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TIAN ROME as the badge and ensign of the Empire; whether by divine command in a supernatural vision * to Constantine, we do not presume to say.

The Engraving here annexed, representing the national

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*The reader will remember the remarkable words of Eusebius on this subject.

Euseb. Vit. Const. ii. 28. Αμφὶ μεσημβρινὰς ἡλίου ὥρας ἤδη τῆς ἡμέρας ἀποκλινούσης αὐτοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς ἰδεῖν ἔφη (Κωνσταντῖνος ἐν αὐτῷ οὐρανῷ ὑπερκείμενον τοῦ ἡλίου σταυροῦ τροπαῖον ἐκ φωτὸς συνιστάμενον γραφήν τε αὐτῷ συνῆφθαι λέγουσαν ΤΟΥΤΩΙ ΝΙΚΑ. Cap. 29. καὶ δὴ διαπορεῖν πρὸς ἑαυτὸν ἔλεγε τί ποτε εἴη τὸ φάσμα, ἐνθυμουμένῳ δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ἐπὶ πολὺ λογιζομένῳ νὺξ ἐπῄει καταλαβοῦσα, ἐνταῦθα δὴ ὑπνοῦντι αὐτῷ τὸν Χριστὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ σὺν τῷ φανέντι κατ ̓ οὐρανὸν σημείῳ ὀφθῆναί τε καὶ παρακελεύσασθαι, μίμημα ποιησάμενον τοῦ κατ ̓ οὐρανὸν σημείου τούτῳ πρὸς τὰς τῶν πολεμίων συμβολὰς ἀλεξήματι χρῆσθαι.

For the Description of the LABARUM, see capp. 30, 31. ὑψηλὸν δόρυ χρυσῷ κατημφιεσμένον, κέρας εἶχεν ἐγκάρσιον, σταυροῦ σχήματι πεποιημένον· ἄνω δὲ πρὸς ἀκρῷ τοῦ παντὸς στέφανος ἐκ λίθων πολυτελῶν καὶ χρυσοῦ συμπεπλεγμένος κατεστήρικτο, καθ ̓ οὗ τῆς σωτηρίου ἐπηγορίας τὸ σύμβολον, δύο στοιχεῖα τὸ Χριστοῦ παραδηλοῦντα ὄνομα διὰ τῶν πρώτων ὑπεσήμαινον χαρακτήρων χιαζομένου τοῦ ρ κατὰ τὸ μεσαίτατον . . . Cp. Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. i. 3. Rufn. i. 9. Lactant. de morte Persecut. c. xliv. Nicephor. H. E. vii. 37.Ant. Pag. on Euseb. de Vit. Const. i. 28, calculates that Constantine saw this Vision on vii. Kal. Novemb. A. D. CCCXII. For more recent authorities see Baron. Annal. A. D. 312. Suicer Λαβαρόν, and Du Cange. Gibbon, chap. xx. Introduction to Translation of Fleury's Eccl. Hist. Oxf. 1842. p. cxxxiii-cxliii. Gieseler Eccl. Hist. § 55.

† Cp. M. A. Causeus de Signis Militaribus, Thes. Rom. Græv. x. p. 1529. [In exercitu

Some of the ancient Fathers, considering that Antichrist would endeavour to personate Christ, supposed that he would assume a symbol resembling that of Christ, and that the symbol so assumed would be the xápayua, or mark described by St. John *.

In exercitu Romano plura erant vexilla, LABARUM autem non nisi unum, velum habens ex purpura, auro, gemmisque circumtextum, Imperatoribus solitum præferri, in quo Constantinus characterem hieroglyphicum, NOMEN DOMINI NOSTRI JESU CHRISTI significantem, inscribi jussit, in memoriam ejus signi eidem bellum contra Maxentium moventi in colo conspecti cum his verbis: ΕΝ ΤΟΥΤΩΙ ΝΙΚΑ. IN HOC VINCE. Euseb. in Vita Constant. lib. 1.

cap. 24.

аже

Lipsius de Cruce, p. 75. Hodie Constantinopoli sunt columnæ a Constantino, ut putatur, in quarum basibus clypei cum his notis.- Constantine was also represented in marble with the Cross in his hand. His soldiers bore the Cross on their helmets and shields. See the authorities in Lipsius, p. 73–75, where the subject is illustrated by engravings of coins. ibid. p. 95. Julian Misopogon. ἡμεῖς ἐδιδάχθημεν ἀρχὰς ὀνομάτων εἶναι τὰ γράμματα δηλοῦν δὲ θέλειν τὸ μὲν Χ Χριστὸν, τὸ δὲ Κ Κων. σταντῖνον. Julian endeavoured to remove the name of Christ from the Labarum; "Frustrà,” says Lipsius, "et vicit NOMEN, quod æternùm vicit et vincet."

*Thus Auctor ap. Augustin. iii. p. 3136. in loc :

See also,

Ut nemo possit mercari nisi qui habet nomen aut notam Bestiæ, aut numerum nominis ejus. Qui habet intellectum computet numerum Bestiæ, numerus enim Hominis est.] Id est, Filii Hominis Christi, cujus nomen in hæreticis sibi fecit Bestia. Numerus ejus est sexcenti sedecim; quem faciamus numerum secundum Græcos maxime, quia ad Asiam scribit Et ego, inquit, (Apoc. i. 11.) A et Q. Quæ notæ solutæ numerus est, redacta autem in MONOGRAMMUM et notam faciunt et numerum et nomen. Hoc Signum CHRISTI intelligitur, et Ipsius ostenditur similitudo, quam in veritate colit Ecclesia. Cui se similem facit hæreticorum adversitas, qui cum Christum spiritualiter persequuntur de SIGNO CRUCIS Christi gloriari videntur.

