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by the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet. In the absence of an appointment to the Contrary, the most senior in date of rank of those appointed shall act as Senior judge.
(b) The Senior Judge shall appoint someone under his authority to act as Clerk of the Court who will be responsible for maintaining a public docket containing such information as the Senior Judge may prescribe.
(c) Sessions of the court are held on the Midway Islands at times and places designated by the Senior Judge.
(d) Normally, not more than one judge shall be required to hear any individual case.
[41 FR 29672, July 19, 1986, as amended at 51 F.R. 22283, June 19, 1986]
$762.52 Attorney for the United States.
The Senior Judge may appoint any judge advocate or attorney to represent, the United States in any Criminal Case in the Midway Islands Court or on appeal to the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor or Such other Command as may be designated by the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet.
$762.54 Criminal jurisdiction.
The Midway Islands Court has juris– diction Over all petty Offenses and other minor violations of this part. The United States District Court for the District of Hawaii Shall have jurisdiction over all other offenses adopted under §762.16, over offenses against the laws of the United States, and Over those Offenses Committed within the Special maritime jurisdiction contained in the Act of June 15, 1950 (chapter 253, 64 Stat. 217).
Trial of all offenses under the jurisdiction of the Midway Islands Court shall be had at the U.S. Naval Air Facility, Midway Island; trial of all other offenses shall be in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii.
$762.56 Rules of criminal procedure.
(a) Sections 762.56 through 762.79 govern the procedure in criminal proceedings in the Midway Islands Court. They
shall be construed to ensure simplicity in procedure and fairness in administration, and to eliminate unjustifiable expenses and delay.
(b) The judge of the court who preSides at any trial or other criminal proceeding is responsible for the making of an appropriate record of the proceeding.
$762.58 Release prior to trial and bail.
(a) The release of any person arrested On the Midway Islands for a violation of this part shall be in accordance with 18 U.S.C. 3146 as it now appears or as it may be amended or recodified.
(b) When an offense has been charged by a citation issued by a security patrolman, Shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer or the Officer—in-Charge, U.S. Naval Air Facility, Midway Island, bail shall be set in the amount prescribed by the Senior Judge for the violation. The bail shall be paid in cash to the Clerk of the Court. The bail may be forfeited by the accused and the proceedings thereby terminated in the case of a violation of $762.28 that does not involve a moving vehicle collision or intoxication while driving, or with permission of the court in the Case of any other offense charged by citation pursuant to $762.84.
(a) Any petty offense may be prosecuted by a written information signed by the attorney charged with prosecuting the Case. If, however, the Offense is One for which issue of a citation is authorized by this part and a citation for the offense has been issued, the citation serves as the information. Offenses against the laws of the United States, Offenses committed against the laws made applicable by the Act of June 15, 1950 (chapter 253, 64 Stat. 217), and offenses adopted under §762.16, except those which are subject, under title 37, “Hawaii Revised Statutes,” as it now appears or as it may be amended or recodified, to a penalty of imprisonment for six months or less or a fine of not more than $500, or both, shall be referred to the United States Attorney, Hawaii, for appropriate disposition.
(b) A copy of the information shall be delivered to the accused or his counsel as soon as practicable after it is filed.
(c) Each count of an information may charge one Offense only and must be particularized sufficiently to identify the place, the time, and the subject matter of the alleged offense. It shall refer to the provision of law under which the Offense is charged, but any error in this reference Or its Omission may be corrected by leave of court at any time before sentence and is not grounds for reversal of a conviction if the error or omission did not mislead the accused to his prejudice.
$762.64 Motions and pleas.
(a) Upon motion of the accused at any time after filing of the information or copy of citation, the Court may order the prosecutor to allow the accused to inspect and copy or photograph designated books, papers, documents, or tangible objects obtained from or belonging to the accused, or obtained from others by seizure or process, upon a showing that the items sought may be material to the preparation of his defense and that the request is reasonable.
(b) When the court is satisfied that it has jurisdiction to try the accused as charged, it shall require the accused to identify himself and state whether or not he has counsel. If he has no counSel, but desires counsel, the court shall give him a reasonable opportunity to procure counsel. If he cannot afford Counsel or is unable to procure counsel after reasonable efforts have been expended, the court shall advise him of his right to have counsel appointed, and shall appoint a judge advocate or Other lawyer counsel for the accused unless the accused shall have made a voluntary and intelligent waiver of his right to counsel.
