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ceffity. Such is the admirable mechanifm of the mind, that though it believes itself to be under the controul of neceffity, yet it hath all the feelings, and all the enjoyments of what is called, liberty!

What should hinder, but that with the most advanced knowledge, there fhould exift the most perfect felicity in fuperior intelligences, even though they should be confcious that every fentiment and every action were but parts of one grand fcheme, fettled by the wifdom, and produced by the power, of the great Author of all? We are now, like this Writer, reasoning only on the precarious grounds of analogy: and our object is, not to demonftrate the doctrine of neceffity, but only to fhew how futile and inconclufive this, Writer's main argument againft it is, and what little claim this pamphlet hath to the confident title it hath affumed.

The Author attempts to evade the force of the common argument of Chriftians in favour of neceffity, arifing from the Di vine Prefcience. The attempt is weak, and may be truly called an argument" ab ignorantia." The argument is of the commodious fort; and is generally adopted in cafe of an infuperable difficulty. "Foreknowledge in God may not be of the fame nature with foreknowledge in man; therefore we cannot reasori from the one to the other."-This point may be foon brought to a decifive iffue. Doth the Divine Being forefce what will happen? Is the event such as juftifies the infallible certainty of his prefcience; or, in any cafe is that prefcience baffled by a contrary event or the knowledge of the Deity increased by the production of any thing new or accidental? These are plain queftions; and every attempt to evade their force, by a recurrence to human ignorance, proves but the weakness of that cause which is neceffitated to feek for a refuge in an equivocal hypothefis. B...k.


An Fay on the Distinction between the Soul and Body of Man. By John Kotheram, M. A. Rector of Houghton-le-Spring, Vicar of Senham, and Chaplain to the Right Rev. John Lord Bishop of Durham. 8vo. I S. Robfon. 1781.

F we were to speak of this Essay as a literary compofition, we fhould pronounce it elegant: if as a philofophical difquifition, we should not hesitate to pronounce it futile. As a declaimer, the Writer hath very confiderable merit; as a reafoner, fcarcely any. He feems to be ignorant of fome capital points of the controverfy; and in the management of thofe which he is acquainted with, he appears to be indebted to rhetoric more than to logic. The following quotation may ferve as a specimen of the Author's skill in the arrangement of metaphors; and if the Reader

Reader fhould fay-"All this fplendor of language leaves the argument ftill in the dark," he will at once pronounce our opi nion, not only of this quotation, but of the whole Effay. All material objects in themfelves, and to each other, are dark and naked to the mind alone they are clothed in all the pleafing variety of fenfible qualities. Mind, like a bride from a nobier family, enriches Matter by its union, and brings as a dower, pof feffions before unknown. Henceforth Matter appears clothed in a gayer and richer garment, and the fruits of this union are a new progeny, to which Matter confining its alliance to its own family, could never have given birth.' The marriage of Matter and Spirit is a pretty, poetical conceit; as much fo, at least, as the celebrated hypothefis of Valentinus concerning the marriage of Bythus and Sigé, fo gravely difcuffed (with the qualities of mother Achamoth) in the first 16 books of Irenæus, and fo flippantly difpenfed with in the two or three concluding lines of the 10th fection of Dean Swift's Tale of a Tub *.

• That incomparable wit ludicrously inftructs thofe who would become adepts in occult fciences, incomprehenfible myfteries, the dreams of Cabbalifts, Rosicrusians, &c. &c. to "beware of Bythus and Sigé, and not to forget the qualities of Achamoth: A cujus lacrymis bumeda prodit fubftantia, a rifu lucida, a triftitia folida, et a timore mobilis." The editors of the Tale of a Tub confefs themselves ignorant of the particular part of Irenæus from whence these words are tranfcribed; and "believe that one of the Author's defigns was to fet curious men a hunting through Indexes, and enquiring for books out of the common road." We were hunting after paffages of more confequence, when we accidentally lighted on that which Swift hath quoted. To fave all trouble for the future to thofe whofe curiofity may chance to run this way, we will cite the book, chapter, and fection where this strange paffage is found; viz. B. i. C. iv. § 2. Año yag των δακρύων αυτής γεγονέναι πασαν ενυγρον ουσίαν, απο δε του γελωλός την Qulesany. апо της λυπης και της εκπλήξεως τα σωματικα του κοσμού

For a more particular account of the properties of Achamoth, we must refer the learned and curious Reader to the book and chapter above quoted, where he will be informed of very furprising marriages, births, &c. &c. and what it was "that thickened an incorporeal af"fection into a bodily fubftance; or fo fitted the one for the ule of "the other, that though they were two diflinct effences, yet their "powers met and acted in one common centre Sed jegregantem Separatim commifcuiffe && coagulaffe, & de incorporali paffione in corporalem materiam tranftuliffe, &c. &c. Vid. § ult.

