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lighting our houses, and because it would upset many industries. Water power is a great help in reducing air pollution, and in future uranium and reactor plants will help
Instead of going into details of the known pollutants, it is my chief purpose to call attention to a new and recent befouler of the air. It is very strange, that this has been ignored in scientific discussions. Even worse, it has been suppressed, it has been silenced and discussion of it has been avoided. Yet this is one of the most violent poisons known to man. It is a curse, a new and modern evil. I refer to "Lead", which is added to the gasoline for automobile engines.
Lead has been recognized for a long time as one of the most powerful poisons known. Up to about 100 years ago lead-pipes were used for the conduct of water. Then it was found, that mere traces of carbon dioxide in the water dissolved the lead, and these mere traces of lead made thousands of persons sick and killed some others. Thereafter the use of lead-pipes was condemned, and they are no longer used. There are other forms of lead poisoning known.
Why is lead used in Automobile Engines? When ordinary gasoline was used as a fuel and compressed in the early engines to about one fourth of its volume, the resulting heat of compression ignited the gasoline fractions of seconds before it could deliver its best power stroke. This predetonation weakened the power. The problem was to prevent this predetonation. The answer was found in a laboratory in Dayton, Ohio, by the late Mr. Kettering. It was discovered, that a small addition of Tetraethyl of lead or Tetramethyl of Lead would delay the explosion.
This is not a simple lead poison; it is a specially dangerous solution of lead. It is fat soluble and volatile. It is possible to get lead poisoning from it through the mouth, skin or lungs. It is more dangerous than some other lead products. You need not accept this statement or my word for it. Just go to any gasoline pump, where this poisonous lead is sold and read the legal caveat emptor notice. The buyer is forewarned of the poisonous effect, but very few pay any attention to it.
After this discovery Mr. Kettering interested Mr. Alfred P. Sloan Jr in the process, and the Ethylene Corporation was organized to exploit it. Why was this lead compound used and promoted, when both of these men (both heavy stockholders of the General Motors Corporation) must have known, that their new product was very dangerous to health, as proved by the very Caveat Emptor notice. The only reason for advocating this poison probably the great profits, which could be realized from its use. The process has been very profitable to GMC and its million stockholders.
At the beginning the auto industry was satisfied with the so-called compression ratio of five, but in recent years this has been raised to 7 and 8 or more. So this Tetraethyl of Load is ever more spewed into the nostrils of people with increasing doses. And the Department of Health in Washington (even though it originally limited its use to a low precentage) can no longer escape criticism, That great harm can result was shown, from the making of TEL at the Bayway Refinery when operators there became delirious, went into dementia and died.
Then it was found that lead fouled the poreclain of the spark plugs with lead oxide. As a remedy bromide was added to convert the lead oxide into lead bromide. Lead bromide is somewhat more rolatile, thus dispursing the lead into the air as vapor rather than dust. Rain then washes the water soluble lead bromide into the soil or brooks, where it is known to have killed fish. Volatile lead does not belong into the lungs. Whether it is a direct source of cancer is not yet known, but it can be shown than the incidence of cancer has increased simultaneously with use of TEL. And we have the somewhat quixotical occurence, that the orginators of TEL have founded the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research.
There seems to be a strange connivance or conspiracy to silence ans criticism of this lead poisoning. Articles sent to newspapers in New York. Washington or Los Angeles will not be printed. Another strange feature is, that this poisonous addition to gasoline is really not necessary. For instance in Germany it is not used; I think it is prohibited by law. An admixture of Benzol or the like is used. Here in the USA there is one company, which also uses Benzol with satisfactory result. Organic compounds of iron, molybdenum or manganese could scrappage is expected to go even higher this year.
Perhaps the reason why the newspapers and the authorities have treated any criticism with silence is the fact, that no immediate poisoning has been shown.
But this is erroneous and deceptive, because the action of lead and fluor in small doses is slow and accumulative. They settle in the bones and finally cause death. Or they may settle in the retina and cause blindness.
Then somewhat later, when strange, new infirmities are observed, some disastrous consequences may happen, may be like that in old Greece. About 2500 years ago, in the time of Theophrastos within 2 generations the flower of Greece with its great thinkers, artists and philosophers died. They disappeared. They knew not why. The country sank. What happened? Somebody had invented a way to make barrels and crocks out of lead. It became a regular fashion to let wine ferment in these barrels, and when the wine was drunk later on, it had lead dissolved in it. Men became sick and died from this poison, and in two generation the flower of Greece had been killed by this sneaky poison.
