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in the Low-Dutch and the French tongues, and that too from Plantin's celebrated prefs, at Leyden, in octavo and quarto. From which circumftance (fays Mr. Okely) it is evident and undeniable, that about thofe times thefe writings must be fold off in large numbers, and been in great requeft. The "Bible Figures" were also printed in the year 1587, in Low Dutch, like the reft. From that time forward there feems to have been a ftagnation of their run in general, until a hundred years afterwards; when, in 1687, they were almoft all of them re-published at Amfterdam, in German, in octavo, which were followed afterwards, in 1690, and at the very fame, place by the 3d Part of his Letters.'

The Tranflator hath given us a Catalogue of the writings of Hiel, with fome general account of their fubjects. We will present the Reader with an account of two of Hiel's treatifes, as a friking speci men of all the rest.

Bible Quefions, or a concife and plain Reprefentation of the memorable Hiftories and Occurrences of the Old and New Teftament, together avith fhort,, profound, and fential Explications of them fubjoined. By the Means of which Man is, in the moft fimple Manner, led away from the external Images without, and into the Subftance and Effence itfelf, in his own Soul within. It is withal evidently fhewn him, that he ought not to remain flicking faft in fuch Figures, Images, and Let ters, without proceeding any further; but rather to make right ufe of them to the End God intended by them; and confequently, by their Means, to pass over into a Participation of that Effence or Subftance they are Emblems of unto the Renovation of his Soul.'

The other treatife is called The Chorus or Band of Dancers: with whom the vain heathenish Lutts, do, in Confederacy with their godlefs, wild, diffolute Thoughts and Intents, both in Wildness, and under a Semblance of Sanctity, affociate themselves, from all the Ends and Quarters of the Earth, joining Hand in Hand; dancing, capering, and jigging it away-till they drop into Hell!'


Mr. Okely, the ingenious and learned Editor of this work, is deeply verfed in the German myftics, and adapts his language to their fentiments and mode of writing. He is confcious that it is remote from the natural man's underlanding; and not so grateful to an English ear as fome plainer writers may be. But (fays he) a little time and patience (fuch as we do not begrudge philofophical authors) will foon qualify this, and amply reward him who shall have refolution enough to exercise it. I think I may venture to say, that no fpiritual author whatsoever has written any thing, but the quinteffence of it will be found in the most experimental reality in Hiel.'

It is in vain to argue with Mr. Okely on this fubject. We cannot meet on the fame ground; for, as he fcorns reafon, we reject fancy, and till we agree in the means, we fhall ever miss the end. We verily give him the moft ample credit for his fincerity; we have already, in our account of his tranflation of the Life of Jacob Behmen, born this testimony to the integrity of his principles; and though we differ totally from him with refpect to our judgment of authors, yet we could not reftrain this tribute to his uprightnefs, without a violation of our own.convictions.


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We have been favoured with a Letter from Mr. Okely; and as it will tend to give the Reader a very clear idea of his object in his.various publications of the writings of the Mystics, we will tranfcribe a part of it. As I really believe that the defpifed thing, commonly called Mysticism, is the juft medium, betweer. Infidelity, on the one hand, and Superftition, with her two daughters, Bigotry and Enthufiafm, on the other, I therefore, for that reason, and purely for that reafon only, attached myself to it; efteeming it the greatest happiness, to make it my capital ftudy to plead its caufe, and promote its molt invaluable interefts, with all the influence of my poor, feeble tongue and pen.'

Though Mr. Okely fpeaks thus modeftly of his own abilities, we are of opinion, that Myfticism was never honoured with a more worthy, or a more learned, defender. We are only concerned, that the object of his defence should be fo unworthy, both of his time and his talents.

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Art. 16. A Difplay of God's Wonders done upon the Perfon, and
appearing in the Life and divine Experiences, of John Engelbrecht of
Brunfwic: being an Epiftle in Verfe, compofed upon his Name's
Day, June 24, 1638. Tranflated from the original. German. by
Francis Okely, formerly of St. John's College, Cambridge. 8vo.
1 d. Lackington. 1781.

Our esteem for the Tranflator will not permit us to tranfcribe one paffage from this Epistle; for there is not a fingle verse that will do him credit, either as a poet, or as a divine.



I. A Difcourfe on the late Faft. By Phileleutherus Norfolcienfis. 4to.
Is. Dodfley. 1781.

This is by far the most masterly difcourfe that hath been published on the occafion. The Author professes himself to be a fericus, and, as he hopes, an unprejudiced clergyman of the Church of England. He conceals his name, because he is not impelled by any motives of vanity to venture on publication; and he has published, because the fentiments which he maintains, feem to coincide with the most ufeful purposes which the late faft could be intended to promote. Thofe fentiments, indeed, are not likely to attract popularity, by flavish adulation, or feditious invective: they flatter the prejudices of no party, and are honeftly intended to reform fuch immoralities as may july be imputed to all.