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For JULY, 1781.


Art. 15. Confiderations on the propofed Renewal of the Bank
Charter. By David Hartley, Efq. 8vo. 18. Stockdale. 1781.


R. Hartley maintains, that the present worth of a new char-
ter to the Bank Company for twenty-f
-five years, together with -
the value this renewal will add to the unexpired term of five years in
their prefent charter, fhould, in the agreement for renewal, be di-
vided between the Company and the Public. To this he ftates, that
the offer of the Bank, accepted by the Minifter, bears no proportion;
and hence he reproaches the latter for unneceffary precipitation in
bringing this important negociation before the Public as the clofe of
a feffion, merely to ratify a clandeftine bargain by the fanction of
empty forms in empty houses.

Art. 16. A Plan for the Confideration of Parliament; with moft
neceffary Inftructions for the trading Part of the Community,
against the various Frauds daily committing by that pernicious Set
of Men called Swindlers, &c. By a Gentleman of Lincoln's-Inn.
Stockdale, &c. 1781.


This Writer confiders pawn-brokers as the chief encouragers of fwindling, by the facility they afford of raifing money on goods of all kinds, when the fraudulent could not otherwife find fo ready a market for abfolute fale. He therefore wishes wholly to extirpate the race of pawn brokers, or at leaft to reduce their numbers under fuch reftrictions, as to prevent any one person pledging the property of another. He also propofes fome regulations for brokers and auctioneers, to check the practice called [we know not why] fwindling, on a larger scale and there is certainly more policy as well as humanity, in preventing as much as poffible, the perpetrating of crimes, than in adding punifhment to punishment on offenders. N. Art. 17. Obfervations on the Bill now depending in Parlia ment for the Relief of Debtors, &c. In a Series of Letters, ad. dreffed to Lord Beauchamp. 8vo. I S. Millidge. Thefe Letters feem to have been intended for infertion, and we prefume actually made their appearance, in fome of the daily papers at the time when the bill to which they relate, was depending before parliament. Though that particular bill was dropt, the subject did not drop with it, but has fince been much agitated by men of great name; and on one hand the inconveniences of commerce, and on the other the rights of humanity, have been ftrongly urged, and very warmly and perhaps erroneoufly contrafted to each other. The Letters before us are not unworthy of being refcued from the fate that attends an obfolete newspaper, and of that further flate of existence which (utcunque brevem) the fize and form of a pamphlet can bestow on them. They contain a fenfible amplification of a certain old text that may be found among our proverbs, though not yet in its due extent among our laws, viz. that a gaol pays no debts.




Art. 18. The Hiftory and Management of the Eaft India Company, from its Origin in 1600, to the prefent Times. Volume the Firft; containing the Affairs of the Carnatic, in which the Rights of the Nabob are explained, and the Injuftice of the Company proved. The whole compiled from authentic Records. 4to. 8 s. fewed. Cadell.

The profeffed object of this publication is to expose and condemn the conduct of the Eaft-India company, particularly with refpect to the restoration of Tanjore. For this purpofe, the Author has collected, with much indultry, a long detail of facts drawn from the ori. ginal papers, published under the infpection of the directors, and from other papers of equal authority, which a gentleman employed by the crown for fome years in a public capacity on the coaft, put into his hands. He profeffes to have weighed his facts and authorities with the moft fcrupulous attention to truth, and impartial justice; and affures himself, that his charges against the Company are established, beyond the reach of any just reply.

