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partisan basis, proposed enabling legislation that would create a State air pollution control agency, one that would be similar to pollution control agencies now existing in the other Sates. The legislature affirmed the concern of the Missoula County delegation and passed the bill. However, the Governor rejected action of the legislature and vetoed the bill.
Twenty-five States have enacted air pollution legislation. Only in my State has this desirable enabling legislation been vetoed by the Governor. I want to emphasize to this subcommittee that—despite the veto-the people of Montana, their local officials, their State legislature and their Senators believe in the air pollution abatement program.
I am sure that early next year the legislature will again pass enabling legislation and my Governor will have another opportunity to join the bipartisan effort to clean up air pollution at that time.
Some States have more serious pollution problems than does Montana. However, the people of Missoula County, and neighboring Granite County, where serious fluoride pollution exists, would believe that their problem is as serious as that in any part of the Nation.
The veto of the Governor of Montana, with its seeming lack of concern for the health and welfare of the people of Montana, must raise questions regarding the validity of the States assuming primary responsibility in the area of air pollution control.
This is why I am before the committee, Mr. Chairman, the neglect of the States to carry out their responsibility, so we must assume that responsibility for control of air and water pollution.
The 1963 Federal Clean Air Act states that “the prevention and control of air pollution at its source is the primary responsibility of State and local governments.” This law and its 1965 amendments contain a variety of services to assist States and local governments in meeting their responsibilities. Many States and communities have been quick to take advantage of Federal assistance.
Mr. Chairman, we have a great deal of talk these days about Federal assistance. The President and Governor Rockefeller and others have talked about this business of creative or cooperative federalism, you know. We discuss the Federal grants-in-aid, which developed in the time of Franklin Roosevelt. We are trying to give the States an opportunity to help themselves and by these grants-in-aid we are giving them the responsibility to carry out these programs. At the same time if they don't meet that responsibility we say the Federal Government then will take care of it,
Montana has received a $10,000 grant to develop a State control program. This grant will continue for a second year which ends June 30, 1967. If Montana, by that time, has not enacted legislation setting up a workable State air pollution control program, no further Federal control funds can be provided the State.
Let me add here, that this money so far awarded to Montana is not going to abate any air pollution but hopefully will finance planning necessary for the establishment of a control program. It will take considerably greater funds to assist in abating Montana's air pollution problems.
Enactment of the State air pollution control program would have made available to Montana considerably more than the $10,000 annu
ally referred to above. Montana would be entitled to its full share of program grant funds which, of course, could not exceed 1212 percent of the $5 million allocated for this purpose.
These funds would help the State to actively pursue control methods, establish air pollution standards, and police this critical area. Currently, however, the citizens of Montana are not protected from intrastate air pollution.
I firmly support the right of industries to freely arrive at what could be considered business decisions. However, there are two more important considerations. As a public official, my primary responsibility is to the health and welfare of my constituents. AŬ of us, industry included, have an obligation in a free society to protect and maintain the resources on which that society depends.
Throughout the Nation many, many industries have installed pollution control devices, often at very great expense and frequently without hope of having that expense increase their income. These industries have recognized their social responsibility and deserve our high praise for their positive control actions.
They have recognized that the approximately $11 billion a year that air pollution costs the Nation is too high a price to pay for noncontrol. They have also recognized that we cannot continue to pay the priceless costs incurred by damage to human health and welfare.
Mr. Chairman, I once again want to congratulate you, specifically, and other members of the subcommittee, for the work you have done, and are doing, on the problem of air pollution.
The public awareness thus created is rapidly motivating our States and communities to provide and plan for adequate air pollution control.
Their response to the services provided by the Federal Clean Air Act and its 1965 amendments is heartening More States and communities should take advantage of this legislation that is designed to assist them with their pollution problems. When the time comes in our Nation that we have turned the tide against the air pollution problems not confronting us, I am aware that it will be said that an immeasurable contribution toward resolving these problems was made by this subcommittee.
do the job.
