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ART. VII. The Journey to Snowdon: By Thomas Pennant, Efq. 4:0. 10s. 6d. White. 1781.


HIS publication contains Mr. Pennant's journey from his own houfe (Downing, in Flintshire) to the fummit of Snowdon, and takes in almoft the whole of what he calls our Alpine tract.' It is a continuation of his Tour in Wales, the land of pofpes, in which Nature has been lavish of her most magnificent fcenery. Of that Tour we gave an account in the 60th Volume of our Review, p. 32. Another part, he tells us, in his advertisement, will appear with all convenient fpeed, which will comprehend the remainder of his defcription of Carnarvonshire [begun in this volume], together with the Ifle of Anglefea, and the County of Montgomery, concluding with fome account of Shrewsbury, the ancient feat of the British princes.—Like the reft of Mr. Pennant's defcriptive travels, this book is decorated with a number of plates, among which is a valuable half length of Sir Richard Wynne, by the inimitable Bartolozzi: whole prints it is become fashionable to collect, at whatever expence.

With refpect to Snowdon, the principle object of this journey, our Author thus defcribes what he obferved on and from its lofty fummit;

This mountain, we are told, rifes almoft to a point, or at best, says Mr. P. there is but room for a circular wall of loose ftones, within which travellers ufually take their repaft-We with our Author had mentioned the diameter, or circumference of this circular inclosure.

"The mountain, from hence, feems propped by four vaft buttreffes; between which are four deep Cwms, or hollows; each, excepting one, had one or more lakes lodged in its diftant bottom. The nearest was Ffynnon Lâs, or The Green Well, lying immediately below us. One of the company had the curiofity to defcend a very bad way to a jutting rock, that impended over the monstrous precipice; and he feemed, like Mercury, ready to take his flight from the fummit of Atlas. The waters of Ffynnon Lus, from this height, appeared black and unfathom able, and the edges quite green. From thence is a fucceffion of bottoms, furrounded by the moft lofty and rugged hills, the greateft part of whole fides are quite mural, and form the molt magnificent amphitheatre in nature. The Wyddfa is on one fide; Crib y Difill, with its ferrated tops, on another; Crib Cock, a ridge of fiery rednefs, appears beneath the preceding; and oppofite to it is the boundary called the Lliwedd. Another very fingular fupport to this mountain is Y Clawdd Cock, rifing into a Tharp ridge, fo narrow as not to afford breadth even for a path. The view from this exalted fituation is unbounded. In a former tour I saw from it the county of Chefter, the high hills of




Yorkshire, part of the north of England, Scotland, and Ireland' a plain view of the Isle of Man; and that of Angletea lay extended like a map beneath us, with every rill vifible. I took much pains to fee this profpect to advantage; fat up at a farm on the west till about twelve, and walked up the whole way. The night was remarkably fine and ftarry: toward morn, the ftars faded away, and left a fhort interval of darknefs, which was foon difperfed by the dawn of day. The body of the fun appeared moft diftinct, with the rotundity of the moon, before it rofe high enough to render its beams too brilliant for our fight. The fea, which bounded the western part, was gilt by its beams, firft in flender streaks, and at length glowed with rednefs. The profpect was difclofed to us like the gradual drawing up of a curtain in a theatre. We faw more and more, till the heat became fo powerful as to attract the mifts from the various Jakes, which in a flight degree obfcured the prospect. The fhadow of the mountain was flung many miles, and fhewed its bicapitated form; the Wyddfa making one, Crib y Diftill the other head. I counted this time between 20 and 30 lakes, either in this county, or Meirionyddfhire. The day † proved fo exceffively hot, that my journey coft me the fkin of the lower part of my face before I reached the refting place, after the fatigue of the morning.

On this day the fky was obfcured very foon after I got up. A vaft mift enveloped the whole circuit of the mountain. The profpect down was horrible. It gave an idea of numbers of abyffes, concealed by a thick fmoke, furioufly circulating around us. Very often a gust of wind formed an opening in the clouds, which gave a fine and diftinct visto of lake and valley, Sometimes they opened only in one place; at others, in many at once, exhibiting a moft ftrange and perplexing fight of water, fields, rocks, or chafms, in fifty different places. They then closed at once, and left us involved in darkness: in a small fpace, they would feparate again, and fly in wild eddies round the middle of the mountains, and expofe, in parts, both tops and bafes clear our view.

We defcended from this various fcene with great reluctance; but before we reached our horfes [which had been left a great way below], a thunder ftorm overtook us. Its rolling among the mountains was inexpreffibly awful; the rain uncommonly heavy. We remounted our horfes, and gained the bottom with great hazard. The little rills, which on our afcent trickled along the gullies on the fides of the mountain, were now fwelled into torrents; and we and our fteeds pafled with the utmost rifk of being swept away by thefe fudden waters.

• Caernarvonshire.

† August 15, N, S.

• It

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It is very rare that the traveller gets a proper day to afcend the hill; for it often appears clear; but by the evident attraction of the clouds by this lofty mountain, it becomes fuddenly and unexpectedly enveloped in mift, when the clouds have juít before appeared very remote, and at great heights. At times, I have obferved them lower to half their height; and, notwithftanding they had been difperfed to the right and to the left, yet they have met from both fides, and united to involve the fummit in one great obfcurity.

The quantity of water which flows from the lakes of Snowdania is very confiderable; to much, that I doubt not but colJectively they would exceed the waters of the Thames, before it meets the flux of the ocean.

The reports of the heights of this noted hill have been very differently given. A Mr. Cafwell, who was employed in a furvey of Wales, meafured it by inftruments made by the directions of Mr. Flamstead, and he afferts its height to have been 1240 yards; but for the honour of our mountain I am forry to say, that I must give greater credit to the experiments made of late years, which have funk it to 1189 yards and one foot, reckoning from the quay at Caernarvon to the highest peak.'

Mr. Pennant concludes his defcription of Snowdonia, with a brief mention of the ftrata of ftone which compose these mountains; of the coarfe cryftals and cubic pyrite found in the fiffures; and of the birds, fish, quadrupeds, and plants, inhabitants of thefe regions.

This detail of Mr. Pennant's journey into Wales, is enlivened (as this ingenious gentleman's writings, of a fimilar kind ufually are) by entertaining remarks, hiftorical anecdotes, and critical inveftigations of the antiquities, and other matters of curiofity, which fucceffively engage his attention.


ART. VIII. An Efay on the Right of Property in Land with refpect to

its Foundation in the Law of Nature, its prefent Etablishment by the Municipal Laws of Europe, and the Regulations by which it might be rendered more beneficial to the lower Ranks of Mankind. 8vo. 3s. 6d. Boards. Walter. 1781.


E have perufed the Effay before us with fingular pleafure and (though we confider fpeculations of this kind rather as amufing dreams than as of any probable utility) we fhall venture to pronounce it to be the production of a culti tivated, elegant, and philofophic mind.

If it be demanded by what regulations property in land might be rendered more beneficial to the lower ranks of mankind it feems to require no great ftretch of political wisdom

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