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4. Coordination with other Federal agencies and industry in those areas where the Public Health Service cannot effectively work alone. An example would be a study in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture of the lead in crops in areas of high lead concentration.

3. Determination as our knowledge increases, as to what extent regulatory control programs by the Public Health Service would be desirable to insure adequate public protection against environmental contaminants.

6. Provision of a mechanism for across-the-board training and technical assistance to States, localities and industry on these problems.

Until we have organized our efforts so that then we can carry out the studies that are needed to determine the health hazards of environmental contaminants, it is important that the levels of lead to which our urban population is exposed be held constant. All parties should take reasonable steps to minimize exposure to the populace. We shall continue our investigations; should they show a need for reducing exposures from certain major sources such as is represented by motor Tehicles fuels

, we will take the appropriate necessary steps and should we need additional authority, we will seek it vigorously. I shall be pleased to answer any questions you have, Mr. Chairman. Senator MUSKIE. Thank you, Dr. Prindle, for your excellent statement.

In section 106 of the Clean Air Act, there is provision for a technical committee to meet from time to time, at the call of the Secretary to evaluate progress in the development of such devices and fuels, and to develop and recommend research programs which could lead to the development of such devices and fuels, that is, studies aimed at preventing pollutants traceable to devices or fuels. Do

you know whether or not that committee is working and when we can expect a report from it?

Dr. PRINDLE. Yes, sir. It is working. I would like to introduce Arthur C. Stearn, Assistant Chief of the Air Pollution Division.

Mr. STEARN. The committee has held several meetings. It is not our understanding that that particular committee is required to report to the Congress. There is a separate provision that requires that the Department through the Secretary make reports to the Congress and these have been routinely made. There have been three such reports.

Senator MUSKIE. There is a requirement on the Secretary to report to the Congress 1 year after the enactment of the section and semiannually thereafter on measures taken toward the resolution of the vehicle exhaust pollution problem and efforts to improve fuels including (a) occurrence of pollution as a result of discharge of pollutants from automobile exhaust; (6) progress of research into the development of devices and fuels to reduce pollution from automobiles and rehicles and (c) criteria on degree of pollutant matter discharged from automobiles; (d) efforts to improve fuels so as to reduce emission of exhaust from pollutants and (e) his recommendations for additional legislation, if necessary, to regulate the discharge of pollutants from automobile exhausts.

So that if the committee itself does not report the progress presumably he would base his report on the committee's findings.

Dr. PRINDLE. That is correct. Three of those reports have been submitted at this point.

Senator MUSKIE. With reference to the last statement of your presentation, Dr. Prindle, you will take appropriate necessary steps and request additional authority if necessary, can you give us any timetable ?

I realize that you can't schedule scientific research in that fashion but we would like to have some idea of your targets.

Dr. PRINDLE. I think, Mr. Chairman, perhaps with respect to the specific problem of lead we could give you a general picture of the timetable. I think with respect to many of these other problems we have been discussing and such things as the point you raised about the interaction of these with other contaminants and so forth, this becomes a much more difficult type of thing. As a result of our symposium and as a result of our other activities, we have been trying to develop a program that would cover a specific program on lead.

We feel that in a period of approximately 5 years we can begin to have the kind of information we need. Now part of the reason for this length of time is not only what you indicated, Mr. Chairman, the idiosyncracies of research and the problems thereof but the fact that we need time to evaluate the trends that we are talking about here.

Is it really going up? We have to take some time to see if it is going up. We need to take some time to see what is happening to these people as a follow up to exposure. I should think at the end of a period of 5 years we might well have sufficient information on which at least to make much better judgments than we can do today.

Senator MUSKIE. There is work being done, or at least work being planned, if it is not being done, to develop substitutes for lead in gasoline. If those are developed in a shorter time than 5 advocate that they be used?

Dr. PRINDLE. Like the Surgeon General, as long as they are safe, I think we would certainly encourage this development as much as possible, just as we would encourage the development of other approaches not only of materials but within the refinery picture itself, the development of lead-free gasoline in general.

Senator MUSKIE. In other words, it would be accurate to paraphrase what you said in this way: that the evidence of a connection between lead in the atmosphere and health is such that if we can find a substitute for lead in gasoline we ought to find it as quickly as possible?

Dr. PRINDLE. We would welcome this very much, yes.

Senator MUSKIE. Thank you very much, Dr. Prindle. If you have no pressing engagements elsewhere, I would appreciate if you could remain for the rest of this hearing in the event other questions occur to us.

Dr. PRINDLE. I shall be glad to do so, Mr. Chairman.

years, would

you

(Subsequently, the following paper was submitted :)

STUDIES ON LEAD

(Conducted by Government agencies and by non-Government agencies with

support from the Federal Government)

Intramural studies of lead 1 (as of June 1, 1966)
Title

Agency
Investigations in the Therapy of Bovine State of Minnesota (University of
Lead Poisoning.