Senator Muskie. Thank you, Senator. I would like to emphasize two points which you made. First, the point that our current clean air legislation is based upon the assumption that the States ought to deal with this problem, and to that end the legislation provides assistance to the States to help them The legislation before us would provide additional assistance to the States
. I think the testimony before these hearings will indicate there has been an encouraging response on the part of many States. Many of them have not responded. So, it is good to have your testimony on
I would agree with you that if the States do not respond, communities do not respond, then Congress will face an increasing responsibility to act in behalf of the Nation's whole.
It is very important that the States rise to this challenge. The second point that you made that I would like to emphasize is the fact that it has been the practice of this subcommittee to conduet
hearings, to open up areas of inquiry unrelated to pending legislation. We are this week hearing a great deal of useful and important testimony on specific pollutants because we want to know at an early stage, (rat least as early a stage as possible of the threats to health or lack of threats to health of specific pollutants.
We will hear something this morning about beryllium, something Huore about lead to add to the testimony which we heard yesterday. We like to conduct hearings of this kind unrelated to specific legislation so that we can receive testimony and information in an open minded fashion, so that we can enter into our approach to the problem without prejudgments.
We are going to let the facts lead us. Some of the facts we are getting of course are disputed. We are going to have to choose, based on judgments and based upon the competence of witnesses who come before us.
These two points you have made I think deserve emphasis. Again may I congratulate you, Senator Metcalf, for the very important support you have given to the work of this committee.
Senator METCALF. Mr. Chairman, I want to emphasize again, I come from a sparsely populated State. The State of Montana is the fourth largest State in the Union. We have about three quarters of a million people in that State. And yet this problem of air pollution is a problem in my State just as much as it is a problem in the very heavily populated states from whom you have heard testimony.
The failure of the Governor of the State of Montana to cooperate with an air pollution problem demonstrates the need for this Federal legislation.
Senator MUSKIE. Thank you very much, Senator Metcalf.
Senator MUSKIE. Our next witness this morning is a distinguished witness, a worker in the field of air pollution research, Dr. Harriet L. Ilardy, assistant medical director, Occupational Medical Service of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Dr. Hardy, it is a pleasure and a privilege to welcome you this morning.
Dr. ILIRDY. Thank you.
Senator MUSKIE. I might say we will include in the record as docilmentation of Dr. Hardy's background in this field her curriculum vitae and a list of approximately 90 publications involving her word.
(The documents referred to follow :)
HARRIET LOUISE HARDY
Birth: September 23, 1906, Arlington, Massachusetts.
Kent Place School, Summit. V.J., Graduated. 1924.
Philadelphia General Hospital, 1932–1934.
practice, 1934–1939. Physician, Franklin County Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children,
193.1.39. Initiated Pediatric Clinic, Franklin County Hospital, Greenfield, Mass., 1937. College Physician and Head of Dept. of Health Education, Radcliffe College,
Cambridge, Mass., 1939-1945.
Graduate Assistant in Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 1940-1943.
Public Health, Feb. 1945-Sept. 1945.
tries, Sept. 1945-Jan. 1948; Jan. 1949-May 1949.
Commission, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Jan. 1948-Jan. 1949.
Mass. Institute of Technology, May 1949-June 1950,
Dept., Mass. Institute of Technology, June 1950-
of Public Health, July 1947-1952.
nization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1951-
American Medical Association, 1934-1950.