May be a lesson can be learned from this. Lead and fluor in water act accumulatively. Both destroy the enzymes of the human system, and when a number of these important enzymes have been destroyed, languishment with infirmity and death will follow.
Your committee should see to it, that the sale of gasoline with Tetraethyl of lead be prohibited and thus set an example to the country.
I hope that with this treatise I have given your Committee not only certain technical and scientific information, but also a little sermon, that man should not tamper so carelessly with work of the Creator, who in his wisdom has ordained that man should live on air, preferably on clean air.
FRANCIS J. L. DORL.
DRAFT OF PROPOSAL TO CITY OF LOS ANGELES BY AADLEN BROTHERS AUTO WRECKING
The Automobile is plaguing the very existence of the Los Angeles economic and social fibre. In the beginning the accumulation of a dozen or so autos in and around the City was no major problem, because Los Angeles, with its rast acreage, could hide these autos without any impairment of the City's growth.
With its former ability to dispose of old autos, the City of Los Angeles did not take a realistic attitude toward the future, and now these vehicles have come up to haunt the City to such a degree that we have a major Solid Waste Disposal problem.
The Automobile has reached the point where it is a definite danger to the health and safety of the citizens of Los Angeles. It is creating a detriment to economic expansion in Los Angeles, because of the prohibitive costs in handling.
The problem is not going to cure itself unless drastic and creative innovations are undertaken by the City to eliminate the growing current problem. Standards and procedures must be set to dispose of the vehiclesboth presently and in the future.
The problem is a present illness, and the cure must be instituted now!
THE AUTOMOTIVE PICTURE
Since the advent of the Automobile as an adequate means of transportation in the United States, the vehicle population has constantly been on the increase. Today we are facing an unheard-of annual production of vehicles which is nearing 8,000,000 per year. With this tremendous increase of new vehicles there must be a decrease in the amount of vehicles on the road, or, as you can quite clearly see, there will be an over-population of vehicles which will choke the United States economy life-lines-namely, the highways and by-ways of the nation.
Presently, vehicles in the United States are being junked at a rate of 5,000,000 per year. The Automotive Manufacturers are trying to keep the new car sales in the 9,000,000 vicinity for the year 19966. With the present decrease in the Federal excise tar on vehicles, which will lower prices on new Automobiles and an increased desire to purchase new cars, which can be stimulated by various efficient advertising techniques, it seems that the 9,000,000 goal will, in all probability, be reached in 1966.
1 2 From the Program Data Sheet of the National Conference on Auto Salvage held on Thursday, October 1. 1964, at Washington, D.C., prepared by the Institute of Scrap Iron and Steel, 1729 "H" St.. N.W., Washington, D.C.
34 Page 1, Automotive Pricebook, 1963, 1966 Edition, 827 Malcolm Road, Burlingame. California.
In order to facilitate smooth and efficient inclusion of such a great number of new cars, it will be necessary that more vehicles be taken off the National scene in order to accommodate the projected new arrivals.
According to the Automotive News Almanac of 1965, there were 7,556,717 new cars registered in 1963 in the United States, 5,319,286 cars scrapped in 1963 in the United States, and 61,903,289 cars in use in the U.S. in 1963.5
With this great numbers of vehicles on the United States scene, the question
First, let me preface this area of my discussion by saying that the disposal of "used up" Automobiles is no longer merely a scrappage problem, but it is a sold waste problem.
The importance in the distinction between the term "Scrappage" and "Solid Waste" in effect pinpoints the problem of an over-abundance of abandoned, obsolete, and totally-damaged vehicles on and around the highways of the U.S. that has been the topic of much National discussion--of which I am sure you are aware.
Automobile scrapping is the process whereby the vehicle is stripped down and prepared into various shapes, sizes, and types of basic materials, such as copper, aluminum, and steel, that will be acceptable to the mills and foundries for remelting purposes, to be converted into new materials or castings.
SOLID WASTE is the process of eliminating from the public scene unwanted or unneeded solid substances and disposing of them as a public service for the health, safety, and welfare of the citizens.
In years past, the Automobile was a virtual gold mine of refinable materials, primarily consisting of the steel body, which comprises the greatest bulk portion and weight portion of a vehicle. Roughly, an Automobile contains about one ton of scrappable steel.
