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and comment at your leisure, should you desire to comment. It is my understanding that this chapter of “Ocean Sciences" was prepared by Capt. S. N. Anastasion, USN, formerly on the Interagency Committee staff and now on sea duty.
Captain Anastasion's article in “Ocean Sciences" accurately describes the process of preparing the national oceanographic program.
(The information referred to above appears in the appendix to the record.)
15. and 16. How much of the oceanographic program projected in the fiscal year 1966 budget would you consider basic research, how much applied research, and how much development? As you know, the Special Oceanography Analysis in the budget does not distinguish between basic and applied research. From your knowledge as Chairman of the Federal Council, has the proposed funding of basic research been increased or decreased, and has that for applied research been altered and in what respect? Would you undertake to supply the committee with the ratio between recommended appropriations for basic research and applied research?
The oceanographic program does not lend itself well to the “basic research, applied research, development” categories, but the program can be divided roughly into these categories. Of the total oceanographic budget of $141.6 million for fiscal year 1965, $115.6 million or 80 percent is for research and surveys. The capital program will amount to $26 million, or 20 percent of the total. This capital program could be considered as a development effort. Of the research and survey portion, the maximum estimate for strengthening basic science would be $25 million. A lower figure for basic research would be $10 million per year. Either figure is defensible. Applied research, including surveys, would range from $90 to $105 million.
The research, survey, ship construction, facilities construction, and instrumentation and equipment procurement description is more useful than the “research-development” description. Looked at this way, it is important to note that expenditures for research and surveys will expand by 15 percent in fiscal year 1966, while the capital program will require less. This means that expenditures for both basic and applied research will increase.
The existing distribution of effort among the various components of the oceanographic program is generally satisfactory as a consequence of the deliberate decision to expand research and survey expenditures. It appears at this time that the desirable future course of action will be to continue to expand for some time in the future both the absolute and relative size of the research and survey component.
17. What ships have been retired as having been replaced by new oceanographic vessels?
The following ships have been replaced during the period 1960–65 by those indicated in the table below :
18. What proportion of the research budget is devoted to ship operations? Of the survey budget ?
The average annual ship operating costs have run between 40 to 45 percent of the research budget with extreme values ranging from 23 to 65 percent. This varies by agency and is mission dependent. The three agencies which conduct oceanographic surveys have an average annual operating-cost equivalent to 60 percent of the total survey budget. This is a relatively uniform figure throughout the three agencies.
19. What are the fiscal year 1965 accomplishments, plans and budgets for development and use of deep research vehicles? How many do we have now and what are future plans?
Member agencies of the ICO are eager to operate URV's on research and engineering projects. They will rely upon the Navy and industry to provide the necessary vehicles. In this connection, the Navy has made significant advances in developing and operating manned deep submersibles. Bathyscaphe Trieste has proved its outstanding capabilities on a number of scientific dives; Trieste enabled Navy investigators to locate and photograph the ill-fated Thresher, emphasizing the need for deep-diving vehicles in submarine rescue and salvage. In June 1964, the Secretary of the Navy inaugurated the Navy's new deep submergence systems project (DSSP) to develop search and rescue techniques that would help locate and recover lost vehicles, space capsules, and other objects on the bottom of the sea. The Special Projects Office was designated project manager.
The Interagency Committee on Oceanography hopes to take full advantage of the techniques, materials and systems developed for the DSSP. Close liaison has been established with the Special Projects Office and industry. There remains, however, a need to obtain immediate experience in the scientific uses and capabilities of manned submersibles. One promising approach is to charter vehicles already built and developed ; the Scripps Institution of Oceanography has obtained excellent results from a chartered French-built vehicle. Another opportunity is to work cooperatively where possible with those laboratories already operating subersibles ; e.g., the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, currently conducting experiments from the ONR-funded Awin (with a 6,000-foot diving capability).
There are currently at least six vehicles available from industrial sources. Short-term rental and evaluation of these vehicles will aid in the formation of agency plans for future design and construction.
The ICO confidently expects a rapid development of the URV state-of-the-art during fiscal year 1966, and hopes its member agencies can take advantage of the new capabilities in fiscal year 1967, with a coordinated program for the use of these unique research platforms.
COMPARISON OF UNITED STATES AND SOVIET OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH SHIPS
A recent analysis of Soviet oceanographic ships (exclusive of naval vessels) showed that of 99 selected medium and large ships, 14 or 14 percent were assigned to institutions primarily engaged in basic research; the remainder were allocated to agencies doing applied research and engineering. This contrasts strongly with the pattern in the United States, where out of 81 comparable ships, 30 or 37 percent were assigned to universities and institutions primarily occupied with research. Clearly, our research fleet is second to none in quantity. Further, all of the oceanographic ships reported building in the Soviet Union in recent years were earmarked for activities engaged in development and engineering; compare this with over a dozen new or converted ships supplied to our own universities and research institutions in the last 5 years.
This U.S. advantage in oceanographic research ships does not, of course, extend into all special areas. In fisheries research, for example, the Soviets list some 60 ships, as compared with 23 for the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The same situation exists to various degrees in other applied areas, including naval applications, resulting in an overall Soviet numerical superiority for oceanographic vessels.
THE INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE FEDERAL COUNCIL FOR
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Courses offered in marine sciences at American colleges and universities College or university
Degrees offered in oceanography 1 Agricultural and Mechanical College Master of science and doctor of philos
of Texas, College Station, Tex., 77840. ophy. The American University, Washington, Bachelor of science and master of D.C., 20016.
science in earth science with emphasis
in oceanography. The University of Chicago, Chicago, M.S. and Ph. D. degrees in geophysical Ill., 60637.
sciences are offered with specialization in areas included in oceanog
raphy. Columbia University, New York, N.Y., Master of arts and doctor of philosophy.
