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very properly, so far to adapt their expressions as to be at least intelligible to other readers of that language.

6. There are some peculiarities of style which have been observed in this writer, such as the more frequent use of the adverbs Eutús and auhéws than is found in any other writer of the New Testament, his beginning sentences oftener with xai and xai heyev avtois, idioms not unfrequent with the rest. Augustin considers this evangelist as the abridger of Matthew. “ Marcus Matthæum subsecutus tanquam pedissequus et breviator ejus videtur.” It is indeed true, Mark sometimes copies the very expressions used by Matthew. That he is not, however, to be considered as an abridger, may be evinced by the following reasons : First, he omits altogether several things related by Matthew-our Lord's pedigree, his birth, the visit of the Magians, Joseph's flight into Egypt, the cruelty of Herod. As his intention appears to have been to give in brief the history of our Lord's ministry, he begins very properly with the preaching of the Baptist. Again, there are some other things in Mauhew, whereof, though they fall within the time 10 which Mark had confined himself, he has taken no notice ; and some things are mentioned by Mark which had been overlooked by Matthew. Further, he has not always followed the same arrangement with his predecessor : and his relation of some facts, so far from being an abridgment of Matthew's, is the more circumstantial of the two. His style in general, instead of being more concise, is more diffuse. That he had read Matthew's Gospel cannot be doubted. For their exact conformity in expression in several places, Grotius has an ingenious manner of accounting. He supposes that Mark had carefully read Matthew's Gospel in the original Hebrew, before it was translated into Greek; and that he had the particulars fresh in his memory when he was occupied in writing his Gospel. Again, he supposes, that the translator of Matthew into Greek has thought it safest to adopt the expressions of Mark, wherever they would suit the Hebrew from wbich he was translating. But this, it must be confessed, though not implausible, is mere conjecture. It is generally our Lord's discourses which are abridged by Mark: As to his miracles, he has rather more fully related them. The additional circumstances and incidents recorded in this Gospel, appear to rest upon the authority of the apostles, but principally on that of Peter.




Jo. 1: 6.
Mal. 3: 1.
Isa. 40. 3.
Jo. 1; 23.

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1. THE beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ Son of God. Matl. 3: 1. 2 As it is written in the Prophets : `Behold I send mine angel Lu. 3: 1.

3 before thee, who shall prepare thy way :' "The voice of one

proclaiming in the wilderness, Prepare a way for the Lord,* 4 make for him a straight passage :' thus came John baptizing

in the wilderness, and publishing the baptism of reformation 5 for the remission of sins. And all the country of Judea, and

the inhabitants of Jerusalem resorted to him, and were baptized 6 by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. Now John's

clothing was of camel's hair, tied round his waist with a lea7 thern girdle: and he lived upon locusts and wild honey. And

he proclaimed, saying : One mightier than I cometh after me, 8 whose shoe-latchet I am unworthy to stoop down to untie. I

indeed have baptized you in water; but he will baptize you in

the Holy Spirit. Matt. 3: 13. 9 At that time Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was

10 baptized by John in Jordan. As soon as he arose out of the

water, he saw the sky part asunder, and the Spirit descend up-* 11 on him like a dove. And a voice was heard from heaven,

which said : Thou art my beloved Son in whom I delight. Matt. 4: 1. 12 Immediately after this the Spirit conveyed bim into the

13 wilderness : and he continued there in the wilderness forty days

tempted by Satan ;t and was ainong the wild beasts; and the

angels ministered to him. Matt. 4: 12. 14 But after John's imprisonment, Jesus went into Galilee, proJo. 4: 43.

15 claiming the good tidings of the reign of God. The time, said

be, is accomplished, the reign of God approacheth; reforın,

and believe the good tidings. Matt. 4: 18. 16 Then walking by the Sea of Galilee, be saw Simon, and An

drew, Simon's brother, casting a drag into the sea, for they 17 were fishers. Jesus said to them, Coine with me, and I will 18 make you become fishers of men. Immediately they left their 19 nets and followed him. Passing on a little, and seeing James,

Lu. 3: 21.
Jo. 1: 31.

