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NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC COUNCIL
TUESDAY, MARCH 16, 1965
Washington, D.C. The committee was called to order, pursuant to notice, at 11:23 a.m., in room 5110, New Senate Office Building, Hon. Warren G. Magnuson, chairman of the committee, presiding:
The CHAIRMAN. The committee will come to order. We resume our hearings on S. 944, which provides for expanded research in the oceans and the Great Lakes. Witnesses scheduled to testify are Dr. Milner B. Schaefer, director, Institute of Marine Resources, University of California, and chairman of the Committee on Oceanography of the National Academy of Scinces; Dr. Athelstan Spilhaus, director of the Institute of Technology, University of Minnesota, and immediate past chairman of the Committee on Oceanography; Dr. F. G. Walton Smith, director of the Institute of Marine Science, University of Miami, and president of the International Oceanographic Foundation; and Dr. John C. Calhoun, vice president of Texas A. & M. University, and former science advisor to Secretary Udall.
The Chair has a short statement before we call on these eminent scientists to testify on the proposed legislation. All of these people are testifying, of course, in their individual capacities. Neither the Committee on Oceanography nor the Foundation has taken a formal position on the pending legislation.
I want to call on Dr. Spilhaus first, because he has a very important engagement that he must leave for after this. He said he has a very short statement.
STATEMENT OF DR. ATHELSTAN SPILHAUS, DIRECTOR OF INSTI
TUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, AND IMMEDIATE PAST CHAIRMAN OF COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY The CHAIRMAN. All right.
Dr. SPILHAUS. Senator, I have no prepared statement, but I am Dr. Athelstan Spilhaus, dean of the Institute of Technology, University of Minnesota, and as you said, former chairman of the National Academy of the Committee on Oceanography.
I speak to the question of this bill, because I have been interested in ocean engineering for about 30 years. One of my contributions in oceanography was the bathyothermograph, an instrument which enabled measurements to be made in the ocean rapidly and started taking oceanography out of the expedition stage into real rapid surveys.
I have felt that in the National Academy, our committee did much to put the United States in the forefront in oceanographic research, but I think the time has come when we need to concentrate on that gap that exists between the marine scientists on the one side with their wonderful research, and the people who need to use this research, the people who are going to sea : The fishermen, the merchane marine, and those who exploit the resources of the sea.
We have this gap. And this gap, Mr. Chairman, is ocean engineering which does not really exist today, except that pertaining to Navy needs. I think that this bill will do much to stimulate ocean engineering
I also think that to stimulate ocean engineering, we ought to do what wise people did about 100 years ago. When we needed a stimulus for agriculture in our country, and they invented an idea, a magnificent idea called land-grant colleges devoted to agriculture and the supporting mechanic arts.
Land-grant colleges did so well that they established the United States as preeminent in agriculture. We are first in the world in this and mechanic arts. We are the first in the world in producing the things that make for good living for people.
I think that we should take this idea and make sea-grant colleges, colleges which are dedicated to the exploitation of the resources of the sea, colleges which study not only marine science, but marine engineering, the practical dirty work of how to put science to work to get things out of the ocean for the good of people.
I think these colleges should have associated with them, just as our good agriculture colleges have, collages of law. We know that the law of the sea is in a mess. It is in a mess because the law of the sea is a traditional thing.
It did not look forward to the time when people could exploit all of the oceans. We need to have a total review of the law of the sea, so that we can encourage the exploitation of ocean resources and, hopefully, should do it in our country so that we don't get caught short when we go to international conferences by others who have given more thought to the matter than ourselves.
We should also have in our sea-grant colleges such down to earth things as sea-home economics. How do we cook fish so that it is more tasty to people so we can build the fishing industry and make people who now don't know, appreciate fish—just ordinary home economics of the sea.
We need all these things. We need to take fishing out of the status it is in now. We complain about the Russians fishing on the doorsteps of our waters, why do we complain?
We should outfish them with our technology. We could outfish them if we would do the engineering which is needed.
I am 100 percent for this bill, Mr. Chairman. I am not one who nit picks words in a thing. I think the broad concept of the bill is excellent. The idea of a council will focus attention at the right level on oceanography.
This council, because it can have a competent staff will be a place where many private industries can turn for advice on how they can best use their own resources to exploit the