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(b) Subsection (c) of such section 104 is amended to read as follows: "(C) Not more than 1272 per centum of the total of funds appropriated or allocated for the purposes of subsection (a) of this section shall be granted for air pollution control programs in any one State. In the case of a grant for a program in an area crossing State boundaries, the Secretary shall determine the portion of such grant that is chargeable to the percentage limitation under this subsection for each State into which such area extends."


(S. 3400, 89th Cong., 2d sess. ] A BILL To amend the Act entitled "An Act to amend the Clean Air Act to require standards for controlling the emission of pollutants from certain motor vehicles, to authorize a research and development program with respect to solid-waste disposal, and for other purposes", approved October 20, 1965 (72 Stat. 992), in order to provide for the disposal of junked automobiles

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Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Act entitled “An Act to require standards for controlling the emission of pollutants from certain motor vehicles, to authorize a research and development program with respect to solid-waste disposal, and for other purposes", approved October 20, 1965 (79 Stat. 992), is amended by adding at the end thereof a new title as follows:



"SEC. 301. This title may be cited as the “Junked Auto Disposal Act of 1966'.


"SEC. 302. (a) The President is authorized to formulate and carry out a program to alleviate the blight caused by the ever-increasing number of aged or wrecked motor vehicles which have been abandoned or relegated to scrap or salvage. In pursuance of such program, the President may make payments to individuals, to corporations or other business entities, and to public bodies or instrumentalities to carry out approved programs for the alleviation of such blight. In carrying out the authority conferred upon him by this subsection, the President

"(1) shall take into consideration the effect of any action taken pursuant to such program on the market for iron and steel scrap;

"(2) may prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section; and

"(3) may delegate any power or authority conferred upon him by this section to one or more officers or agencies of the Government. "(b) The authority conferred upon the President by this section shall include the following:

"(1) to make payments to individuals, corporations, or other business entities, upon application therefor, pursuant to such regulations as he may prescribe, to develop and facilitate the processing of old and wrecked automobiles into usable scrap for the making of steel;

“(2) to increase the market for iron and steel scrap by initiating a program for the purchase, storage, and resale of the usable scrap processed from old and wrecked automobiles upon such terms and conditions, including resale at a loss, as the President determines will carry out the purposes of this section;

*(3) to initiate and conduct research and development programs for improved processing techniques for such scrap, and for alternative uses of such scrap: Provided, That not to exceed 5 per centum of the funds appropriaten to carry out this Act may be expended for such research and derelopment projects; and “(4) to make grants to any State or locality, upon application therefor, for the payment of part of the cost of practical programs for the disposal of old or wrecked automobiles if he determines, in accordance with such regulations as he may prescribe, that

"(A) the program will initiate a feasible and economic method for such automobile disposal or significantly expand and improve such a program already in existence;

**(B) the program will include adequate provisions for the screening or the relocation of automobile junkyards located along nonfederally aided highways;

*(C) the program will provide adequate public supervision of such program submitted ; and

"(D) the program will provide such fiscal control and accounting procedures as he deems necessary. (5) The grants made under paragraph (4) above shall be subject to the following conditions:

“(A) Distribution of assistance among the several States shall be as equitable as practical ;

“(B) No payments made shall exceed 90 per centum of the cost of such program; and

"(C) The term 'State' means a State, the District of Colunubia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.


"SEC. 303. There is hereby authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year, beginning with the fiscal ending June 30, 1967, a sum equal to so much of the taxes received by the Treasury during the immediate preceding fiscal year under section 4061 (a) (2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (relating to tax on passenger automobiles and trailers) as is attributable to so much of the tax imposed on articles taxable under such section as does not exceed a rate of 1 per centum.

"REPORTS “SEC. 304. The President shall prepare and submit to the Congress at least once in each fiscal year a comprehensive and detailed report on the administration of this title."

Senator Boggs?

Senator Boggs. Mr. Chairman, thank you. May I first commend you, Mr. Chairman, for the continued able leadership in the field of air and water pollution. It is mainly through your efforts that public awareness of the problems of polluted water has grown over the past 3 years and the acceptance of the Congress of constructive legislation in this field is another indication of the concern that our Nation has about these problems.