Bede in cap. xiv. 1. Ostendit quæ sit imitatio notæ in fronte corporis bestiæ dum Deum et Christum scriptos dicit in frontibus Ecclesiæ.

Thus also Primasius in Apoc. Bibl. P. Max. x. p. 320 :—

Seduxit eos ut imaginem bestia faciant.] Hæc simulatio eousque prævaluit ut terreni seducti propter signa Bestiæ ipsi Bestiæ miserabili assensu faventes mutuâ se devotione cohortentur bestiæ in cordis phan

We have seen what was the MARK or xápayμa of Imperial Christian Rome; two questions now arise:

1. What is the xápayμa of PAPAL ROME?

2. Does it correspond to St. John's description? We derive our knowledge of the Imperial xápayua from coins and other public documents, as specified above. Let us resort to similar evidence for the Papal Mark.

The Labarum of Imperial Christian Rome is not borne by

tasmate imaginem fabricare, sicut qui jam non æstiment dubitandum quod vere ipse sit Christus, cum sit in Antichristo diabolus.

Ne quis posset mercari aut vendere nisi habens notam nominis Bestiæ, etc.] In hâc mercandi et vendendi notione docuit, quod sicut in bono symbolum tradit Ecclesia, profuturum nostræ saluti ita et illi in malo tali se defensione quasi noverint coarctari atque vinciri ut nec mercandi aut vendendi sinantur habere licentiam, sicut mercatores qui unâ nave videntur portari uniformi cognoscuntur signo teneri nisi habens notam nominis Bestiæ et numerum nominis ejus. Suprà notam solam dixit, postea per Synonyma ostendit et notam dixit et nomen et numerum nominis.

CHRISTI nomen, quem se per falsam imitationem* accipi desiderat, illum dierum perfecit numerum quem in persecutione Antichristi liber† hic sæpius prænunciat adfuturum. Hoc in nota, id est in

MONOGRAMMA, quæ in hunc modum fit, exprimitur,

C

ubi compendio totum Christi nomen includitur.

Ambrosius Ansbertus in Apoc. Bibl. P. Max. xiii. p. 552 :--
Qui habet intellectum computet numerum bestiæ, &c.] Est CHARACTER

* The editions erroneously read super falsâ imitatione. Cf. p. 326. Antichristus se pro Christo vult suscipi.

†The editions erroneously read libenter.

Papal Rome, but has been succeeded by another symbol, represented below; concerning which the Editor of Nu

in hunc modum expressus, ubi compendio totum Christi nomen includitur.

Sed nisi interpretatio nominis appareat character positus, utpote Christi nomen, nil mali ostendit. Nomen Christi quod per hypocrisin sanctitatis Antichristus nititur usurpare, prope illum dierum perficit numerum quem in persecutione ejusdem Antichristi hæc Apocalypsis sæpius pronuntiat affuturum, id est dierum мccxx hoc modo xpiorel, in cujus specie fraudulenter se apponit adversitas in charactere scilicet superius expresso, ubi compendio totum Christi nomen includitur.

mismata Pontificum, p. 191. ed. Paris. 1679, says, "Tritus est hic et valdè obvius nummus ;" and p. 167, "ita vulgaris est, ut in ipso diutius immorari sit superfluum ;" and p. 154, "vulgare est hoc numisma, quod toties repeti solet quoties nova cuditur moneta." It is often accompanied with the inscription "ASSAGGIUM GENERALE."

The KEYS arranged as there seen, constitute the badge of the Papacy.

The KEYS declare its claim to universal supremacy *.

The words TIBI DABO CLAVES REGNI COELORVM (Matt. xvi. 19), inscribed inside the cupola of St. Peter's, are a demonstration of the grounds on which the claims of the Papacy are made to rest, and an assertion of the authority which those words are supposed by it to have conveyed.

* See Cardinal Bellarmine de Pontifice, i. c. 13. Nos et Catholici omnes per claves datas Petro intelligimus summam potestatem in omnem Ecclesiam. Per claves non intelligitur remissio peccatorum aut ministerium verbi, sed principatus Ecclesiasticus.—And Maldonatus ad Matt. xvi. Hoc sensu datæ sunt Petro claves, id est, suprema secundum Christum in Ecclesia potestas, ut claudat et nemo aperiat, aperiat et nemo claudat. (The words of CHRIST in the Apocalypse concerning HImself. Rev. iii. 7.) Pope Nicolas ap. Gratian. dist. 22. c. 1. p. 65. ed. Lips. 1839. Christus beato æternæ vitæ CLAVIGERO terreni simul et cœlestis imperii jura permisit. Compare the speech of the Archpriest Colonna, quoted in "Lectures," p. 403, and August. Triumph. summa, Qu. vi. art. 1. Nulla appellatio tenet facta a Papa ad Deum, quia unum consistorium est ipsius Papæ et ipsius Dei, cujus consistorii Claviger est Papa Nullus ergo appellare potest a Papa ad Deum, sicut nullus potest intrare ad consistorium Dei nisi mediante Papa qui est æternæ vitæ consistorii Claviger.

From the principle so established of the gift of the keys, regarded as the emblem of universal power, other similar deductions follow:Qu. 18. art. 1. Major est jurisdictio Papæ quam cujuslibet angeli: Papæ totius mundi jurisdictio et cura commissa est: super cœlum et terram jurisdictionem accepit. Qu. 20. art. 3. Solus Papa habet potestatem Clavium, per immediatam commissionem, quia soli Petro, cujus successor Papa existit, claves sunt commissæ.

This work was written in the 14th century. The author died A. D. 1328. It is dedicated to a Pope, John XXII.

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