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(69) Lead alkyls are burned in the United States today at a rate of 1.6 X 10" gm Pb/year:
J. R. Sabina, Manager, Anti-Knock and Planning, E, I, duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc.: Lead Anti-Knock Consumption in the Free World, read before the 35th Annual Meeting of the Lead Industries Association, Inc., Chicago, April 29, 1963.
About one third of this lead is emitted as temporary atmospheric impurities greater than 54 in diameter (chiefly as mixed halogen salts).
Hirschler, D. A., et al: Particulate Lead Compounds in Automobile Exhaust Gas, Industr Eng Chem 49:1131, 1957.
(70) Half of the lead alkyls are burned in rural areas. Highway Statistics, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Public Roads, Annual Report, 1960.
(71) Biddulph, 0.: "Radioisotopes in Plants: Foliar Entry and Distribution," in Caldecott, R. S., and Snyder, L. A. (eds): Symposium on Radioisotopes in the Biosphere, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1960.
(72) Middleton, L. J.: "Radioisotopes in Plants: Practical Aspects of Aerial Contamination With Strontiums and Cesium187," in Caldecott, R. S., and Snyder, L. A. (eds) : Symposium on Radioisotopes in the Biosphere, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1960.
(73) Ziegfeld, R. I.: Importance and Uses of Lead, Arch Environ Health 8:202, 1961.
(74) Sanborn, N. H. : Substitute Solders and Substitute Metal Containers for Canned Food Products, National Canners Association, W.P.B. Research project NRC-502N, 1943.
(75) Gehrke. C. W.; Runyan, C. V.; and Pickett, E. E.: A Quantitive Specto-graphic Method for the Determination of Sn, Cu, Fe and Pb in Milk and Milk Products: The Effect of Storage on the Concentration of These Metals in Evaporated Milk, J Dairy Sci 37:1401, 1954.
(76) Shepard, H. H.: The Chemistry and Action of Insecticides, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1951.
(77) Frear, D, E. H. : Chemistry of Insecticides, Fungicides, and Herbicides, ed 2, New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1948.
(78) Rama, K. M. and Goldberg, E. D. : Lead-210 in Natural Waters, Science 134:98, 1961.
(79) Logan, K. H., and Swing, S. P.: Soil Corrosion Studies 1934, Field Tests of Nonbituminous Coatings for Underground Use, Nat Bureau Standards J Res 18:361, 1937.
(80) Lead Industries Association : Lead in Modern Industry, Lord Baltimore Press, 1952.
(81) National Coal Association: Bituminous Coal Facts, 1958.
(82) Corey, R. C., et al.: Occurrence and Determination of Germanium in Coal Ash From Power Plants, US Bureau of Mines Bull No. 575, 1959.
(83) White, H.: DeVoe Paint Co., Bay State Laboratories, Boston, personal communication to the author.
(84) US Department of the Interior: Lead, a Material Survey, 1950, Report to NSRB, US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines and Geological Survey, 1951.
(85) Danson, E. B.: Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, Ariz., personal communication to the author.
186) Cholak, J.; Schafer, L. J.; and Sterling, T. D.: The Lead Content of the Atmosphere, J Air Pollut Contr Assoc 11:281, 1961.
(87) Cholak, J., et al: The Nature of the Suspended Matter: An Aerometric Survey of the Los Angeles Basin August-November 1954, Los Angeles: Air Pollution Foundation, report No. 9, 1955.
(88) Gitelman, H. J. and Neuman, W. F.: Lead-Hydroxy Apatite Interaction, US AEC UR-551, 1959.
(89) Neuman, W. F., and Newman, M. W.: The Chemical Dynamics of Bone Mineral, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.
(90) Behrens, B., and Baumann, A.: 2 Erpor Med 92:16, 241, 251, 296, 1933. (91) Hunter, D., and Aub, J. C.: Quart J Med 20:123, 1926. (92) Aub, J. C., et al. : Lead Poisoning, Medicine 4:1, 1925,
(93) Lederer, L. G., and Bing. F. C.: Effect of Calcium and Phosphorus on Retention of Lead by Growing Organism, COUNCIL OF FOODS, JAMA 114:2457, 1940.
(94) Warren, H. V.: Some Aspects of the Relationship Between Health and Geology, Canad J Public Health 52:157, 1961.
(95) The Working Group on Lead Contamination : Survey of Lead in the Atmosphere of Three Urban Communities, US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service publication No. 999-AP-12, 1967.