Agricultural Experiment Station). Ultra-micro Methods for Chemical Veterans Administration.

Analysis in the Clinical Laboratory. Studies on Chronic Lead Poisoning-

Do. The Relationship of Chronic Lead Ex Do.

posure to Chronic Renal Disease. Trace Elements in Beagles.-

Atomic Energy Commission. The Effects of Various Types of Grit in tment of the Interior, Bureau of Alleviating Lead Poisoning.

Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Division

of Wildlife Research, Fate of Substitute Shot in Natural En Do. vironments, and Assessment of Potential Hazards to Biota in the Environment. Relative Toxicity of Lead Shot and Do. Substitute Shot to Waterfowl. Toxicity of Sublethal Dosages of Lead Do. and Important Pesticides in Combination to Waterfowl. Relative Toxicity of Lead Shot and Do. Substitute Shot to Wild-Trapped

Mallards. Toxicity of Sublethal Dosages of Lead Do. and Important Pesticides to WildTrapped Mallards. Investigation into Role of Lead as a Do. Cause of Snow Goose Mortality at the Back Bay-Currituck Sound Wintering Grounds. Lead as a Factor Causing Impactions

Do. in Waterfowl. Carbohydrates, Trace Minerals, To Department of Agriculture.

copherols & Vitamin B, in Wheat. Mineral Elements in Formation of Or Do.

ganic Matrix of Bone.
Effect of Chemical Contaminants on

Do.
Soil Microbial Processes.
Agricultural Significance of Elements Do.

from Agricultural Chemicals.
Study of Blood Lead Levels in Four Children's Cottages, Kew, Victoria,

Groups of Twenty Retarded Chil Australia. dren Each. Montana Air Pollution Study.

Public Health Service, Bureau of State

Services, Division of Air Pollution,

Field Studies Branch. Atmospheric Lead Project.

Public Health Service (a combination

contract with the California State Department of Public Health, Berkeley, Calif., and intramural project of the division of air pollution, bureau of

State services, field studies branch). No information available on funding.

SUPPORT OF STUDIES ON LEAD
Active Public Health Service and other Government grants (as of June 1, 1968)

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1965-66

1 $290, 781

A. Public Health Service:

National Institute of Research Facilities

and Resources, National Institutes of
Health.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Multicategorical Clinical Research Center.

Pittsburgh, Pa,

EFFECTS ON HUMANS

1966-67

9, 349

National Institute of Child Health and

Human Development, National Institutes

of Health. National Heart Institute, National Institutes of Health.

Do.

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National Institute of Neurological Diseases

and Blindness, National Institutes of Health. ..do.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cam- Environmental Lead Intoxication in Children..

bridge, Mass.
West Suburban Hospital, Oak Park, Ill.

The Relation of the Kidney to Hypertension....
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Studies of Renal Tubular Enzymes..

School.
Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene, Inc., Epilepsy after Cerebral Injection of Metallic
New York, N.Y.

Powders.
Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital Medical The Pathologic Effects of Lead.

School, University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill.
Research Foundation, Children's Hospital of Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier in Lead
District of Columbia.

Poisoning.
University of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, Pb210 EDTA Excretion as an Index of Radon
Colo.

Dose to Man.
Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.. Investigation of Lead Intoxication in Children.
Kettering Laboratory, University of Cincinnati, The Fate of Inhaled Particulate Lead Com.
Cincinnati, Ohio.

pounds.
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Biochemical Effects of Lead Poisoning-

Baltimore, Md.

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.do.

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Division of Occupational Health, Bureau

of State Services. Division of Accident Prevention, Bureau

of State Services.
Division of Air Pollution, Bureau of State

Services.
Division of Occupational Health, Bureau of

State Services.

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METHODOLOGY
National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY

Diseases, National Institutes of Health,
National Cancer Institute, National Insti The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hos-
tutes of Health,

pital and Tumor Institute, Houston, Tex.
National Institute of General Medical Sci Pacific Northwest Research Foundation, Inc.,
ences, National Institutes of Health,

Seattle, Wash.
Division of Air Pollution, Bureau of State Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La.
Services.
Do

Division of Geological Sciences, California

Institute of Technology
METABOLIC
National Institute of General Medical Sci- | Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York,
ences, National Institutes of Health.

N.Y.
Total, Public Health Service
B. Federal Water Pollution Control Administra- Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama
tion.

City, Japan.
C. Department of the Interior

Missouri Conservation Commission, Jefferson

City, Mo.
Colorado Game, Fish, and Parks Department,

Denver, Colo.
Utah State University, Logan, Utah..
Colorado Game, Fish, and Parks Department

Denver, Colo.
D. Department of Agriculture

University of Missouri Agricultural Experiment

Station, Columbia, Mo.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem,

Israel.
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New

Delhi, India
University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill.

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1 Approximately $2,000 devoted to lead research. 3 Federal funds. State funds.

6 Fiscal year.

2 Less $288,781 of a Center grant not devoted to lead. Funds unknown.

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