Hardy, H. L., Clarke, H. L. and Brouhs, L., Testing physical fitness in young
women, Revue Canadienne de Biologie, vol. 2, no. 4, Oct. 1943. Hardy, H. L., The clinical significance of data accumulated in the medical care
of young women, N. Eng. J. Med., 233:811, 1945. Hardy, H. L., and Bullon, Adelaide, Analysis of body build photographs of 175
college women, Amer. J. Phys. Anthropology, 4:37, 1946. Hardy, H.L., and Feemster, Roy, Infection hepatitis in Massachusetts with a
review of present knowledge of the disease, N. Eng. J. Med., 235:147, Aug. 1,
1946. Hardy, H. L., and Tabershaw, I. R., Delayed chemical pneumonitis occurring in
workers exposed to beryllium compounds, J. Indus. Hygiene and Tox., 28:197,
1946. Hardy, H. L., New clinical syndrome, delayed chemical pneumonitis occurring
in workers exposed to beryllium compounds, Bull. X. Eng. Med Center IX, 16,
Feb., 1947. Hardy, H. L., Prevention of anthrax (correspondence), X. Eng. Med. J., p. 883,
June 5, 1917. Hardy, H. L., and Skinner, J. B., The possibility of chronic cadmium poisoning,
J. Ind. Hygiene and Tox., 29:321, 1947. Hardy, H. L., Pulmonary disease in industry. Present knowledge of delayed chemical pneumonitis occurring in workers exposed to beryllium compounds (Abstract), Reprint Trans. 43rd Annual meeting, National Tuberculosis Assn.,
1947. Hardy, H. L., and Elkins, H. B., Medical aspects of maximum allowable con
centrations : benzene, J. Ind. Hygiene and Tox., 30:186, 1948. Hardy, H. L., Delayed chemical pneumonitis in workers exposed to beryllium
compound, Am. Rer. Tuberculosis, 57: 547, 1948. Abstract also in J.A.M.A.,
138: 1197, 1948. Simmons, F. A., and Hardy, H. L., Chronic progressive infectious gangrene of
the skin: a patient with exposure to cold wave solution. Ann. Surg. 128:1112,
1948. Hardy, H. L., Mercury poisoning. Physics Today, 2: no. 11, Nov., 1949. Hamilton, Alice and Hardy, H. L., Industrial Toxicology. Paul B. Hoeber, Inc.,
New York, 574 pp., 1949. Hardy. H. L., Toxic effects of beryllium, Metals Industry, 18: 23. Trans. National
Safety Council, Oct., 1949. Hardy, H. L., Acute and chronic beryllium poisoning, AECU 569, U.S. Atomic
Energy Commission, October 1949. Hardy. H. L., Jeffries. W. McK., and Wasserman, N. M., Waddell. W. R., Thiocy.
anate effect following industrial cyanide exposure, N. Eng. J. Med. 212:968,
1950. Hardy. H. L., and Maloof, C. C., Evidence of systemic effect of tetryl, Arch. Ind.
Hyg. and Occup. Med., 1:545, 1950. Hardy, H. L., Hazards of common solvents, Physics Today, 3:15, 1950. Hardy. H. L., The character and distribution of disease in American industries
using beryllium compounds, Proc. of the Royal Soc. of Med., 44: 257, 1951.
(Paper read before Royal Society of Medicine Oct. 20. 1959). IIardy, II. L. and C. C. Maloof, Treatment of lead poisoning with sodium citrate,
Arch. Indust. Hyg. and Occ. Med., 3: 267, 1951. Hardy. H. L., F. C. Bartter and A. E. Jaffin. Metabolic study of a case of chronic
beryllium poisoning treated with ACTH, Arch. Indust. Hyg. and Occ. Med.,
3: 579, 1951. Hardy. H. L., Beryllium (Sect. X, Industrial Toxicology Chapter), Oxford Loose
Leaf Medicine 4:42, 1951. Hardy, H, L., The beryllium problems: the chronic or delayed disease. Clinical
and epidemiological aspects. Pneumoconiosis: beryllium, bauxite fumes, com
pensation. Paul B. Hoeber, New York, pp. 133–52. 1950. Hardy, H. L., Clinical evidence for the latent and additive action of benzol with
other toxic insults: report of two cases, Arhiv Za Higijenu Fada (Yugosla
vian Journal), 3. B. R. 1, pp. 1-6, 1952. Hamilton, Alice and B. T. Johnstone, reviewed by Hardy, H. L., Ionizing Radia
tion, Oxford Loose-Leaf Medicine, XXI, 663, 150-177. 1952. Hardy, H. L., Experience accumulated in 3 years of an occupational medical
clinic. Ind. Med. and Surg., 21:9, 424, 1952.