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today we find all such mechanics under the simple calssification of "Typewriter repairmen."

These men are highly trained in the use of precision instruments such as micrometers, caliper squares, vernier calipers, thread gages, and other mathematically correct instruments and tools which must be correct to 110,000 of an inch. He must know gear ratios, motor speeds, spring tension and die setting. Often he is called on to explain the operation of the high-priced automatic accounting machines, calculating machines, and tabulating machines and thus must know exactly how to do the work of the clerk-operator. He must know where each and every gear, cam, and lever belongs and just what its function is. When a $2,000 accounting machine fails to subtract correctly the mechanic must know why and how to correct it. In other words, he must be able to teach that machine to figure correctly.

While we find the salary of the average clerk has risen over the years until the Government clerk receives as high or higher salary than his fellow klerk in the commercial world, the Government mechanic is today receiving less than many of his fellow expert mechanical adjusters who are in factory and factorybranch service.

Furthermore, while a clerk can receive his training in a Government office and advance from a C. A. F. grade 1 to division chief, the mechanic must be trained out of Government service and be an expert when he enters the service of the Government. He must take his own time to go to factory branches and learn the adjustments of new machines as they are introduced, he must subscribe to trade journals and handbooks of his trade or profession and keep posted on the many improvements constantly being made.

Your calculating machine of today will automatically reduce a gross figure to units by division, and while performing this calculation automatically multiply the result by a unit price, producing the two resulting answers at one operation. These machines perform such mathematical problems as extracting square and cube roots, and your mechanic must know how this is done and not only be able to do this work but be able to know just what is the duty of each small gear, cam, and lever in the operation and to detect any flaw in these parts.

The machines in use in our offices today contain more than 7,000 parts and operate at such high speed that the eye can't see the parts move. Your mechanic must know every part of these machines. He must be a highly trained expert.

That is just another example of the present-day mechanics, compared to the mechanics of 20 years ago.

We have a statement here from the steamfitters in the central heating plant and the following is a list of equipment maintained by the steamfitters employed in the central heating plant at Washington, D. C.:

Steam-distribution system consists of 512 miles of tunnels and 334 miles of conduit, in which are contained 21 miles of high-pressure piping of various sizes tested to 800 pounds' steam pressure with a present working pressure of 200 pounds and the condensate lines tested for 400 pounds. In these lines are employed 168 expansion joints of the slip-sleeve type, which must be repacked or packing added to each year; also 36 yar way joints, which can be packed under pressure; there are also 43 variators made by the American District Steam Co., which from time to time must have the diaphragms renewed. The steam traps consist of 208 Armstrong inverted-bucket-type traps. All repairs to this equipment in the steam-distribution system must be made by the men in temperatures of outside to 185° F., depending on the section of tunnels where the work is to be performed, which creates a hazard to one's life and health.

In the plant itself the following equipment also comes under the jurisdiction of the steamfitters; 900 feet of vacuum lines carrying 30 pounds vacuum and 15 pounds positive pressures; 300 feet of oil lines tested to 1,500 pounds; 900 feet of Ashcolite ash line pipe for ash removal; 900 feet of recirculating lines carrying 130-pound pressure; 1,000 feet of air lines carrying 110 pounds pressure. This includes piping for the master control boards.

The steam lines in the plant proper consist of nearly 1,000 feet of varioussized piping at 200 pounds' pressure ; also there are sewers and drains of about 400 feet; water lines, 350 feet of cold and hot; and exhaust lines of 250 feet.

There are also installed in the steam-distribution system five major reducing stations equipped with three stages of reduction, from 200 pounds to 40 pounds.

That, of course, didn't apply, Mr. Chairman, to work during the time the Classification Act was in the course of enactment.

I can mention this fact: Today the street cleaners of New York City receive $1,920 a year, as compared to a mechanic qualified to maintain and repair such equipment as you have heard mentioned.

I have a clipping here from the Civil Service Bulletin of New York City, Civil Service Commission, the October issue. It refers to an examination for street cleaner:

The Commission does not hold open competitive examinations for positions in the street-cleaning service of the sanitation department except for the bottom position of sanitation man, at a salary of $1,920 a year.

I may add that the regulations, as I understand them, provide that if the same man is qualified he can assume a position of $6,000 a year.

It is numerous comparisons of this type that have caused some of us to come here to see if we cannot be definitely allocated to some definite classification by H. R. 960.

Generally, we believe that a bill is in the direction of better legislation and better activity for the employees of the Government.