(c) When both sides are ready for arraignment, or when the court determines that both sides have had adeQuate Opportunity to prepare for arraignment, the court shall read the charges to the accused, explain them (if necessary), and, after the reading or Stating of each charge in court, ask the accused whether he pleads “guilty” or “not guilty.” The court shall enter in
the record of the case the plea made to each charge. (d) The accused may plead “guilty” to any or all of the charges against him, except that the court may at its discretion refuse to accept a plea of guilty, and may not accept a plea without first determining that the plea is made voluntarily and with understanding of the nature of the charge. (e) The accused may plead “not guilty” to any or all of the charges against him. The court shall enter a plea of not guilty if the answer of the accused to any charge is such that it does not clearly amount to a plea of guilty or not guilty. (f) The accused may, at any stage of the trial, with the consent of the court, change a plea of not guilty to one of guilty. The court shall then proceed as if the accused had originally pleaded guilty. (g) Nothing contained in this subpart shall be construed to diminish any additional rights afforded military perSOnnel under the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
(a) If the accused pleads not guilty or if a plea of guilty is not accepted by the court and a consequent plea of not guilty entered, the accused is entitled to a trial on the charges in accordance with the procedures prescribed in the Rules of Criminal Procedure for the United States District Courts, 18 U.S.C., except as otherwise provided in this part. There is no trial by jury for petty Offenses.
(b) All persons shall give their testimony under Oath or affirmation. The Senior Judge shall prescribe the oath and affirmation that may be administered by any judge or the Clerk of the Court.
(c) Upon completion of the trial, the Court shall enter a judgment consisting of a finding or findings and sentence or Sentences, or discharge of the accused.
§ 762.68 Sentence.
(a) If the court accepts a plea of guilty to any charge or charges, it shall make a finding of guilty on that charge.
(b) After a finding of guilty is made, either by virtue of an accepted plea of guilty or as the verdict of the court after trial, the court: (1) May delay sentencing pending receipt of any presentencing report or— dered by it; (2) Shall, before imposing sentence, hear such statements, whether written or oral, by the prosecution and defense, if any, in regards to mitigation, extenuation, previous good character of the accused, matters in aggravation, and permissible evidence of bad character of the accused. In this regard, the accused or his counsel may introduce any reasonable statement he wishes in mitigation or extenuation Or any evidence of previous good character. The prosecution may introduce evidence in aggravation including prior federal, State, or Midway Islands convictions. The prosecution may introduce evidence of previous bad character only if the accused has introduced evidence of previous good character; and (3) Shall thereafter impose any lawful sentence, including, a suspended or partially suspended sentence; revocation or suspension of any Midway Islands automobile, truck, motorcycle, or Other motor vehicle, or boat or other vessel permit in cases involving violations of $762 28; or placement of accused on probation.
(a) The Clerk of the Court, Shall issue Subpoenas for the attendance of wit– nesses. The subpoena, must include the name of the court and the title, if any, Of the proceeding, and shall command each person to whom it is directed to attend and give testimony at the time and place specified therein. The clerk shall issue a subpoena to a party requesting it, setting forth the name of the witness Subpoenaed.
(b) The clerk may also issue a subpoena Commanding the person to whom it is directed to produce the books, papers, documents, or other objects des— ignated therein. The court may direct that books, papers, and documents designated in the subpoena be produced before the court at a time before the trial or before the time when they are to be offered in evidence. It may, upon their production, allow the books, papers, documents, or objects or portions
thereof to be inspected by the parties and their representatives. (c) Any peace officer or any other person who is not a party and who is at least 18 years of age may serve a Subpoena. Service of a subpoena shall be made by delivering a copy thereof to the person named. (d) This section shall in no way be Construed to limit federal subpoena. powers, laws, or rules.
(a) The defendant in any Criminal Case may appeal from any judgment of the Midway Islands Court to the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, or Such other command as may be designated by the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet, by filing a notice of appeal with the Senior Judge, and serving a copy on the attorney or judge advocate who represented the United States at trial. (b) The notice must be served and filed within 15 days after the judgment of the Midway Islands Court. (c) Upon receiving a notice of appeal, with proof of Service on the attorney or judge advocate who represented the United States at trial, the Senior Judge Shall forward the record of the Case to the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor. (d) The appellant must serve and file a memorandum with the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, within 10 days after filing notice of appeal Setting forth the grounds for appeal. The attorney or judge advocate who represented the United States at trial may file a reply memorandum within 10 days thereafter. (e) The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, may affirm, dismiss, or modify the Order of the court, Or exercise any of the other powers of the court. The judgment of the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, is final. (f) Cases tried in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii shall be subject to federal laws and rules applicable to appeals.
$762.74 New trial.
A judge of the court may Order a new trial as required in the interest of justice, or vacate any judgment and enter a new one, on motion made within a reasonable time after discovery by the moving party of matters Constituting the grounds upon which the motion for a new trial or vacation of judgment is made.