As indicated by these hearings and the work of this subcommittee, air pollution is a continuing problem and it is important that we in the Congress and the people working in this area at the State and local level continue to do all that we can to bring about a cleanup in the air that we breathe.

The bills that will be considered during these hearings and others probably will no doubt extend and buttress the existing programs in the field of air pollution and continue to give assistance to air pollution control agencies and interstate agencies and intermunicipal agencies and help them develop and establish programs for air pollution control.

I know that these hearings which we will commence today will provide the members of the subcommittee and the Congress with additional information which will be of help as we continue our fight to clean up the air and water of the Nation.

Thank you.

Senator MUSKIE. Thank you very much, Senator Boggs. So may I express my appreciation to you and your colleagues for the important and constructive support which you have given. I am delighted to have you at my right hand during this fight.

Senator Cooper?

Senator Cooper. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am not a member of your subcommittee; I am a member of the full Committee on Public Works. I am very much interested in this legislation. I, too, want to congratulate you on your leadership and the great help you have had from Senator Boggs, the minority member.

I am sure that this hearing which you are initiating will result in rery important information and I believe constructive legislation. Senator Muskie. Thank you, Senator Cooper. We are privileged to have a list of three very distinguished gentlemen to educate the committee on the subjects. I might emphasize the fact that the committee uses these hearings to educate itself, first, and the public second, although not to the neglect of the second objertive. One of the best teachers we could possibly have to start this hearing this morning is a former “Mainiac," Senator Douglas of Illinois.

Paul, we are delighted to have you here this morning.




Senator Douglas. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I was very reluctant to leave the State of Maine as a young man, since you refere to me as a former Maine man I think I can give an account of myself. In my days in the State of Maine if you were very bright you could make a living. If you were dumb you could make a living provided you were a Republican. But if you were dumb and a Democrat, you had to get out. That is why I left home.

So, I am a middle westerner now, and very proud of it, Mr. Chairman. I, too, want to congratulate you and the members of the committee for the interest which you have taken and the steps which you have taken to diminish the pollution of the air and the pollution of water. These are problems and evils which are growing a pace upon

You probably saw the statistics about New York City which were issued a few days ago; namely, that the average precipitation of solid matter in the air in New York City amounted to 730 pounds per person per year, or 2 pounds a day. I think we are doing quite well in controlling contamination of the air in Chicago but we still have too much pollution. While I have not seen the definite figures it may be close to the New York figure.

I have not ability to education this committee, Mr. Chairman, but I did come here in a mood to learn from you and also to stress one phase of this problem with which I have concerned myself; namely, the probJem of dealing with junked autos. I have come to speak in behalf of my bill, Senate 3400. My bill would amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965 which this committee passed to empower the President to set up a program to dispose of the accumulation of junk automobiles.

The bill is based on the principle that every car should carry with it the funds for its own disposal, whether by your burial, cremation, total immersion or some other method. The claims for burial are as I understand it the first claim against every estate. Every person's estate must provide funds to dispose of his physical carcass when

life has ceased, but we have no such provision in the case of automobiles. As a result, the landscape is littered with these junk piles of autos numbering probably from 20 to 40 million cars and increasing with every year.

If this bill is passed by Congress this measure would be known as the Junked Auto Disposal Act of 1966. This is similar to an amendment which I proposed to the Highway Beautification Act a year ago, the financial part of which; namely, retention of 1 percent of the tax on automobiles, was substantially enacted.

I believe the junking auto problem is a problem of solid waste disposal and one which has been too long neglected. There are related and serious air pollution aspects to this problem. The disposal factors are unusual because auto bodies are not normally accepted by municipal waste collection agencies.

Under my bill the President would have the authority to develop a program for the purchase, storage, and resale of scrap from old and wrecked automobiles. In addition the bill would encourage the developing of improved scrap processing techniques and assist States and localities in creating practical programs for the disposal of junk autos.

