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Mr. Cousins. Senator, there is now the technological know-how to tame chimneys of almost any size, and to tame them effectively.
The big problem is to produce this equipment in sufficient quantity to bring it down within the reach of all those who ought to be using it. We believe that this can be done, as I said a moment ago, if
you have a combination of tax incentive on one side, and rigorous en forcement on the other.
In fact, I don't think there is going to be a spectacular breakthrough in air pollution until you have incentives for a major new industry in the l'nited States. The knowledge is here for that.
If I may, Senator, I would like to thank you for your comments. I was especially interested in what you had to say about air quality standards, because this conceivably might be the answer to the question that is often asked; at what point does the Federal Government step in, at what point does the State take over, at what point does the city operate?
it seems to me that if the Federal Government sets certain air quality standards, and then leaves it to the other agencies, States, and cities, to meet these standards, it stays out of the picture up to and including that point. But the moment the intensity of pollutants in the air reach a certain point, there you have a critical limit, and that is the point that the Federal Government should step in,
That is why it is so important to ask ourselves what do we mean by good air? At what point does air become dangerous? At what point does the Federal Government step in?
Senator Boggs. That is a good point. I agree with you.
Senator MUSKIE. I would like to ask just one or two questions about the electrostatic precipitator control on automobiles. The city of New York is testing this at this time? Mr. Cousins. Yes, sir. Senator Mrskie. Was it produced by the city of New York? Mr. Cousins. No, sir; this was produced by an engineering firm in New York, the Gourdine Systems.
We have worked very closely with Gourdine, I think one of the most interesting Americans I have met. He is a former Olympic track star, they call him "Flash" Gourdine, an inventor, a distinguished American who has made a fine contribution to this whole effort, not only with respect to automobiles, but also with respect to combustion in general.
Senator MUSKIE. Does New York City have a laboratory established for this kind of testing? Mr. Cousins. We are testing them directly on cars. Senator MUSKIE. Is there any indication as to what the cost will be ? Mr. Cousins. Yes. The device can be produced at from $30 to $50, depending on the quantity, for passenger cars or taxicabs. They now calculate it will cost more for larger buses.
I should point out that this device knocks out the particulate matter, and is not as effective as we should like the device to be against gases, but through the adsorption process some of the poisons cling to the particulate matter, and to the extent you can knock them out.
We do not see this as a final device. We see it as one of the devices that may be helpful. Senator Muskie. Now, you are using it on city cars, are you? Mr. Cousins. Taxicabs, right now.
Senator MUSKIE. How do you measure the results of these devices?
Mr. Cousins. First, we are taking the oldest, smelliest cars or taxicabs that we can find.
Senator MUSKIE. Those are the ones I usually ride in.
Mr. Cousins. The particulate matter is collected in a little cup inserted in the exhaust, and this will give us a pretty good idea of what it is we have knocked out.
Senator MUSKIE. How often does the device have to be serviced to remove the accumulated particulate matter?
Mr. Cousins. The average car I believe runs about 12,000 miles a year. Therefore, we believe that the device would be cleaned 6 weeks or every 2 months.
Senator MUSKIE. As soon as you have accumulated meaningful data, we would appreciate getting them. If you could provide us some before the record of the hearings is closed, we would include it as part of the record.
Mr. Cousins. Every New Yorker is an expert on pollution. Everyone who has encountered the back side of a bus knows as much as there is to know about pollution. We believe if you could do something about the rear end of these buses, that is to say, knock out all the smoke. we may not knock out all the poisons, but we will come out with a net gain.
Senator MUSKIE. I agree.
Senator Muskie. I will order the staff to lay in the record a number of statements and communications that have been received.
(The material referred to follows:)
STATEMENT OF THE AMERICAN PAPER INSTITUTE
This statement is being submitted by the American Paper Institute to your Subcommittee in reply to questions from the Subcommittee about industry research on air pollution problems, in the hope that it will be helpful.
The American Paper Institute, the organization representing the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry in the United States, shares the national interest in clean air. The paper industry's concern with this problem is demonstrated by the fact that the National Council for Stream Improvement, a non-profit research organization. established and exclusively supported by the pulp and paper industry since 1913, expanded its program and research in 1954 to deal with the problem of air pollution.
The enclosed Atmospheric Pollution Technical Bulletin (see attachment 1)? titled “Status of Present Investigations and Future Research Needs in Atmospheric Pollution Control” published by the National Council in June of 1966, summarizes the present activities of the Council in the field of air pollution and contains recommendations for future research.
Enclosed also is an Index to Atmospheric Pollution Technical Bulletins (see attachment 2) which have been issued by the National Council for Stream Improvement to date.
(1) SULFUR EMISSIONS FROM FUEL BURNING The pulp and paper industry is not greatly involved with sulfur emissions from fossil fuel burning, since most papermill fuel burning installations are relatively small and most pulp mills either derive most of their steam from the recovery plant, or from log fuel or bark boilers, whose SO2 emission level is low, or burn natural gas.