May I say in closing, we are not asking that new salary schedules be established; we are only asking that the mechanics under the Classification Act be given the right to receive the same salary mechanics in other departments have been receiving for years for the same kind of work. It is our hope H. R. 960 will provide fairly for the mechanics under the Classification Act.

I may have a few remarks to add later on, but I will now turn the operation back to Mr. Winters, and he will call on his next witness.

The CHAIRMAN. How long will it take you to complete what you have in mind, Mr. Winters?

Mr. WINTERS. I don't think over 30, minutes, Mr. Chairman.

The CHAIRMAN. Do these men have written statements that might be inserted in the record without taking the time to read them?

Mr. WINTERS. Yes; they have.
The CHAIRMAN. Can you not do that just as well?

Mr. WINTERS. All right; but I would like to have one more read if that is possible.

The CHAIRMAN. Very well.

Mr. WINTERS. I would like to file for the record, statements by Mr. McDonald and Mr. Williams, both members of our executive committee, and Mr. A. F. Crawford, an employee of the Capital heating plant.

The CHAIRMAN. They will be incorporated in the record at this point.

(The document submitted by Mr. McDonald is as follows:

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THE PLUMBER AND STEAMFITTER IN THE GOVERNMENT SERVICE TODAY

The craft today is a highly trained group of men, men who have studied and trained themselves in the modern progress of the plumbing and heating industry.

Men who have served their apprenticeship; are thorough journeymen; have taken their examination; have been found fit; and have been called to the service of their Government.

It is the ambition of these men to make theirs a career of service to their Government; it is their duty and responsibility to provide for the health, comfort, and convenience of thousands of Government employees. This is accomplished in a most intelligent, efficient, and economical manner.

The plumbing and heating of any building, large or small, is one of the most fundamental parts of its structure and should be given as much consideration and care as the exterior beauty of its architecture.

Modern buildings of today, with their multiplicity of automatic controls and devices, require a more highly trained mechanic than ever before.

Not only does the Government plumber and steamfitter have to maintain this equipment, which cost the Government millions of dollars, but he has to make alterations and changes many times to meet existing conditions, demanded by various Government departments.

As an example of some of this equipment maintained in one group of buildings (the Interior group) is attached.

This is only a small part of the work maintained by the Federal mechanic but it gives one an idea of the many different kinds of equipment that the Government mechanic handles, while in outside commercial work the usual routine is followed, that of installation, it is the purpose of the Federal mechanic to know intimately every working part of his equipment and to see that it functions perfectly.

Safe plumbing is necessary to public health. A greater recognition by the medical profession of the importance of modern plumbing in public buildings was indicated at the Eighty-fifth Annual Session of the American Medical Association held in Cleveland, Ohio, June 11-15, 1934. Particular reference was made at the meeting to amebic dysentery, which epidemic broke out in Chicago, Ill., in 1933.

The Government plumber must be thoroughly familiar with the most advanced codes of sanitation, to maintain and protect the health of the Government employees.

It can readily be seen that such work cannot be properly done by handymen and such, but by highly trained, experienced men, capable of doing the job right.

It is the duty of the Government plumber to correct antiquated plumbing that is a menace to health and bring it up to the proper standards of sanitation.

The Government mechanic should be in a class by himself and should not be classed along with laborers, elevator operators, char force, janitors, and such. It is a discredit to a highly trained group of men and to the Government which they represent.

PLUMBING AND HEATING EQUIPMENT IN THE INTERIOR GROUP

Interior Building: 356 water closets; 1,230 wash basins; 543 future connections for wash basins; 95 urinals; 45 slop sinks; 116 drinking fountains; 19 shower baths; 1 bathtub; 29 tanks and sinks; 2 soda fountains; 75 direct radiators; 2,404 concealed radiator units; 2 refuse-can washers; 5 cuspidor washers; 18 expansion joints; 43 reducing valves; 2 indirect blower heaters; 178 high- and low-pressure traps; 3 cold water storage tanks; 3 vacuum cleaning systems; 2,404 low-pressure radiator traps; 2,404 thermostatic radiator valves; 112 water pumps ; vacuum pumps, heating ; 1 steam turbine sump pump; 2 air compressors, high ; 2 air compressors, low ; 1 drinking-water tank; 3 hot-water storage tanks; 3 hot-water heaters; 8 compressors, chilled water; 6 condensers; 36 air washers; 8 sump pits ; 4 sewage ejectors.

