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ered as the same; the bird which he has denominated the Tawny Thrush being evidently from its size, markings, &c.

No description of the bird here figured, has, to my knowledge, appeared in any former publication.*

• As Wilson supposed, this bird had not been previously described; he has however created some confusion by giving to it the name of an old species. That name (mustelinus) must be restored to the bird to which it was originally applied, the Wood Thrush, and the Turdus Wilsonii as proposed by prince Musignano, be adopted for this.

Synonymes: T. Wilsonii BONAPARTE, Obs. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. vol. iv, p. 34.-10. Synop. Annales Lyc. Nat. Hist. Vol. 1x, p. 75.

VOL. 11.-Q




[Plate XXIII. -Fig. 5.]

Peale's Museum, No. 6896.

This bird is remarkable for its partiality to brooks, rivers, shores, ponds, and streams of water; wading in the shallows in search of aquatic insects, wagging the tail almost continually, chattering as it flies, and, in short, possesses many strong traits and habits of the Water Wagtail. It is also exceedingly shy, darting away on the least attempt to approach it, and uttering a sharp chip, repeatedly, as if greatly alarmed. Among the mountain streams in the state of Tennessee, I found a variety of this bird pretty numerous, with legs of a bright yellow colour; in other respects it differed not from the rest. About the beginning of May it passes through Pennsylvania to the north; is seen along the channels of our solitary streams for ten or twelve days; afterwards disappears until August. It is probable that it breeds in the higher mountainous districts even of this state, as do many other of our spring visitants that regularly pass a week or two with us in the lower parts, and then retire to the mountains and inland forests to breed.

• Prince Musignano asserts that this is the Sylvia noveboracensis, LATRAM, and quotes the following synonymes:-Motacilla noveboracensis, GMEL.Sylvia noveboracensis, Latu.-Vieill. pl. 82.-MONTACILLA tigrina, var. B, GMEL. female and young:--Sylvia tigrina, var. B, Lath. female and young:Sylvia anthoides, Vieill. Nouv. dicl. d'hist. nat.-FICEDULA dominicensis fusca, Briss. female and young:- Fauvetle tachetée de la Louisiane, Buff. Pl. Enl. 752, f. 1, a very bad figure.—New York warbler, Penn. Arct. Zool.-Lata. Syn.

It resembles in habits and appearance, and is we believe, also, the Turdus molacilla of VIEILLOT, pl. 65.

But Pennsylvania is not the favourite resort of this species. The cane-brakes, swamps, river shores, and deep watery solitudes of Louisiana, Tennessee, and the Mississippi Territory, possess them in abundance; there they are eminently distinguished by the loudness, sweetness and expressive vivacity of their notes, which begin very high and clear, falling with an almost imperceptible gradation till they are scarcely articulated. At these times the musician is perched on the middle branches of a tree over the brook or river bank, pouring out his charming melody, that may be distinctly heard for nearly half a mile.

The voice of this little bird appeared to me so exquisitely sweet and expressive, that I was never tired of listening to it, while traversing the deep shaded hollows of those cane-brakes where it usually resorts. I have never yet met with its nest.

The Water Thrush is six inches long, and nine and a half in extent; the whole upper parts are of a uniform and very dark olive, with a line of white extending over the eye, and along the sides of the neck; the lower parts are white, tinged with yellow ochre; the whole breast and sides are marked with pointed spots or streaks of black or deep brown; bill dusky brown; legs flesh-coloured; tail nearly even; bill formed almost exactly like the Golden-crowned Thrush, (Turdus arocapillus) and except in frequenting the water, much resembling it in manners. Male and female nearly alike.




[Plate XIV.–Fig. 2.)

Edw. 252.–LATH. III, 21.- La figuier a tete d'or, Briss. III, 504.

-La Grivelette de St. Domingue, Buff. 111, 317. Pl. Enl. 398, -Arct. Zool. p. 339, No. 203.— Turdus minimus, vertice Aurio, the least Golden-crown Thrush, Bartram, p. 290.- Peale's Museum, No. 7122.

Though the epithet golden-crowned, is not very suitable for this bird, that part of the head being rather of a brownish orange; yet, to avoid confusion, I have retained it.

This is also a migratory species, arriving in Pennsylvania late in April, and leaving us again late in September. It is altogether an inhabitant of the woods, runs along the ground like a lark, and even along the horizontal branches, frequently moving its tail in the manner of the Wagtails. It has no song; but a shrill, energetic twitter, formed by the rapid reiteration of two notes, peche, peche, peche, for a quarter of a minute at a time. It builds a snug, somewhat singular nest, on the ground, in the woods, generally on a declivity facing the south. This is formed of leaves and dry grass, and lined with hair. Though sunk below the surface, it is arched over, and only a small hole left for entrance; the eggs are four, sometimes five, white, irregularly spotted with reddish brown, chiefly near the great end. When alarmed it escapes from the nest with great silence and rapidity, running along the ground like a mouse, as if afraid to tread too heavily on the leaves; if you stop to examine its nest, it also stops, droops its wings, flutters and tumbles along, as if hardly able to crawl, looking back now and then to see whether you are taking notice of it. If you slowly follow, it leads you fifty or sixty yards off, in a direct line from its nest, seeming at every advance to be gaining fresh strength; and when it thinks it has decoyed you to a sufficient distance, it suddenly wheels off and disappears. This kind of deception is practised by many other species of birds that build on the ground; and is sometimes so adroitly performed as actually to have the desired effect of securing the safety of its nest and young.

This is one of those birds frequently selected by the Cow-pen Bunting to be the foster-parent of its young. Into the nest of this bird the Cow-bird deposits its egg, and leaves the result to the mercy and management of the Thrush, who generally performs the part of a faithful and affectionate nurse to the foundling

The Golden-crowned Thrush is six inches long, and nine in extent; the whole upper parts, except the crown and hind head, are a rich yellow olive; the tips of the wings, and inner vanes of the quills, are dusky brown; from the nostrils a black strip passes to the hind head on each side, between which lies a bed of brownish orange; the sides of the neck are whitish; the whole lower parts white, except the breast, which is handsomely marked with pointed spots of black, or deep brown, as in the figure; round the eye is a narrow ring of yellowish white; legs pale flesh colour; bill dusky above, whitish below. The female has the orange on the crown considerably paler.

This bird might with propriety be ranged with the Wagtails, its notes, manners, and habit of building on the ground being similar to these. It usually hatches twice in the season; feeds on small bugs, and the larvæ of insects, which it chiefly gathers from the ground. It is very generally diffused over the United States; and winters in Jamaica, Hispaniola, and other islands of the West Indies.

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