(96) Gusev, M. I.: Limits of Allowable Lead Concentration in the Air of Inhabited Localities, book, 4, 1960, by Committee for the Determination of Allowable Atmospheric Concentrations of Atmospheric Pollutants Allied With the Chief State Sanitary Inspectorate of the USSR, Prof V. A. Ryazanov, (ed.). Translation distributed by US Department of Commerce, Office of Technical Services.
(97) Princi, F.: Medical Perspective in Atmospheric Hygiene, JAMA 182:650, 1962.
Senator MUSKIE. May I express my appreciation for your coming to the committee and for your courtesy in holding over from yesterday.
Senator Boggs, do you have any questions?
Senator MUSKIE. Our next witness is Mr. Wesley E. Gilbertson, Chief of the Office of Solid Waste, Public Health Service, Bureau of State Services, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Mr. Gilbertson, it is a pleasure to welcome you.
STATEMENT OF WESLEY E. GILBERTSON, CHIEF, OFFICE OF SOLID
WASTE, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, BUREAU OF STATE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
Mr. GILBERTSON. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, I am very happy to have the opportunity to be here today. I plan to cover in this statement two topics in which the subcommittee is particularly interested: the program being carried out by the Office of Solid Wastes under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, which was developed by this subcommittee last year; and legislation you now have under consideration which would authorize a national program for the disposal of junked, abandoned, and wrecked automobiles. With your permission Mr. Chairman, I will reserve comment on this legislation for the latter portion of my statement.
Under the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965, the United States is embarked, at what we must frankly recognize is the 11th hour, on a path toward solution of the national problem of solid waste disposal,
As I will detail in a moment, the comprehensive effort envisioned by the Solid Waste Disposal Act has been rapidly and effectively gotten underway. Although the dimensions of this effort, which is now in its sixth month, are modest, the basis has surely been laid for development of the broad program called for by the Congress and unquestionably needed in the public interest.
I say that this program comes into existence at the 11th hour for reasons with which members of the subcommittee are well acquainted, As your previous hearings have amply brought out, the national effort to come to grips with the problem of solid waste disposal has until now been dangerously inadequate and insufficient. The lack of even minimally acceptable disposal operations in well over half the cities and towns of the country with more than 2,500 inhabitants, the fact that solid waste disposal is associated with' flagrant and subtle threats to the public health and welfare, and the almost total absence of much needed research to uncover, and demonstrations to evaluate,
bold new solid waste management ideas and techniques, the serious and growing shortage of trained personnel to apply new knowledge in the field of solid waste management; and the fact that most communities and States simply cannot afford to make the necessary investment to overcome any of these shortcomings confront the Nation with an environmental hazard of staggering proportions and critical implications.
And as you know the situation may well get worse before it gets better. Our rising national productivity and the steady climb in population combine to produce even greater amounts of materials which we Americans have to throw
away. Already we have found that throwing things away whether it is the huge and infinitely variegated array of municipal trash, refuse, demolition and construction debris, garbage, and street sweepings, or the even greater mass of industrial and agricultural solid wastes that have to be disposed of somehow-throwing away the 800 million pounds of solid wastes that Americans generate every day is no easy task.
To do this without polluting the air, the water, and the land on which our health and lives depend is an incredibly complex challenge, one for which we do not yet have satisfactory answers.
But we are beginning now to seek the answers. Under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, we are beginning to forge a national attack on the problem of solid waste disposal, an attack which embraces all the needed weapons, from basic scientific research to enlightened public action, from full-scale demonstrations of promising new disposal technology to innovations in attempts to find ways of turning discarded solid wastes into valuable and beneficial resources that will enrich the environment and the life of man.
The Solid Waste Disposal Act was signed into law by the Presi. dent on October 20, 1965. On December 3, the Office of Solid Wastes was established within the Public Health Service to administer the program called for in the act.
The authorities and responsibilities conferred on the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, were delegated to the Surgeon General of the Pubíic Health Service and by the Surgeon General to the Chief of the Office of Solid Wastes.
Supplemental funds in the amount of $4 million were appropriated by the Congress and apportioned to the Office of Solid Wastes on January 25, 1966, by which time considerable progress had already been made in recruitment of staff and administrative development of the new program.
Briefly and without going into lengthy detail, Mr. Chairman, let me outline the organization of the Office of Solid Wastes. The Office of the Chief is responsible for the overall conduct of the program and for liaison with other Federal and non-Federal agencies and organizations with which the Office of Solid Wastes will be working cooperatively. Five key units have been established within the Office of Solid Wastes. Ýhe Training Branch plans and directs a variety of activities designed to raise the level of knowledge and skills of personnel including those from Government and industry-who are or will be engaged in solid waste disposal activities.
