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CHAPTER IV

PAGE

The Forest Industries 60

Economic Importance of Forest Industries—Some of the Minor

Branches—Wood Pulp—Fuel—The Lumber Business—Hard and

Soft Woods, So-called—Little to Learn from Europe—How Long

will the Original Supply Last ?—Substitutes for Wood—How

Lumbering is Carried on—Recent Changes in Method—Rafting

—Booms and Dams—At the Mill—Grades of Lumber—Logging

Railways—The Cruiser—The Lumber Camp—The River Drive

—Lumbering in the South and on the Pacific Coast—Scaling

Logs—Lumber Business Indispensable to the Nation.

CHAPTER V

Destruction And Deterioration . . . .89

Erroneous Notions—Great Area of Woodland still in Existence

—Disappearance of Merchantable Timber—Legitimate Removal

of Forest—Causes of Forest Destruction—Woodland Wastes—

The Principal Guilt with the American People—The Forest Fires

—Origin of Fires—How Small Fires Become Large—Damage

Done by Fire—Villages Destroyed—Lives Lost—Some Great Con-

flagrations—Attitude of the Settlers—Comparative Immunity of

Broad-leaved Forests—Reforestation of Burnt-over Areas—In-

jury by Pasturing Cattle.

CHAPTER VI

Forests And Forestry 121

What Forestry Is Not, and What It Is—Not a New Thing in

the United States—Reform Needed—The Art of Utilizing

Forests—Divers Uses of Forests—Annual Revenues from Perma-

nent Forests—Incidental Uses of Forests—Private and Public

Interest in Forests—Different Forms of Forest Policy—Protective

Forests—Misunderstandings—Silviculture—Financial Considera-

tions.

CHAPTER VII

Forest Finance And Management .... 140

Forestry and Agriculture—When the Crop Is Ripe—Biological

Factors — Yield Tables—Financial Factors — Market Price—

Transportation—Forest Management—Working Plans—Rota-

PAGB

tion Periods—Applicability of European Methods to United
States—Why Are Better Methods not Adopted by Lumbermen?
—Some Imaginary Obstacles—Economic Conditions in Europe
and America—Intensive Management—The Real Obstacles.

CHAPTER VIII

Forestry And Government 161

Double Relation of Government to Forests—Public Lands—

Private and Public Forest Management—Protective Forests—

Effects of Deforestation on Climate, Water Flow, and Erosion

—Irrigation in the West—Forests as Recreation Grounds—Sum-

mer Resorts and Forests—Investigation into Forest Conditions—

Legislative Action.

CHAPTER IX

Fighting Fires And Thieves 183

Few Forest Fires in Other Countries—Legitimate Use of Fire in

the Woods—European Means of Fire Protection—Different

Methods Required under Present American Conditions—Obsta-

cles to an Effective Fire Police—Excessive Division of Property

—Timber Stealing—Criminal Statutes—Enforcement Difficult—

Regulations Regarding Fires in Forests—Fire Wardens—Public

Opinion—Educational Forces—Indirect Effects of Fire on Lum-

bering Methods—Conservative Lumbering.

CHAPTER X

Forestry And Taxation 208

Antiquated Tax Systems—Excessive Taxation of Timber Prop-

erty—Unjust Assessments—Taxation without Representation—

Practical Confiscation—Forest Valuation—Forest Mensuration

—How the Taxes are Expended—Proposed Remedies—Condi-

tional Exemptions—Taxes on Gross Income—Protective Tariffs

—People more Interested in Tax Reform than Owners Them-

selves—Public Opinion and Legislation.

CHAPTER XI

Reform In Forestry Methods 228

The Beginning of Agitation—Scientific Men the First to See the

Need—Advantages and Drawbacks of this Circumstance—For-

NORTH AMERICAN FORESTS AND FORESTRY

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