Lu. 4: 1.

Lu. 4: 15.

Lu. 5: 1.
Jo. 1: 35.

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Matt. 7: 28.

son of Zebedee, with John his brother, who were mending their 20 nets in a bark; he immediately called them : whereupon leav

ing their father Zebedee in the bark with the hired servants, they accompanied bim.

And they went to Capernaum ; and on the Sabbath he re- ... 3.10 paired directly to the synagogue, and instructed the people, who 22 were astonished at his manner of teaching; for be taught as

one having authority, and not as the Scribes. 23 Now there was in their synagogue a man possessed with an Lø. 4:33. 24 unclean spirit, who cried out: Ah! Jesus of Nazareth, what

bast thou to do with us? Art thou come to destroy us? I know 25 who thou art, the Holy One of God. Jesus rebuking him, 26 said, Be silent, and come out of him. Then the unclean spirit

threw him into convulsions, and raising loud cries, came out of 27 him ; at which they were all so amazed, that they asked one

another : What meaneth this ? What new teaching is this?

for he commandeth with authority even the unclean spirits, and 28 they obey him. And thenceforth his fame spread through all

the region of Galilee. 29 As soon as they were come out of the synagogue, they went Matt. 8: 14.

with James and John into the house of Simon and Andrew, 30 where Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a sever, whereof they 31 immediately acquainted Jesus. And he came, and taking her

by the hand, raised her: instantly the fever left her, and she

entertained them. 32 In the evening, after sunset, they brought to him all the sick, 33 and the demoniacs; the whole city being assembled at the 44 door. And he healed many persons affected with various dis

eases, and expelled many demons, whom he permitted not to Lu. 4: 41.

speak, because they knew him. . 35 On the morrow, having risen before the dawn, he went out 36 and retired to a solitary place, and prayed there. And Simon 37 and his company.went in quest of him, and having found him, 38 said to him, Every body seeketh thee. Jesus said, Let us go

to the neighboring boroughs to proclaim the reign there also; 39 for I came out with this design. Accordingly he proclaimed

it in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and expelled de

mons. 40 And a leper came to him, and on his knees entreated him, Matt. 8: 2 41 saying: If thou wilt, thou canst cleanse me. Jesus had com

passion, and stretched out his hand, and touching him, said : I 42 will, be thou cleansed. This he had no sooner uttered, than 43 the leprosy departed from the inan, and he was cleansed. Then 44 Jesus strictly charging him, and dismissing him, said: See thou Lev. 14: 2.

tell nothing of this to any man; but go, show thyself to the priest; and offer for thy cleansing the things prescribed by

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Lu. 5: 12.

41 sayinion, and stretched out This le had, he was cleansedsee thou

Matt. 9. 1.
Lu. 5: 18.

Lu. 7: 48

45 Moses, that it may be notified to the people. But the man,

as soon as he was gone, began to blaze this story, talking openly every-where, insomuch that Jesus could no longer appear publicly in the city ; but remained without in solitary places,

whither the people resorted to him from all parts. II. AFTER many days he relurned to Capernaum ; and when 2 it was known that he was in the house, such a multitude lock

ed thither, that there was no room for them, not even near the

door, and he taught them the word of God. 3. A paralytic was then brought, carried by four men, who not

being able to come nigh bim for the crowd, uncovered the place

where Jesus was, and through the opening let down the couch 5 whereon the paralytic lay. Jesus perceiving their faith, said 6 to the paralytic: Son, thy sins are forgiven thee. But certain