.. How far this is in reality the cafe, it is not our province to deter mine. Nor indeed is it in our power, confiftently with our other engagements, to lay before our Readers the long and intricate details, which muft neceffarily be gone through in judging of affairs of this kind. On fuch questions, each party ought to be heard, in the full extent of their evidence and pleadings, before a decifive fentence be paffed. Despairing, therefore, of being able to afford our Readers any fatisfaction on points on which so much, not only may, but must be faid on both fides, we must refer them to the work at large; after informing them, that the Author promifes to lay open the Secret Intrigues of Leadenhall-Street, in a fecond volume, fpeedily to be published.

Art. 19. The Origin and authentic Narrative of the Marratta War; and alfo the late Rohilla War, in 1773, and 1774; whereby the Eat-India Company's Troops (as Mercenaries) exterminated that brave Nation) and openly drove them for Asylum and Exiftence into the Dominions of their former moft inveterate Enemies. To which is added, the unaccountable Proceedings in the Military Store Keeper's Office in Bengal. 8vo. 2 s..6 d. Almon. 1781. This accufing Narrative feems to come from the Author of the Abstract of Minutes in the Supreme Council of Bengal, mentioned in our Cat. for May, Art. 20. The Author continues his attack on Governor Haftings, and in course gives a very favourable account of the conduct of Meffrs. Francis and Wheeler, Gentlemen in the minority of that council. This performance abounds with information, but we wish it had not been anonymous. We wish too, that we faw lefs apparent reason for applying to fome of our leading men in the East, an obfervation quoted by this indignant Writer, from another publication relative to the Company's affairs, viz. that “ A thirst for plunder, and an avidity for power, have ever been motives of hoftility and injuftice to avaricious men ! HISTORY AND MANAGEMENT OF THE


* Vid. the preceding Article,



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Art. 20.


The Siege of Penobscot by the Rebels; containing a Journal of the proceedings of his Majefty's Forces, &c. when befieged by the Rebels, in July 1779. By J. C. Volunteer. 8vo. 2s. 6d. Kearly.

This appears to be a very correct and proper journal of a memorable fiege, in which 700 British troops repelled the attacks of 3000 land forces of the American party, under the command of Brigadier General Lovell, aided by 18 rebel fhips and veffels of war, befide 20 transports, and obliged them to raise the fiege, with the lofs of their whole fleet. The commander of the victorious troops was Brigadier General Francis Maclean, in conjunction with Captain Mowat, whọ had the command of three of the King's floops. The fiege lafted 21 days. The Author has illuftrated his narrative by a large chart of the pe ninfula of Penobscot, and another of the river, fort, &c. To the whole is added a description of the country, which is but little known here. It is a large diftrict of the province of Maffachufets bay; having above 40 towns, and about 16,000 inhabitants; mostly in the British intereft, Art. 21. A Letter to the King, on the Subject of a new propofed Inftitution in the Medical Department. 4to.

Becker, &c. 1781.

I s. 6d. This Writer has very confiderately guarded against the lofs of time of the royal perfonage to whom his letter is addreffed, and of his other readers, by informing them, that the fubftance of his epiftle is contained in an abstract annexed. Ufing, therefore, his implied permiflion of skimming over all that matter which has given his addrefs the bulk and form of a quarto pamphlet, we find in the abstract a propofal for founding a public profefforship of anatomy and furgery, the lectures of which should be free to all perfons who had served an apprenticeship to a regular furgeon, and were acquainted with the Latin tongue. The whole annual expence of this inftitution, the letter writer calculates at .50; and we cannot but be of his opinion, that the public advantages refulting from it in the education of army and navy furgeons, would much more than compenfate fuch a moderate expence to the Public. Art. 22. An affectionate Tribute to the Memory of the late Dr. John Fothergill By W. Hird. M. D. 4to, 15. Philips, 1781. The character of the truly great and excellent man whofe lofs is lamented by fo many in common with the Writer before us, muft excite fuch fentiments of regard and veneration in all who knew him, that an attempt, though hafty and inadequate, to commemorate his virtues, cannot fail of being received with candour and good will. White, therefore, we exprefs our with that fome memoirs, more methodically arranged, and judiciously felected, of Dr. Fothergill's public and private life, may hereafter be offered to the world; we cannot but declare our obligations to Dr. Hird for a piece which greeably coincided with our feelings on a recent lofs. The future biographer will also be probably indebted to this flight sketch for fome valuable information.


* Probably Mr. John Calef, agent for the inhabitants of Penob fot; this name being fubfcribed to the charts.




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