Interior cafeteria : 6 steam ovens; 5 steam kettles; 17 coffee urns; 3 gas plates; 13 steam tables; 4 flash tanks; 4 reducing valves; 4 expansion joints; 4 units, blower, heaters, and cooling coils; 1 coffee urn; 4 steam tables; 4 icetray tables; 1 dish washer; 1 glass washer; 3 soup kettles; 2 steam ovens; 4 gas ovens; 2 gas ranges; 1 potato peeling machine; 2 ice boxes; 8 kitchen sinks; 3 drinking fountains; 23 steam traps ; 27 faucets; 8 syphon valves; 2 grease traps.

North Interior mechanical room:1 high-pressure steam station; 1 compressor, ammonia; 1 compressor, Freon; 4 compressors, air; 5 pumps, Freon; 6 pumps, chilled water; 4 pumps, condensing water; 3 pumps, sump; 2 pumps, domestic hot water; 2 pumps, domestic cold water; 3 pumps, vacuum and condensation return; 4 fans, exhaust ; 5 condensers, Freon; 1 condenser, ammonia ; 5 coolers, Freon; 1 cooler, ammonia ; 2 heaters, steam, domestic hot water; 2 heaters, steam, spray water, air conditioning system; 2 tanks, storage, cold water; 1 tank, storage, hot water; 1 tank, flash, steam-heating system; 1 tank, surge, chilled water; 5 valves, steam, pressure reducing; 1 valve, automatic chilled water bypass; 2 valves, automatic, Freon bypass; 4 traps, steam, high pressure, mechanical; 8 traps, Freon, high pressure, mechanical.

Building equipment, north Interior: 251 water closets, 84 urinals, 1,579 wash basins, 38 slop sinks, 8 showers, 81 drinking fountains, 1,853 direct steam radiators, 331 flushometers, 1,900 low-pressure traps, 2,158 Fuller cocks, 1,300 thermostatic radiator valves.

Chemical laboratories : 1 water still, 2 gas ovens, 11 slate sinks, 9 steam baths, 21 faucets.

Photo laboratory: 1 gas boiler; 1 wash sink, acid ; 22 slate sinks; 82 valves; 16 swing joints.

Cooling-tower equipment, north Interior: 4 cooling water towers; 1 fire sprinkler system for laboratory; 1 10-inch valve, 4 8-inch motor valves, 6 developing tanks, 1 water closet, 1 urinal, 1 wash basin, 1 air compressor, 1 drinking fountain, 18 radiators, 24 steam traps, 18 thermostatic radiator valves, work in connection with sheet-metal work of 6 air outlets.

Air conditioning equipment in the 81 zones north Interior: 84 air-conditioning systems; 232 steam coils, extended-surface type; 84 chilled water coils; 584 spray heads; 629 automatic controls, air controls; 230 air-operated damper motors; 397 syphon valves, 12 steam water heaters; 231 marsh steam traps; 16 pressure-regulating valves; metal work in connection with 81 return air inlets and 3,200 supply grills.

RECONSTRUCTION FINANCE CORPORATION, 1825 H Street NW.; 4 boilers, mills sectional water tube No. 48; 1 compressor, ammonia, size 5 by 6, 10-ton capacity, Filter Manufacturing Co.; 53 compressors, Freon General Electric, 53-ton capacity; 2 compressors, Frigidaire, 4-ton capacity; 1 compressor, Freon, Westinghouse, 10-ton capacity; 1 cooler, open tank; 1 cooler, tank closed; 1 pump, condensing water, Kelly Pump Co., 20 gallons per minute, 100-feet heat; 2 pumps, house supply, Gould Co., 25 gallons per minute, 150-feet heat; 1 pump, circulating, chilled water, Glenn & Statler, 10 gallons per minute, 25-feet heat; 628 steam radiators; 57 drinking fountains; 224 plumbing fixtures; 1 hot-water heater; 1 hot-water storage tank; 24 fire valves and hose racks; 4,843 feet of pipe in the heating system; 3,548 feet of pipe in hot and cold water system; 1,530 feet of pipe in drainage system ; 384 feet of pipe in fire-line system.

Securities and Exchange Commission : 4 boilers, Mills sectional water tube No. 44; 1 heater, hot water, Smith W-17; 1 compressor, ammonia, 2-cylinder size CC6, 10-ton capacity; 1 compressor, Freon 2 cylinder, model 446W 7-ton capacity, York Ice Machine Co.; 1 cooler, open-type tank; 1 pump, chilled water, 50 gallons per minute, 135-foot head, Rumsey Pump Co.; 1 pump, chilled water, 5 gallons per minute, 135-foot head, Viking Pump Co.; 1 pump, house supply, 10 gallons per minute, 110-foot head, Keystone Machine Co.; 2 air-conditioning units, model 125 D-4, York Ice Machine Co.; 3 air-conditioning units, model 7225 D-4, York Ice Machine Co.; 706 steam radiators ; 211 plumbing fixtures; 2 hot-water storage tanks; 33 drinking fountains; 12 hose valves and hose racks; 5,648 feet of pipe in heating system; 4,212 feet of pipe in hot-and-coldwater system; 720 feet of pipe in the drinking-water system; 210 feet of pipe in fire-line system ; 2,320 feet of pipe in drainage system ; 1 house storage tank.