Anyone who travels along our highways cannot help but notice the growing number of hideous graveyards which are defiling the beauty of our country. According to the reports I have received from many of our mayors and Governors, getting rid of these junked automobiles is a serious and growing problem in every section of the Nation. Nothing is quite as disconcerting as to round a curve and suddenly be confronted with acres of rusting automobile carcasses.

It even evokes a touch of nostalgia to see an old and familiar car disposed of in such cavalier fashion. Rows and rows of these once proud chariots must now spend their final years rusting away in a farmer's field or junk dealer's yard.

Mr. Chairman, I have seen the junked hulks of autos piled 20 and 30 deep along some of our city streets and rural lanes. Of all the problems created by the automobile, probably none is as obvious and direct as getting rid of used up cars. We have the know-how to make 10 million shiny new vehicles a year, but the ability to dispose of old cars has been beyond our grasp. Why do we have such a huge accumulation of unwanted cars? The basic problem is economic.

It costs less to let an old car rust away in a junk pile than to get rid of it, and therefore ugliness becomes cheaper than beauty. The Highway Beautification Act of last year is a good first step-but only a first step. That measure does not actually get rid of junked automobiles, it merely hides them or shifts them to another area.

It requires only that junkyards along interstate or primary highways be screened or removed. Where would they be moved?

To secondary highways. The interstate and primary system account for 280,000 miles of highway, while secondary highways total more than 600,000 miles. So in effect, the Highway Beautification Act can be used to transfer junkyards from main highways to side roads, and at the taxpayers expense.

I believe the solution is to find a use for junked cars and thus reduce the need for automobile graveyards.

Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, the underlying causes of the junk auto problem are economic and technological. The old cycle of reducing junk autos to scrap and ultimately to new steel has broken down. A few years ago, the system of producing and disposing of cars worked reasonably well.

When a car owner decided to junk his aging jalopy, he could usually get $30 to $50 for it from an auto junkyard. Here the car would be stripped of its salable parts and them sold to a scrap processor. The processor would burn out the upholstery and other nonmetallic inaterial and crunch the remaining body into a compact 1-ton steel cube about the size of a TV set.

These are known in the trade as No. 2 bundles. These cubes would then be resold to steel mills as scrap for making new steel. Eventually, they might even be reincarnated in the form of another gleaming auto fresh from Detroit's assemly line.

Several things have happened to upset this delicate balance. First of all, there are a growing number of cars being sent to the scrap heap each year. In 1958 3.6 million cars were retired from service while in 1964 we junked 5.6 million.

Part of the reason is increaserl production. We are now producing over 10 million motor vehicles annually, and sooner or later all of these will find their way into a juk pile. And it will probably be sooner than later, and unlike humans the average age of a car is declining. In 1960, it was 14 years, but by 1964 it was down to 10 years.

If I may entertain a frivolous thought, if this trend continues economists may have to revise the definition of durable goods and place automobiles in one of he categories of perishable commodities such as fruits and vegetables.

Second, not only is the supply of junked cars increasing, but the long term demand is increasing because of technological developments in the steel industry. Many mills are shifting to the new oxygen converter furnace which consumed far less scrap than the older open hearth furnace. These new furnaces have a fussy appetite; bits of glass, plastic, or other impurities upset their delicate digestive systems. It is difficult and costly for scrap processors to remove all of these im purities and the mills, as a result, are becoming more particular about the quality of the scrap they buy.

Even if total steel production in the United States grows sufficiently to cause a net increase in scrap consumption, such increased consumption is not likely to keep pace with the number of discarded autos and other steel waste products. In other words, even if things get better for the scrap industry, they will get worse for the public.

This reluctance to buy scrap made from old car's promises to even become greater in the future. The oxygen furnace, which as you know started in Australia was spread to Europe and is being used increasingly in this country.

In 1957 for example less than 1 percent of new steel made in this country was made in oxygen furnaces. By 1964 the figure was 12 percent and by 1970 it is estimated that it will climb to about 50 percent.

Another reason why the mills are buying less serap is their excess capacity for making pig iron, which competes with scrap as an ingredient used in making new steel. The mills are reluctant to increase


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