true of the literal Israel, for two tribes, Dan and Ephraim, are omitted, and shows that these tribes are to be understood spiritually, i. e. of the Christian Israel.

10. A. V. " and cried."

12. A. V. "Blessing," &c. These substantives have the article in the Original as above, ch. v. 13.

13. A. V." What are these ?"


14. A. V. "These are they which came out of great tribulation." 17. A. V. " all tears." The Orig. has πâv dáκρvov, and Vulg. " omnem lacrymam." See xxi. 4.

« PreviousContinue »