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names," as a catchword to identify it with xiii. 1.

4. A. V. " and filthiness." The best MSS. have тà ảκáðaρтa.

5. A. V. " harlots and abominations."

6. A. V. "drunken;" Orig. μevovσav, præs. part., properly "inebriantem se,” drinking herself drunk.

8. A. V. " and yet is." κaì Tаρéσra, "and will appear," is the reading of the best MSS. for κaineρ éστìv, and is received into the text by Griesbach and Scholz. The clause is omitted by Vulg.

9. A. V. "And here is the mind." The Orig. has de ó voûs: Vulg. has "Et hic est sensus."

10. A. V." And there are."

A. V. "five are fallen, and one is."

11. A. V. " he is of the seven."

12. A. V. " as kings one hour."

13. A. V." shall give their power and strength."

16. Kai Tò Onpíov is the reading of the best MSS.

A. V. "burn her with fire." The Orig. is κατακαύσουσιν αὐτὴν ἐν πυρί.


2. A. V. "Babylon the great is fallen." The order of the Orig. is éñeσev, éñeσe Baßvλáv: so Vulg. "cecidit, cecidit Babylon." See xiv. 8.

A. V. " the habitation," "-" the hold."

3. A. V. " have committed."

5. The best MSS. have ekoλλýnoav, i.e. literally, have reached to heaven so as to cling to it like glue.

10. 16. 19. A. V. "saying, Alas, alas;" but in other places of this book (viii. 13. ix. 12. xi. 14. xii. 12.) ovaì is translated Wo.

11. A. V. 66 shall weep."

13. A. V. " and cinnamon and odours." The best MSS. have kiváμωμον καὶ ἄμωμον.

17. A. V. " and all the company in ships." The best MSS. read πᾶς ὁ ἐπὶ τόπον πλέων.

A. V. " stood afar."

18. A. V. “what city is like.”

20. A. V." and ye holy apostles."


1. A. V. “ And after these things."

A. V. “Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power to our God." 3. A. V. " and her smoke rose up."

4. A. V. “ sat.” Orig. has ávaẞaívet, Vulg. "ascendit."

10. A. V.“ have the testimony.” See xii. 17.

11. A. V." was called."

14. A. V. “The armies which were in heaven followed him."

15. A. V. “a sharp sword." The best MSS. add dioropos, and Vulg. has "gladius ex utrâque parte acutus.”

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A. V. “ of Almighty God.” τοῦ Θεοῦ, τοῦ Παντοκράτορος is the Original.

17. A. V. "the supper of the Great God." The best MSS. have εἰς τὸ δεῖπνον τὸ μέγα τοῦ Θεοῦ, and Vulg. has “ad conam magnam Dei."

18. A. V. “all men, both free and bond;" (see above, on vi. 15.) Vulg." omnium liberorum et servorum."

20. A. V. “ and with him the false Prophet that wrought miracles before him.” The Original, ὁ μετ ̓ αὐτοῦ ψευδοπροφήτης, ὁ ποιήσας τὰ onμeîa évámiov avtoû, i.e. his false-prophet ally, he who wrought the miracles before his face.

21. A. V. "that sat."


2. A. V. "bound him a thousand years;" Vulg. " per annos mille." 3. A. V. "and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled." Some MSS. have ïva μǹ λavýσŋ, “in order that he should not deceive;" others have ïva μǹ πλava, “in order that he MAY not deceive," and this reading is admitted into the text by Griesbach and Scholz, and it is confirmed by the Vulg. "ut non seducat gentes donec consummentur mille anni." This is important; for it intimates that the time referred to, in which Satan is bound, was a time present to St. John, and to the original readers of this book; and so it affords us another proof that the binding of Satan had taken place in the Apostolic age. See here below on ver. 5.

The numeral Mille, it is well known, is used by classical authors to express a large indefinite number.

Theocr. xi. 34:

ἀλλ ̓ ὡὐτος τοιοῦτος ἐὼν βοτὰ χίλια βόσκω.

Virg. Ecl. ii. 21:

Mille meæ Siculis errant in montibus agnæ.

