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A. Notice of some Ancient Commentators on the Apocalypse.

B. Anselm, Bishop of Havilburg, on the Seven Seals.

C. The Abbot Joachim on the Apocalypse.

D. Peter Olivi, the Franciscan, on the Apocalypse.

E. Ubertinus de Casali on the Apocalypse.

F. J. B. Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux, on Babylon in the Apocalypse.

G. On the Name and Number of the Beast.

H. The "Ceremoniale Romanum," describing the Adoration of the Pope.

I. Bishop Andrewes on Babylon in the Apocalypse.

K. On reading the Apocalypse in the Church.



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I. VICTORINUS, Bishop of Petabium or Petavium, Pettau, in Pannonia, circ. A. D. 270. (Cave, i. p. 147.†) He is said to have suffered martyrdom in the Diocletian persecution, A.D. 303. The "Commentarius in Apocalypsim," ascribed to Victorinus, is found in Bibliotheca Patrum Maxima, iii. p. 414-421, and in a shorter form, entitled "Scholia in Apocalypsim," in Biblioth. Patrum Gallandii, iv. p. 52–65, whence it has been recently reprinted by the Abbé Migne, Patrologia, v. p. 318–348.

The work of Victorinus was revised and modified by St. Jerome. (See Ambros. Ansbert. in Bibl. P. Maxima, xiii. p. 404.)

II. AUCTOR ANONYMUS, apud S. Augustinum, tom. iii. p. 3106-3159, ed. Paris. 1837. This Exposition on the

* Compare Calovius Bibl. Illust. N. T. Proleg. in Apoc. p. 1715 sq.; Lücke Geschichte der Auslegung d. Apok. in vol. iv. of his Kommentar über die Schriften d. Evang. Joannes, p. 482-576; the Rev. E. B. Elliott's Hora Apocalypticæ, iv. p. 307. fourth edition; Dr. Todd on the Apocalypse, p. 269.

† Ed. Basil. 1741.

Apocalypse, which is very valuable, is in the form of Homilies or Sermons preached in the Church.

It has been ascribed by some to Tichonius, the celebrated Donatist Expositor, contemporary with St. Augustine; circ. A. D. 390. (Cave, i. p. 285.) Tichonius is known to have composed an exegetical Work on the Apocalypse, (see Bede's Commentary passim *,) and it is very probable that these Homilies contain considerable portions of that treatise, adapted to the use of the Church.

III. PRIMASIUS, Bishop of Adrumetum in Africa, flourished A.D. 550. (Cave, i. p. 525.) His "Commentarius in Apocalypsim" is contained in Bibl. Patrum Maxima, x. p. 287–340, and has been published by the Abbé Migne in his Patrologia, tom. lxviii. p. 794-956.

IV. CASSIODORUS AURELIUS MAGNUS, "Senator Romanus, deinde monachus Vivariensis in Calabria." (See Cave, Hist. Lit. i. p. 501.) He wrote his work “De Divinis Lectionibus" circ. A.D. 556. His "Complexiones in Apocalypsim" were published at Rotterdam, 1723, 12mo, p. 213-243, and are inserted in the Abbé Migne's Patrologia, tom. lxx. p. 1406--1418.

Cassiodorus, in p. 9 of his Work De Divinis Lectionibus speaks of Primasius as his own contemporary, and refers to his work on the Apocalypse.

V. ANDREAS, Archbishop of Crete, supposed by some to have been afterwards Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia †,

* e.g. Bede, Explan. Apocalyps. Epist. ad Euseb. "Has ergo regulas non in Apocalypsi tantum, id est, in Revelatione Sancti Joannis Apostoli, quam idem Tichonius et vivaciter intellexit, et veridicè satisque catholicè disseruit præter ea duntaxat loca, in quibus suæ partis, id est, Donatistarum schisma defendere nisus." Cujus quidem auctoris et nos in hoc opere sensum secuti, nonnulla quæ extrinsecus posuit, breviandi causa omisimus."