Hurley-Wright Building : 2 boilers, Gurney Down Draft No. 1291, 9,000 square feet radiation; 1 heater, Abendroth No. 2811, 2,000 gallons per hour; 1 tank, storage, hot water, 750 gallons capacity; 1 pump, house supply, American Marsh, size 1, 35 gallons per minute, 80-foot head; 1 pump, house supply, American Marsh, size 1142, 70 gallons per minute, 110-foot head; 46 water closets and tanks, Douglas; 96 wash basins; 25 urinals ; 12 drinking fountains; 321 steam radiators; 7,514 feet of pipe in the heating system ; 2,200 feet of pipe in plumbing system ; 988 feet of pipe in drainage system ; 12 slop sinks.

STATEMENT OF H. I. WILLIAMS, EXECUTIVE COMMITTEEMAN, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION

OF FEDERAL MECHANICS

Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, as recorded in the Classification Act of 1923 as amended, mechanics are listed as being in the custodial service within the departmental service ; grade 6, assistant custodial grade, has no mention of a mechanic, but the civil service places them in this grade. A man serying 4 years as an apprentice at his trade is not termed an assistant. Therefore, we think this allotment of them and others is wrong.

Speaking for the machinists, of which I am one, I would like to state the duties requested of him by the departmental service.

DUTIES OF A MACHINIST IN THE DEPARTMENTAL SERVICE

Scientific, investigational, and research work for the Department of Agriculture and others, such as water-cooled electric lamps, sugar-beet rasping machines, increment-measuring instruments, barge grain tryers. Measuring and calibrating instruments for Weather Bureau and farm experimental apparatus and equipment. This includes mechanical, laboratory, research work, etc.

Make, design, and fabricate complicated exhibit mechanisms used in extension work of the United States Government. These exhibits are used throughout the United States.

Repairs to refrigeration, air-conditioning apparatus, and equipment from the smallest laboratory unit to those of large office buildings, totaling 12,500 tons per day.

Maintain and repair the equipment of the central heating plant which furnishes steam for the heating and power purposes in most of the large Government buildings in Washington, D. C., the heating plant being the third largest of its kind in the world, also includes the maintenance and operation of steam, water, and return condensate flow meters, and operating instruments. This plant has an output of 22,000,000 pounds of steam per month as an average.

Maintain and repair pumps, boiler feed, circulating steam, electrical, and vacuum, which vary in capacity up to 300 pounds pressure and 29.5 inches of vacuum.

Maintain and repair air compressors of various capacity and stages to 300pound pressures.

Repair machinery and tools used by other trades, such as carpenters, plumbers, steam fitters, sheet metal workers, and operating engineers. Make special tools for same.

Machine and repair parts for elevators now in use.

Repair and keep in first-class condition 30,000 door-closing devices used in Government buildings. This includes 88 styles and 13 makes; an outlay of $240,000, and includes the making of an original stock list of approximately 9,000,000 parts or $30,000.

Make master keys for various pin tumbler, flat steel, and mortise locks. The average number of keys made is 500 per month.

Repair office equipment such as copyholders, stapling, sealing, and mailing machines, metal file cabinets, chairs, desks, and many other small items not listed.

The aforementioned duties surely require much skill and judgment as in other Government departments. Placing them and all other mechanics in a mechanical service they deserve would thereby receive equal pay for equal work.

Mr. WINTERS. We will now hear from Mr. Klacking.

STATEMENT OF J. E. KLACKING, MEMBER OF THE EXECUTIVE

COMMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FEDERAL MECHANICS

Mr. KLACKING. In support of the plea of the National Association of Federal Mechanics for action toward a more fair wage equalization for our services, which are so vitally required to insure the constant smooth operation of the mammoth new, and the countless number of older Government buildings that have been in service for various periods of time both here in Washington and throughout the country, we the electrical mechanics, better known as the electricians, offer the following brief in an effort to inform this committee of the requirements of our positions, the abilities of the men of our craft filling these positions, and the accomplishments we attain, that are the result of three things: training, experience, and judgment.

Our training is the result of considerable study during our apprenticeship days plus the daily application of our studies on the job. As an apprentice or helper, we serve for at least 4 years, after

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