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See also the commentators on Æn. vi. 748 :

Has omnes, ubi mille rotam volvêre per annos,

Lethæum ad fluvium deus evocat agmine magno;

whence it will be seen that the Virgilian Millennium is not a definite time.

4. "I saw the souls." The Vision here is not of bodies, but of souls, as in ch. v. 9, where the souls are represented as crying with a loud voice. The Orig. has there εἶδον τὰς ψυχὰς τῶν ἐσφαγμένων . . . καὶ ěkpağav . . . Here (ch. xx. 4) the expression is very similar, eidov. . . τὰς ψυχὰς τῶν πεπελεκισμένων καὶ ἔζησαν The spiritual sense of the former passage confirms the spiritual sense of the latter. A. V." that were beheaded."

A. V. “which had not worshipped." The Original is oitives où προσεκύνησαν.

A. V." had received."

A. V. " a thousand years."

5. Some MSS. have oùk ë(ŋσav, which is received by Griesbach and Scholz.

A. V. “ until the thousand years were finished;" but the Original is axpi Teλeoon, that is, "the rest of the dead live not" (such is the force of the aorist ἔζησαν. Cp. ii. 8. ἐγένετο νεκρὸς καὶ ἔζησεν, is alive, said of Christ) "till the thousand years are finished," (Vulg. " donec consummentur mille anni,") whenever that may be. This is important to be observed.

6. A. V. " on such;" Orig. éπì TOÚTOV: Vulg. " in his."

A. V. "shall reign." The Alexandrine MS. has Bariλevovoi, "they reign;" intimating that the Millennial period was begun in St. John's age.

8. A. V. "to battle.” τòν πóλeμov is found in the best MSS., i. e. the great battle.

10. A. V. "where the beast;" Vulg. "ubi et bestia."

14. A. V. "Death and Hell;" Orig. ó ávaтos kaì ó "Aidŋs.

15. After ὁ θάνατος ὁ δεύτερος the best MSS. add ἡ λίμνη τοῦ πυρός.


1. A. V." there was no more sea."

4. A. V. " all tears." See vii. 17.

6. A. V. "I am Alpha and Omega." See above, Rev. i. 8.


7. A. V." shall inherit all things;" Vulg. "possidebit hæc.”

8. A. V. omits " and sinners."

9 A. V. "there came unto me one."

10. A. V. " and showed me that great city." The reading of the best MSS. is τὴν πόλιν τὴν ἁγίαν Ιερουσαλὴμ, which is received by Griesbach and Scholz: so Vulg. “civitatem sanctam, Jerusalem."

17. A. V. " of the angel."

24. A. V. " of them which are saved." The words Tv σwjoμévwv are omitted by many MSS., and there is nothing corresponding to them in Vulg.

27. A. V. "whatsoever worketh." The Alexandrine MS. has Tov.


6. A. V." The Lord God of the holy prophets."

7. A. V. "Behold, I come quickly," without " And."

8. A. V." And I John saw these things, and heard them. And when I had heard and seen."

10. A. V. " for the time is at hand."

13. A. V. “I am Alpha and Omega."

14. A. V. "Blessed are they that do his commandments," which is a translation of the reading of some MSS., μακάριοι οἱ ποιοῦντες τὰς ÉVTOλàs aỶTOû: but the Alexandrine MS. and some others have μακάριοι οἱ πλύνοντες τὰς στολάς, and Vulg. has “ Beati qui lavant stolas suas in sanguine Agni,” and this is received by Bentley.

15. A. V. “For without are dogs;" the best MSS. read "Eέw, oi Kúves; and Vulg. "Foris canes;" Cp." Hunden uyt Godt's Tempel," the inscription on Belgian churches; these are well known expressions for Avaunt! ékàS ÉKÀS ÉσTÈ—Procul, o procul este, profani.

17. A. V." And whosoever will."

18. A. V. "for I testify."

19. The best MSS. read ȧrò TOû έúλov, which is received by Bentley.

21. The Alexandrine MS. reads μeтà távτwν: so Bentley.



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