As short a time ago as 1956, scrap auto steel was bringing an average of about $40.00 to $43.00 per ton; however, today the price has drastically dropped to an average of between about $17.00 to $19.00 per ton.
With the increase in the U.S. economic indexes—i.e., cost of living, cost of labor hours, machinery costs, and all incidental business costs, the drastic drop in the value of the scrap steel price of Automobiles has made it an almost losing proposition to scrap automobiles as a business venture. These drastic drops in value graphically illustrate how the once-profitable enterprise of Automobile scrapping has changed into a present mass Solid Waste problem.
In an article reprinted from the March 28, 1964, issue of “Business Week” magazine, by the Institute of Scrap Iron and Steel, they state the following:
“High Death Rate. Behind Both the high incidence of abandoned cars and spreading of auto graveyards is the phenomenon of increasing scrap supply, coupled with decreasing demand. More cars are being scrapped today than erer before over 5,000,000 last year, compared with 3.6 million in 1958.
Besides the rise in the car-owning population, it is obvious that people are junking their cars sooner than they formerly did. Experts say average auto life has shrunk from 14 years in 1950 to 10 years today. With cars from the peak production years of 1953–55 beginning to hit the scrap heaps in volume, scrappage is expected to go even higher this year.
Demand Weakens. At the same time, demand for auto scrap has been drop-
The major reason for the decrease in the price of scrap steel, as pointed out
Automotive News Almanac, 1956 Edition Second, Page 106,
Statistical Background Sheet, Institute of Scrap Iron & Steel, 1729 "H" St., Washing. ton, D.C.. for National Conference on Auto Sa ye, heid October 1, 1964, at the Madison Hotel, Washington, D.C.
have progressed to such a stage in steel technology that we now face the basic problem, Solid Waste.
Please note that I am in no way against the great progress made in the technology of the steel industry-as a matter of fact, I am very proud of the American initiative and know-how reflected in the ability to create new processes. However, my basic concern is on the other side of the coin, this being the solid waste problem created by the competitive society which is not prepared to cope with the foreseeable residue of its new technology, which is all of our concern.
You may ask yourselves, "How does the national problem of solid waste caused by technological innovations affect the city of Los Angeles?"
I suggest that it affects Los Angeles in the following manner :
First, we must understand that this whole area of solid waste, scrapping, etc., is absolutely and directly involved with one basic thing: The Motor Vehicle.
In the Southern California area, consisting of 15 counties, there are more motor vehicles than in any other State in the United States of America, excepting California itself.' In these 15 Southern California counties the number of passenger vehicles has increased from 2,564,063 in 1950 to 5,311,610 in 1961,* which represents an increase of over 100% in only 14 years.
In five selected Southern California counties--namely, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and Los Angeles, the vehicle population is exceeded only by two states in the U.S., which are California and New York,
To be conservative, Los Angeles City is the largest, without question, of all the cities in the five selected counties, and has more vehicles than any other city in the U.S., and-in all probability--than any other city in the World.
Therefore the problem of solid waste is directly a problem of the City of Los Angeles, and not in any small or insignificant way.
What is the present vehicle problem in Los Angeles?
Presently the major problem in the City of Los Angeles, in reference to rehicles, is the vast amount of abandoned vehicles that are accumulating throughout the City and will continue to accumulate through the next ten years at a progressively proportionate rate.
As stated in the booklet, “Population Projections to 1985" by the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, page (X), paragraph statement No. 51, "Yo attempt has been made to project the traffic situation that might result in the years ahead from the growth in number of motor vehicles. Like Alice in Wonderland, the area will have to run fast to stay in the same position it now occupies." What position does Los Angeles occupy presently in reference to these abandoned
vehicles? According to the California Highway Patrol Statistical Section, as reported by Acting Commander Ruth Howard on Sept. 16, 19964, there were about 7,000 abandoned vehicles in Los Angeles City in 1963 (note: these figures do not reflect the true amount, only those reported to the Highway Patrol, which is considerably less than the true total). According to Officer Fuller of the University Division of the Los Angeles Police Department, who is in charge of abandoned rehicles in this section, there are presently about 1,200 to 1,300 abandoned vehicles per month in the City of Los Angeles, or between about 1.5,000 and 18.000 per year. The projected estimate of abandoned vehicles for the next five or six years by Lt. Clark of P.I.C. Central Division C.A.P.D, will be about 20,000 to 23,000 per year, and contributing factors will be: Planned obsolescence, the strong need for an eventual safety-check (under which many vehicles will not qualify), lowering of prices, and increased stimulus to purchase new vehicles with the ever-growing desire by the Auto Manufacturers to break the 9,000,000 and eventually the 10,000,000 per year mark. Where does this leave Los Angeles?