10027. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Bachelor of Science and master of
Raton, Fla. (effective 1964–65). science in fisheries. Humboldt State College, Arcata, Calif., Master of arts and doctor of philosophy.
95521. The Johns Hopkins University, Balti- Master of science and doctor of philosmore, Md., 21218.
ophy. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Master of science and doctor of philosCambridge, Mass., 02139.
ophy in fisheries, marine biology, and University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. oceanography.
Master of science and doctor of philos
ophy. New York University, New York, N.Y.,
Do. 10003. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Do.
Oreg., 97331. University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Master of science and doctor of philosR.I., 02981.
ophy in marine biology. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Do. LaJolla, Calif.
Do. Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.. University of Texas, Austin, Tex., Master of arts in marine science from 78712.
the college of William and Mary; Virginia Institute of Marine Science, doctor of philosophy in Marine Gloucester Point, Va., 23062.
science from the University of Vir
ginia. Bachelor of arts, bachelor of science,
master of science, doctor of philosUniversity of Washington, Seattle, ophy. Wash., 98105.
Ph. D. in oceanography and limology ;
minor in oceanography for Ph. D. in University of Wisconsin, Madison, other fields.
Above institutions were excerpted from a list appearing in “University Curricula in Oceanography" for Academic Year 1963–64, compiled by the Interagency Committee on Oceanography of the Federal Council for Bachelor of science in ocean engineerScience and Technology.
1 Unless otherwise indicated.
The following is an excerpt from the “University Curriculums in Oceanography,” academic year 1963–64, prepared by the Interagency Committee on Oceanography of the Federal Council for Science and Technology, published in June 1963, by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare :
“Many students and faculty advisers have written the committee 1 about the preparation necessary for entry into the field of oceanography. It should be noted that nearly all institutions award only for beginning students in this field. The following excerpt from the bulletin of the University of Miami Institute of Marine Science sets forth typical requirements for undergraduate preparation. (Oceanography is used in its narrow sense at Miami, including only physical and chemical oceanography and omitting biological and geological oceanography, which are called marine biology, marine geology, and fisheries.)
“The department receives many inquiries concerning proper undergraduate preparation for entrance to its graduate program. To guide students, several undergraduate programs are suggested for preparation in fisheries, marine biology, oceanography, and marine geology. Other disciplines are not considered since each university has its own set of requirements designed to give students broad exposure to the liberal arts.
"Students interested in pursuing marine science should select an undergraduate major in one of the basic scientific disciplines. The undergraduate college should be selected on the basis of curriculum and staff strength in that major. In the biological sciences zoology is much preferred to botany as an undergraduate major but, hopefully zoology students will include basic botany courses in their curriculum. Within the general scope of the program suggested below, prospective marine biology students most interested in experimental biology should take care to be well prepared in chemistry, biochemistry, and mathematics. Students interested in systematics, anatomy, etc., should strengthen their zoology, genetics, and related course program.
"Prospective marine geologists should acquire strong backgrounds in mathematics, chemistry, and physics.
“The student should at the same time be careful to satisfy the graduation requirements of his own university. Students should consult their department for assistance on individual programs.
“University college science courses that lack laboratories are not acceptable substitutes for the basic science courses. Students may wish to spend one summer at a marine laboratory in order to have a more firm basis for decision concerning their future career in marine science.
“In the suggested curriculums on the following pages, courses are designated as 'required' (those believed to be essential) and 'suggested' (those which should be taken if the student's program can include them).
"A student may be admitted to graduate standing in this department without having had some of the required courses, but he will ordinarily not be allowed to take a master's degree until he has completed all of them, either before or after admission to the graduate school.
"Courses listed as 'suggested' should be taken whenever the student's program permits, but he will ordinarily not be obliged to take them in order to obtain the master's degree. He may, however, be asked to take some of the ‘suggested' courses if he continues for the Ph. D. degree.
“Exceptions to these requirements may be made at the discretion of the department and the student's advisory Committee. The reading knowledge of two languages is required of graduate students before the Ph. D. degree can be achieved. Good undergraduate preparation in at least one language is strongly urged. Spanish ordinarily is not an acceptable substitute for French or Germanor Russian.
“Undergraduate courses taken by a graduate student do not contribute credits toward his advanced degree at the University of Miami.
“The courses designated as 'required' are marked with an asterisk.
1 Interagency Committee on Oceanography.
*Introductory or general zoology,
my or vertebrate, zoology,
*General (8 hours),
Phycology. "Physics : *General physics. “Foreign language: French, German,
or Russian, "English : *Composition,
*Principles of chemistry (inor
methods in natural sciences. “Geology:
Introduction to marine biology,
“Mathematics : *General physics,
*Analytical geometry, Modern physics,
*Physical geology, “Chemistry:
Sedimentation. *Principles of chemistry (in- “Meteorology: General meteorology. organic),
"Marine sciences : *Qualitative analysis (two se
Introduction to marine biology, mesters),
Introduction to oceanography. *Quantitative analysis,
"English : *Composition. Physical chemistry,
“Foreign language: German, Russian, Organic chemistry.
or French. “Zoology: *Introduction or general zoology,
*Introductory or general zoology,
or vertebrate zoology,
Limnology. “Mathematics :
methods in natural sciences),
*Principles of chemistry (inor
Introduction to marine biology,