The Research Branch will carry out research projects in the laboratory and in field designed to add new knowledge of the nature of
solid wastes, the effects of solid wastes on health, and the potential for safely modifying or converting solid wastes into usable and valuable resources.
The Demonstration Branch is responsible for carrying out pilot plant and full scale demonstrations of experimental solid waste management techniques, including projects relating to improved waste collection, processing, conversion into useful byproducts and ultimate disposal.
The Technical Service Branch is responsible for assisting State and local agencies in meeting specific solid waste disposal programs, and problems, for assisting States that have received survey and planning grants in developing and carrying out the activities for which grant funds are awarded, and for formulating criteria relating to solid waste practices and operations, criteria designed to point the way toward the most healthful, efficient, and practical methods of disposing of solid wastes.
And finally in our grants management we have centralized for cost effectiveness and efficiency the administrative functions for four types of grant authority contained in the Solid Waste Disposal Act; research grants, training grants, grants for the demonstration of new and improved solid waste disposal technology, and grants to aid States in conducting surveys of solid waste disposal problems and practices and in planning for effective solid waste management programs on a statewide, or where possible, interstate basis.
As of June 1, 1966, 63 persons had been assigned or committed to the staff of the Office of Solid Wastes out of the 76 positions authorized during the current fiscal year. We are, of course, actively recruiting to fill the entire authorized complement of personnel.
As a means of initiating the State and interstate aspects of the program under section 206, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare requested the Governors, or equivalent officials, to designate the responsible State agency: Of the 55 jurisdictions--States, territories, and possessions—designations have now been received in 48.
Development of the program is proceeding rapidly and effectively. We have awarded four grants to institutions of higher learning for the specialized training of graduate engineers in the field of solid waste management.
The $150,000 appropriated for training grants during the 1966 fiscal year enabled us to fund four of the seven approved applications.
The remaining three, plus several others that have been received subsequently, will compete for 1967 funds.
By awarding these four training grants, we have increased threefold the number of_institutions offering graduate training in solid waste technology. In direct training operations, by the end of this fiscal year we will have provided specialized training to more than 200 persons from State and local governments, the Federal Government, and industry.
As a measure of the sharply rising interest in the solid waste products, registrations for the courses offered so far or scheduled for this fiscal year have been far in excess of the number our training staff and facilities could effectively accommodate. We are, therefore, scheduling an increased number and variety of training courses during the coming year.
These training activities are being set up at Cincinnati because of the advantages of coordination and mutual support with other environmental health training programs.
In the research grant area a good beginning has been made. We are now supporting a total of 21 research projects, representing the full commitment of the $859,000 available for research grants in fiscal
We have at the present time a backlog of $250,000 in approved research grant applications for which funds are lacking. The 21 projects now being supported by the Office of Solid Wastes cover an impressively wide range of inquiry, but the primary emphasis is along two main paths; first, studies leading to protection against health hazards associated with the production, processing, and disposal of solid wastes; and second, studies of the conversion of or recycling of solid wastes into potentially useful and safe materials and resources.
The scope of the program ranges from relatively modest projects to a comprehensive systems analysis approach to solid waste management being carried out by the University of California at Berkeley under a $159,000 grant from the Public Health Service.
Our own direct research operation will not be in full swing until the next fiscal year, although several projects are now in their initial stages. At the present time, our major efforts are being directed at acquiring and equipping research facilities in Cincinnati, Ohio, and at recruiting key members of our research staff. In two of the major program areas authorized by the Solid Waste Disposal Act we have made, I think, very significant progress. We have approved 21 grants from State agencies for the support of statewide surveys and planning. Fourteen of these grants have been awarded, representing all of the $100,000 appropriated during the present fiscal year.
As you know, these grants provide up to 50-percent support of State activities designed to lead to the development of effective State programs in the area of solid waste management.
The purpose of these grants is to assist States in gathering basic information on the extent of solid waste problem and on the effectiveness and deficiencies of ongoing solid waste disposal efforts within the State.
Making use of this information States receiving these survey and planning grants will develop comprehensive plans for meeting their solid waste problems, plans that will include not only appropriate consideration to solid waste disposal needs of the State, but will also take into consideration such related factors as control of air and water pollution resulting from improper solid waste disposal, meaningful land use planning, protection of the public health, and trends in population and industrial growth that will affect the future character of the solid waste management problem.
To the fullest extent possible these State plans will encourage interlocal and interstate cooperation to avoid the fragmentation of solid waste disposal efforts among jurisdictions that lack the resources of authority to carry out effective and sanitary collection and disposal operations.
We are very encouraged by the impressive number and quality of the State survey and planning grant applications we received prior