With the projected vast increase in abandoned rehicles in this City, Los Angeles will have to make some drastic changes or be caught like Alice in Wonderland, "Trying to run fast to maintain its same position and always falling behind."
As mentioned before vehicles are virtually losing their value for serap, and are hastily becoming a solid waste problem. As this continues to occur there will be no outlet for the City of Los Angeles to dispose of these abandoned vehicles.
78: Population Projections to 1985, Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce Research Committee, Page (X), paragraphs 49, 50.
Is there any solution?
As any noted and respected economist will maintain, there is simple panacea for any economic predicament. However, things can be done to hedge for the future and possibly dispel an anticipated disaster before it occurs. Like boarding up a house before a hurricane, the boards will not stop the hurricane, but will, with luck and reasonable planning, prevent the vast damage anticipated.
We at Aadlen Brothers Auto Wrecking, probably the most experienced and authoritative auto wreckers in the world, have such a proposal, not a panacea but possibly a good hedge against a clearly foreseeable disaster.
AADLEN BROS. AUTO WRECKING, By SAM ADLEN, President.
[From the SFI bulletin, Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, D.C., January 1966)
ARTIFICIAL REEFS AS TOOLS OF SPORT FISHERY MANAGEMENT IN
COASTAL MARINE WATERS Prior to about 1950, little knowledge or enthusiasm prevailed among American marine fishery interests as to possible utility of artificial reefs as management tools for manipulation of fish populations in U.S. coastal salt waters. It has long been evident, at least since World War I, that fishing in the vicinity of sunken ships essentially large artificial reefs—is unusually productive in coastal marine waters.
The utility of artificial reefs to improve fishing would appear to be well established and is already supportable as a general principle by the available biological facts. For example, a study of the summer standing crop of fish on an isolated 21-acre Bermuda coral reef revealed a population of fishes amounting to about 420 pounds per acres; this was several-fold that of surrounding sandy areas. Even so, much that must be known to develop it into a sophisticated tool of marine sport fishery management remains to be determined.
Biological Basis for Reef Construction.-A limited contribution to the theoretical basis for construction of artificial reefs for improving sport fishing in marine waters resulted from a two-year study of primary productivity in the Gulf of Mexico near Panama City, Florida, in 1964 and 1965. Florida State University biologists conducted the study utilizing a modification of the classic "light and dark bottle” technique. Entire sections of experimental reef (auto tire substrate) were placed inside water-tight light and dark boxes for measurement of dissolved oxygen. These measurements were compared with measurements of plankton production in conventional light and dark bottles made in nearby waters.
Findings indicated that the productivity of the artificial reef was greater throughout the year than the productivity of the adjacent water. Production in milligrams of carbon fixed per cubic meter per hour ranged from 207 in May to 13 in August as compared with 9 and 34 for plankton production during the same months. Reef production was generally lowest in winter. (Study supported by research grants from the Sport Fishing Institute.?)
Some measurements of direct effects of reef construction on fish populations are also available. In April, 1960, an artificial reef was constructed of 800 concrete blocks (16 x 8 x 8 inches) on a seagrass bottom in about 2912 feet of water in Lesser Lameshur Bay, St. John, Virgin Islands. About 213 years later, a total of 2.754 individuals of 55 species of fishes, weighing about 192 pounds, were removed from the reef. This represented an average of nearly 3.2 pounds per square yard of concrete block (equivalent, as we calculate it, to 14,514 pounds per acre of block surface)! Extensive sampling was also made of the fish populations occurring on the natural fringing reef of St. John.
A total of 1,352 individuals of 103 species of reef-dwelling fishes weighing a little over 211 pounds were removed from one of the sampling areas. This represents an average very close to 0.3 pound per square yard of the study area (equivalent, as we again calculate it, to 1,427 pounds per acre of natural reef surface).
1 Bardach, J. E. 1959. The summer standing crop of fish on a shallow Bermuda reef. Limnol. & Oceanog. 4(1):77-85 (Jan.).
:* Menze), R. W. & H. H. Mathews.' 1965. Primary productivity of an artificial reef, Final Rept. to Sport Fishing Institute (Unpub. Ms.). "Fla. St. Univ., Tallahassee, Fla.