Scribes who were present, reasoned thus within themselves : 7 How doth this man speak such blasphemies? Who can for8 give sins but God? Jesus immediately knowing in bimself 9 that they made these reflections, said to them, Why do ye reason thus within yourselves? Which is easier, to say to the

paralytic, Thy sins are forgiven,' or to say with effect, 10 · Arise, take up thy couch and walk?" But that ye may know

that the Son of Man hath power upon the earth to forgive sins : 11 Rise (he said to the paralytic), I command thee, take up thy 12 couch and go home. Immediately he arose, took up the couch,

and walked out before them all ; insomuch that they were all ainazed, and glorified God, saying : We never saw any thing

like this. Matt. 9: 9. 13 Again, he went out towards the sea, and all the multitude 22 14 repaired to him, and be taught them. Passing along, he saw

Levi, son of Alpheus, sitting at the toll-office, and said to him : 15 Follow me. And he arose and followed him. Now when

Jesus was eating in this man's house, several publicans and sin

ners placed themselves at table with him and his disciples : for 16 many of these people followed bim. The Scribes and the

Pharisees, seeing him eat with publicans and sinners, said to his

disciples : Wherefore doth he eat and drink with publicans and 17 sinners ? Jesus hearing this, replied: The whole need not a

physician, but the sick. I came not to call the righteous, but

sinners to reformation. Mau 14. 18 The disciples of John, and those of the Pharisees, accustom

ed to fasting, came to him, and said : John's disciples, and

those of the Pharisees, fast; why do not thy disciples fast? 19 Jesus answered : Do the bridemen fast while the bridegroom is

with them? While the bridegroom is with them they do not 20 fast. But the days will come when the bridegroom shall be 21 taken from them ; and in those days they will fast. Nobody

Lu. 5:27.


Lu. 6: 1.


seweth a piece of undressed cloth on an old garment; otherwise

the new patch teareth the old cloth, and maketh a worse rent. 22 Nobody putteth new wine into old leathern bottles; else the

new wine bursteth the bottles; and thus both the wine is spilt, and the bottles are rendered useless; but new wine must be put

into new bottles. 23 Once, when he was going through the corn on the Sabbath, Matt. 12: 1.

his disciples began to pluck the ears of corn, as they went. 24 The Pharisees said to bim: Why do they that which, on the 1 Sam. 1: 21. 25 Sabbath, it is unlawful to do? He answered : Did ye never

read what David and his attendants did, in a strait, when they 26 were hungry; how he entered the tabernacle of God, in the

days of Abiathar the high-priest, and ate the loaves of the pre

sence, which none but the priests could lawfully eat, and gave 27 thereof also to his attendants ? He added, The Sabbath was 28 made for man, not man for the Sabbath. Therefore the Son of

Man is master even of the Sabbath. III. Another time he entered the synagogue, when a man was Matt: 12; 9. 2 there who had a withered hand. And they, with a design to

accuse Jesus, watched him, to see whether he would heal the 3 man on the Sabbath. Jesus said to the man who had the with4 ered band : Stand up in the midst. Then he said to them :

Whether is it lawful to do good on the Sabbath, or to do evil; 5 to save, or to kill ? But they were silent. And looking round

on them with anger, being grieved for the blindness of their

minds, he said to the man : Stretch out thy hand : and as he 6 stretched out his hand, it became sound like the other. And

the Pharisees went out immediately, and conspired with the He

rodians against him to destroy him. 7 But Jesus withdrew with his disciples towards the sea,

whither a great multitude followed him from Galilee, from Ju8 dea, from Jerusalem, from Idumea,* and from the banks of the

Jordan. They also of the territories of Tyre and Sidon, having

heard what wonders he had performed, focked to him in crowds. 9 Then he ordered his disciples to get a boat to attend him, be

cause of the multitude, lest they should throng him : for he had 10 healed many, which made all who had maladies press upon him 11 to touch him. And the unclean spirits, when they beheld him,

prostrated themselves before him, crying: Thou art the Son of 12 God. But he strictly charged them not to make him known.

Lu. 6: 12

SECTION II.-THE NOMINATION OF APOSTLES. 13 AFTERWARDS Jesus went up a mountain, and called to Matt. 10. 1. 14 him whom he would, and they went to him. And he selected ch. 6; 7.

* In the Old Testament commonly Edom. Vol. II.

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