Sulfur emission from high sulfur fossile fuel burning is mainly a problem for utilities burning vast quantities of high sulfur content coal or fuel oil daily.
1 The attachments referred to appear in the Appendix to this record.
(2) MEBCAPTANS AND ODOROUS EMISSIONS
The National Council for Stream Improvement, at Washington State University, studied methods for continuous measurement of methyl mercaptan and other odoriferous compounds present in kraft pulp mill stacks. A method developed as a result of this research is now in the final stages of refinement in a permanent installation. It will be useful in controlling mercaptan discharge.
At the same institution, chlorine oxidation of methyl mercaptan was also studied and the conditions controlling its effectiveness established. A number of installations of chlorine oxidation are now in operation at bleached graft mills. The Council is studying other methods of sulfur compound oxidation at its Louisiana State University Research Center, including mill scale trials using molecular oxygen. Removal of such compounds by scrubbing mill off-gases is being investigated by the Council at Oregon State University in cooperation with a number of West Coast mills.
An international research conference dealing with air pollution from kraft mills, and sponsored by the University of Florida, the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Council for Stream Improvement was held this Spring at Sanibel Island, Florida. At this meeting research programs of these organizations, as well as a number of others in both this country and Europe were discussed. It was revealed that the ISPHS is spending at the rate of $140,000 annually on air pollution research associated with kraft pulping. It was also learned that air pollution control measures at kraft mills are more highly developed and more generally applied in this country than in any other, but that substantially more development and application is needed. A list of the USPHS projects is attached, together with a summary of the Sanibel Island conference. (See attachments 3 and 4.)
Your Subcommittee in its deliberations has recognized the hard core of the air pollution problem-that is, the necessity of obtaining additional money for research in this area. The paper industry has been spending sizeable amounts of both time and money on this problem for over a decade. In addition to the research carried out by the National Council, a number of individual companies have devoted considerable time and expense to research and development into the difficult and elusive problems of air pollution abatement. The size of this year's budget of the National Council, as well as the expenditures of many of our companies in the Industry, are further evidence of the continuing activities in
The state of the art of air pollution ordor abatement technology is at best in its formative stages. One very obvious indication of the need for more money in this area is the lack of college programs for trained technicians. The Federal Government is conducting research in air pollution abatement; universities are moving into this research area ; and industries are spending more of both time and money on the problem. Because of dire need for immediate action and because of the lack of both trained men and specific knowledge, a pooling of scientific experiments, men, knowledge, and money, using universities as the catalyst, might well afford a superior and less costly solution to many of the research needs.
The American Paper Institute applauds this Subcommittee's efforts to examine all phases of the air pollution problem and we pledge to join with them--as one industry~in our national commitment to clean air.
ROBERT E. O'CONNOR,
NATIONAL WILDLIFE FEDERATION,
Washington, D.C., June 3, 1966. Hon. EDMUND S. MUSKIE, Chairman, Special Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution, Senate Committee
on Public Works, Nero Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN : Thank you for the invitation and opportunity to comment briefly upon S. 3112, relating to the Clean Air Act, and S. 3400, relating to junked automobiles.
Due to conflicts, it will be impossible for the National Wildlife Federation to be represented personally in the forthcoming hearings on these bills and we would appreciate it if this letter could be made a part of the record of the proceedings.
By way of identification, the National Wildlife Federation is a private organization with headquarters here in Washington, D.C. The Federation seeks to attain
conservation goals through educational means. It has independent affiliates in 49 states. These affiliates are made up of local clubs and individuals who, when combined with associate members and other supporters of the National Wildlife Federation, number an estimated 2,000,000 persons.
The National Wildlife Federation, in annual convention earlier this year, adopted a resolution listing the major conservation issues of 1966. Our organization listed environmental contamination as the first and leading conservation problem currently facing the nation. It is our belief that the contamination of air, water, and land resources, both from unwise disposal of wastes and from the deliberate application of chemicals, is the most pressing problem of our time. This resolution expressed our opinion that in view of demands from the expanding human population, it is urgent that massive attacks be mounted by Federal, state, and local governmental agencies to control water and air pollution. We also beileve, and have so testified when invited by committees of the Congress, that industries must be encouraged to regard pollution control as a normal cost of production and pricing.
It is our belief that the principles expressed in S. 3112 can play an important part in attaining air pollution objectives. As we read it, this problem has two outstanding features. First, this bill would expand the annual authorization for air pollution control and abatement programs to a ceiling of $46,000.000 per year for six years. It is our belief that this program needs this acceleration and we are hopeful that the Committee will see fit to approve of this portion of the proposal. Second, it is our understanding that this bill would permit 50-50 matching grants to air pollution control agencies and three-fifths matching grants to intermunicipal and interstate agencies for the purpose of maintaining air pollution control and abatement programs. These would be in addition to the cur. rent matching grants to air pollution control agencies and we also are hopeful that the Committee may see fit to approve of this portion of the program.