Subport E–Warrants; Arrests; Specidl Procedures
(a) Arrest warrants. (1) Any judge of the Midway Islands Court may issue a warrant for arrest if, upon Complaint, it appears that there is probable cause to believe an offense has been Committed and that the person named in the warrant has committed it. Probable cause, as used herein, means that there exist facts which are sufficient to lead a reasonably prudent and cautious man to a natural conclusion that the person to be arrested committed the offense for which he is to be arrested. The issuing officer shall: (i) Place the name of the person charged with the offense in the warrant, or, if his name is not known, any name or description by which he can be identified with reasonable certainty; (ii) Sign the warrant; (iii) Describe in the warrant the of fense charged; (iv) ISSue the warrant to a Security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer for execution; and (v) Place in the warrant a command that the person charged with the Offense be arrested and brought before him. (2) Each person making an arrest. On the Midway Islands shall take the arrested person, without unnecessary delay, before the Officer—in—Charge, U.S. Naval Air Facility, Midway ISland, or a judge of the Midway Islands Court, as appropriate. (3) The Official before whom an arrested person is brought shall inform him of the complaint against him. The official shall also advise the arrested person that he has the right to remain silent and make no statement; that any statement made, whether oral or written, may be used against him, that he has the right to consult with a lawyer and to have a lawyer with him during questioning and to seek advice be
fore answering any questions; that he may employ civilian Counsel of his own Choice and at his own expense; that if he cannot afford a lawyer, or is a Service member, the Court will appoint one for him if he so desires; and that, if he decides to answer questions, he has the right to stop answering at any time and terminate the interrogation. Before any security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace Officer questions any person arrested, he must advise the arrested perSon of his rights, as set forth above, whether such questioning occurs before or after the arrested person is brought before the appropriate official as designated above in this section. No Warnings need be given, however, prior to general On-the-Scene questioning or identification inquiries. (b) Search warrants. (1) Any judge of the Midway Islands Court may issue a warrant for Search and Seizure, if, after dispassionate and impartial Consideration of all evidence, information, and circumstances involved, probable cause is deemed to exist. Probable cause, as
used herein, means reliable informa
tion that would lead a reasonably prudent and cautious man to a natural belief that: (i) An offense probably is about to be, is being, or has been committed; (ii) Specific fruits or instrumentalities of the Crime, Contraband, or evidence exist; and (iii) Such fruits, instrumentalities, contraband, or evidence are probably in a certain place. (2) If, after considering all information, the judge shall decide to issue a Search warrant, such warrant shall specifically include the following information: (i) The time and date the warrant was requested; (ii) The name and Capacity of the perSon, official, Security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer requesting the warrant; (iii) The name and address of the perSon(s) suspected and the Specific of fense(s) of which he is suspected; (iv) The address, place, or structure which is to be searched; (v) The general nature of the items intended to be seized;
(vi) The information presented or reasons for Suspecting the Suspected person(s) in general; and (vii) An authorization to search the described place for the property Specified and, if the property is found there, to seize it, followed by the date, time, capacity, and signature of the judge issuing such warrant. (3) A search warrant must be executed and returned to the issuing authority within five days after date of issuance. A search warrant executed within the five-day period shall be deemed to have been timely executed and no further showing of timeliness need be made. (4) Security patrolmen, shore patrolmen, and other duly designated peace officers or other designated personnel conducting searches shall do so in a Ccordance with the issued warrant. (5) Any property seized as a result of a search or in connection with an alleged offense (unless property is highly perishable) is to be retained in a secure place pending trial in accordance with the orders of the court. All seized property shall be securely tagged with the following information: (i) Date seized; (ii) Property searched and location of seized article(s) when so seized; (iii) Person ordering search and warrant number; (iv) Signatures of person Searching and witness; and (v) Place where property is now located and names and addresses of any persons who have had custody thereof prior to deposit in the secure place required by this paragraph. A complete chain of custody record is to be kept. (6) The property must be produced in court, if practicable. At the termination of the trial, the court shall restore the property or the funds resulting from the sale of the property to the owner, or make such other proper order as may be required and incorporate its Order in the record of the case. (c) Sanitation and fire prevention inSpection. (1) Any judge of the Midway Islands Court may issue a warrant to inspect property on the Midway Islands for purposes of maintaining sanitation and fire prevention. (2) Such warrant shall indicate:
(i) The time and date the warrant was requested;
(ii) The name and capacity of the person requesting the warrant;
(iii) Property description or address of place or structure to be inspected;
(iv) General purpose of inspection;
(v) Date and time inspection intended to be made; and
(vi) An authorization to inspect the described place for the purpose Specified, followed by the date, time, capacity, and signature of judge issuing the Warrant.
[41 FR 29672, July 19, 1976, as amended at 51 FR 22283, June 19, 1986]
(a) Any person may make an arrest On the Midway Islands, without a warrant, for any crime (including a petty offense) that is committed in his pres€11Ce.
(b) Any security patrolman, Shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer may, without a warrant, arrest any person on the Midway ISlands who violates any provision of this part 762 or commits a crime that is a violation of the laws of the United States or the laws made applicable to the Midway Islands under the Act of June 15, 1950 (chapter 253, 64 Stat. 217), in his presence, or that he has probable cause to believe that person to have Committed.
(c) In making an arrest, a Security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer must display a warrant, if he has one, or otherwise clearly advise the person arrested of the violation alleged, and thereafter require him to submit and be taken before the appropriate official on the Midway Islands.
(d) In making an arrest, a Security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer may use only the degree of force needed to effect submission, and may remove any weapon in the possession of the person arrested.
(e) A security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer may, whenever necessary to enter any building, vehicle, aircraft, or vessel to execute a warrant of arrest, force an entry after verbal warning.