Andreas of Crete was probably a different person from Andreas of Cappadocia. In the MSS. the Commentary on the Apocalypse is attributed sometimes to the one, sometimes to the other. Arethas assigns it to his predecessor in the see of Cæsarea.

probably in the sixth or seventh century. (Cave, i. p. 467. Fabric. Bibl. Gr. viii. 696. xi. p. 62. ed. Harles.) His Commentary on the Apocalypse is printed in Morell's edition of St. Chrysostom, tom. viii., and a Latin Translation of it in Bibl. Patr. Max. tom. v. p. 589–633.

We may here mention the two other Greek Expositors of the Apocalypse, who derive their materials mainly from Andreas,


VI. ARETHAS, Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia in the tenth century. (Fabric. Bibl. Græc. viii. p. 698. ed. Harles. Cave, i. p. 520; in Ecumenii Opera, ed. Paris. p. 640-837. A. D. 1631.) A Latin Translation of his Exposition is found in Bibl. P. Max. ix. p. 741-791.

VII. ECUMENIUS, Bishop of Tricca in Thessaly, probably in the tenth century. (Cave, ii. p. 112. Fabric. Bibl. Gr. viii. p. 692.)

Much has been effected recently towards an improved edition of these two Expositors by the late lamented Dr. Cramer, in his publication "ECUMENII et ARETHÆ in Apocalypsim," Oxonii, 1840. "Nobis," says he in his Preface," plenissimum forsan Antiquorum Græcorum Patrum Commentarium, qui extat, in Apocalypsim, licuit vulgare." The learned Editor has printed new Scholia of Ecumenius, and has added to those already published of Arethas. The Exposition of Ecumenius commences at p. 497, and ends at p. 582 of Dr. Cramer's volume.

VIII. BEDA Venerabilis; born near the mouth of the Tyne in the county of Durham, A. D. 672; died a.d. 735. (Cave, i. p. 612.)

Explanatio Apocalypsis in tom. xii. p. 337-452 of Bedæ Opera, Lond. 1844. A very valuable and interesting Exposition.

IX. AMBROSIUS ANSBERTUS, Gallus Presbyter, (obiit

A. D. 778.) in S. Joannis Apocalypsim libri x., ad sanctissimum in Christo Patrem ac Dominum D. Stephanum Divinâ Gratiâ Papam: ed. princ. Col. 1536. fol. p. 442; Bibl. P. Max. xiii. p. 403-639. (Cave, i. p. 631.)

X. BERENGAUDUS, Monachus Benedictinus, circ. A.D. 800. Expositio super VII Visiones Apocalypseos, inter S. Ambrosii Opera, ed. Bened., tom. ii. pt. ii. p. 499–589.

XI. HAYMO, "Episcopus Halberstattensis, Alcuini discipulus," obiit A.D. 853: an excellent Expositor. Commentariorum in Apocalypsim Beati Joannis libri vii., jam primum in lucem editi, et ad multorum scriptorum Codicum fidem castigati. Coloniæ, 1531. 12mo. (Cave, ii. p. 28.)

Commentaries on the Apocalypse were written by ALCUIN and RABANUS MAURUS, (Trithem. 251. 267.) contemporaries of Haymo, but are not now extant.

XII. ANSELMUs Laudunensis, (Laon, in Picardy,) Benedictinus, Petri Abælardi magister; fl. A.D. 1103. In Apocalypsim Enarrationes, Coloniæ, 1612, inter Anselmi Cantuariensis Opera, ii. p. 471 sqq. (Cave, ii. p. 187.)

XIII. BRUNO, Abbas Monte-Cassinas, ob. 1125. (Cave, ii. p. 158.) Commentarius in Apocalypsim, Opera, Venet. 1651. 2 tom. fol.

XIV. RUPERTUS Tuitiensis, (prope Coloniam Agrippinæ,) ob. 1135. Comment. in Apocalypsim, lib. xii. ad Fridericum, Archiepiscopum Coloniensem, Colon. 1541. pp. cxcv.; Noriberg. 1526. ed. Paris. ii. p. 450 sqq. (Cave, ii. p. 193.)

XV. Anselmus, Episcopus Havilbergensis, de Sigillis Apocalypticis scripsit A.D. 1145. (Cave, ii. p. 224.) For some account of this important treatise see below, Appendix B.

XVI. RICARDUS de Sancto Victore, propè Parisios, "natione Scotus, S. Bernardi familiaris," obiit 1173. In

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