Attached is a copy of an article on air pollution control which was printed in the April-May, 1966, issue of National Wildlife Magazine, which now goes to more than 200,000 associate members of the National Wildlife Federation. We are pleased and honored that the Division of Air Pollution, U.S. Public Health Service, is reprinting several thousand of these articles for distribution throughout the country and we would appreciate it if this material can be made a part of this hearing record.
We also believe that the principles expressed in S. 3400 would be good and beneficial in carrying out plans to beautify the landscape, another major goal of the National Wildlife Federation and most other national conservation organizations. We believe that wrecked motor vehicles which have been abandoned constitute an exceptionally bad blight on the countryside and in many instances are placed in such a manner that they constitute a hazard to recreational uses of streams, lakes, and other outdoor recreational facilities. We believe anything reasonable that the Federal Government can do to stimulate the removal of these aged autos will be in the best public interest. Thank you for the opportunity of making these remarks. Sincerely,
LOUIS S. CLAPPER, Chief, Division of Conservation Education.
OF ALEX RADIN, GENERAL MANAGER, AMERICAN PUBLIC POWER
AIR POLLUTION AND THE ELECTRIC VEHICLE
The motor vehicle commonly is described as a major source of air pollution. A report by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, published last Norember, estimated that about half of the total air pollution problem in the United States is caused by cars, trucks and buses. A report published this month in St. Louis, Mo., indicated that 63% of the hydrocarbons discharged into the atmosphere in that city during a 1963 test period were attributed to automobiles.
Efforts are being made to control the exhausting of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide by vehicles, but even the best of these provide something less than
1 Filed with its committee.
100% control. For example, 1966 auto models for sale in California, where a stringent exhaust control law is in effect, are equipped with exhaust control systems that reduce hydrocarbon emissions by about 65% and carbon monoxide emissions by about 50%, according to the HEW report.
A PERMANENT SOLUTION POSSIBLE
On this basis, even the adoption of California-type legislation by all of the other states would not solve the vehicular pollution problem; it would merely permit a doubling of the number of automotive vehicles without any increase in the present level of pollution, admittedly too high. Population projections indicate that a doubling of the number of vehicles can be anticipated within a relatively few years, and automotive pollution will rise accordingly.
Members of the American Public Power Association are deeply interested in what appears to offer a solution to a major part of the automotive pollution problem—the electric battery-powered vehicle. Battery power eliminates entirely the combustion which produces pollutants. Although it is not likely that battery-powered automobiles would completely replace combustion-powered vehicles, the air pollution problem would be materially alleviated by the widespread use of battery-powered automobiles and trucks.
Development of new types of batteries which are lighter in weight and more long-lasting than earlier types has stimulated much interest in the batteryoperated vehicle. Our Association has established a new committee to promote the electric auto. Battery-powered fork-left vehicles. golf carts, delivery trucks and other specialized vehicles are beginning to catch on, particularly in Great Britain.
The early development of the automobile proceeded along three principal routes--the gasoline-powered engine, the steam engine, and battery-driven electric vehicle
. Some of the early manufacturers switched from one type to the other; all types had certain advantages.
SIMPLICITY AND RELIABILITY NOTED
A description of the battery-powered automobile of the turn of the century indicates that it had reached an enviable position. "Evolution of the American Automobile” by Daniel D. Gage and Anne C. Garrison in Business Topics, published by Michigan State University, Autumn, 1965 notes that:
"It was the ultimate in simplicity and reliability, starting immediately with the turn of a switch, moving silently, increasing speed with utmost smoothness. Anyone could learn to drive it with finesse in five minutes. Consequently, it became identified with lady drivers and older people who were not concerned with dash and dreams of glory. Like its upholstery, its public image was dove grey. Its top speed did not exceed 25 miles an hour, and its range was limited by the need for recharging the storage batteries every 60 miles, either at a public garage or by means of expensive home equipment. As a passenger car, the electric car held on until the first World War, but the electric truck for street or in-factory use was revived 25 years later." The same article notes that after the gasoline internal combustion power plant won out over steam and electricity, “for over half a century engineering ingenuity has been devoted to improving the piston engine, which is basically an overelaborate and un-satisfactory source of power.
It may have been that the challenge of perfecting this imperfect machine attracted designing talent to it rather than to the steam or electric car.”
Whatever its merits as a source of automotive propulsion, the gasoline engine is choking our civilization with its fumes. While continung to perfect this "overelaborate and unsatisfactory source of power” to diminish its contribution to our air pollution, it would be desirable, also, to devote engineering talent to the battery-driven vehicle, which appears to have many uses in our urbanized society today.
A study by the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory. Inc., at Buffalo, N. Y., last year, made for the Commerce Department, suggested the desirability of two distinct types of vehicles, one for urban use and one for interurban highway travel. The Cornell group predicted that a major market for electric automobiles, primarily for urban use, will appear by 1980, pointing out that the electrically powered car