A vein of deep philofophic reafoning, and political fpeculation runs through this difcourfe, and renders it more calculated for the clofet than the pulpit; more fit to be read by the judicious, than to, be heard by a common affembly. Nevertheless, in many parts of it, the Author rifes into declamation :-that species of declamation which, while it roufes the imagination, doth not offend the judgment; but, fupported by good fenfe, and animated by elegant and vigorous language, equally affects the heart and convinces the understanding.

The chief defign of this difcourfe is, to correct falfe and delufive opinions refpecting the nature and intent of Divine judgments, to

* Dr Parr, of Norwich.

prove that government is the medium through which the Deity con-
veys punishment to a wicked, and rewards to a righteous people: that
the mifconduct of governors derives its origin frequently, and its effi-
cacy always, from the general depravity of the governed: that flavery
is feldom established among those who deserve freedom; and never
escaped by those who have abused it: that between the misfortunes
and demerits of a people there fubfifts a most intimate connection,
yea, ultimately, an exact proportion: that their diftreffes arise from
repentance long delayed, and their ruin from impenitence abfolutely

The whole is refolved into the unerring wisdom of Divine Provi-
dence, which hath conftituted an indiffoluble union between vice and

We earnestly recommend this noble difcourfe to the perufal of our
Readers. Its fpirit is liberal and manly; and its defign fuch as be-
Comes a minister of Christianity.


II. A devout Obfervance of the Chriftian Sabbath recommended,
Preached before the University of Oxford, and published by the
Request of the Vice-Chancellor and Heads of Houfes.
S. Glaffe, D. D. F. R. S. and Chaplain in Ordinary to his Ma-
jesty. 8vo. 6d. Rivington. 1781.

III. The Sinner's Account fairly flated: Preached at the Parish
Church of Hanwell, in the County of Middlefex, May 6th,
1781. By S. Glaffe, D. D. &c. 8vo. 6d. Rivington. 1781.
Plain and practical.



P. R.'s Letter is acknowledged. This Correfpondent wishes that we would recommend to Dr. Priestley, the renewal of his former defign, of giving an Hiftory of all the Branches of Experimental Philofophy.'-Hints of this kind, we apprehend, would be deemed foreign from the plan of our Review.-Dr. Priestley is, himself, the best judge of every thing respecting his learned labours. A genius and can/ industry like his, want no prompting, from any quarter.


The Account of Mr. Grofs's Publication has been unavoidably delayed, through the tedious indifpofition of the Gentleman to whom the confideration of that book, with feveral others, was referred.The articles here alluded to, will not, we hope, be much longer protracted.

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+++ The Efay on Death, by James Kenton; of which we have had repeated advice, by letters from a nameless Correfpondent, is at laft procured; and fome account of it will be given in our next Review.

Mr. Robert's Letter concerning the Rot in Sheep will also appear in our next.

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For NOVEMBER, 1781.

ART. I. Tucker on Civil Government, CONCLUDED. See our laft
Month's Review.

S the work before us treats of a fubject which, next to

attempts to overthrow a fyftem which, for near a century, has
been the admiration of intelligent and virtuous men; we hope
our Readers will not be difpleased with the attention we have
bestowed upon it, and the room we have affigned to it in this
Collection. We fhall now proceed in our remarks.

All laws,' fays our Author, p. 84, made, or to be made by the authority of ufurpers, alias of Kings de facto, are, according to the doctrine of Sir Robert Filmer and the Jacobites, abfolutely null and void, till they fhall have received the fanction and confirmation of the rightful King. And fo fay the Lockians in respect to their fole rightful King, the people. For here again they have told us fo often, that we cannot forget it, that no law can be valid, unless the people have authorized the making of it :-nay, they have gone fo far as to declare, that the very effence of flavery doth confift in being governed by laws, to which the governed have not previously confented. This being the cafe, you fee plainly that the confideration, whether the law be good or bad in itself; whether it is a law that is wanted or not wanted; and whether it tends to promote the liberty of the fubject, or to reftrain it, is at prefent entirely befide the queftion:-for the fole point here to be determined, is fimply this-Had the makers of fuch a law any right to make it, according to the Lockian ideas of right and wrong? If they had no fuch right, they must be pronounced to be ufurpers, be the law in itfelf whatever it may; and therefore as they are ufurpers, their doom is fixed; inafmuch as they cannot expect mercy for their daring attempts to alienate the unalienable rights of mankind.'


Notwithstanding the foregoing, and all that follows it to the end of the chapter, we, neverthelefs, conceive, that, in order VOL. LXV.




to the prefervation of freedom among mankind, it will ever be neceffary to afk this question;-Are those who make our laws, duly authorised fo to do? Or, in other words, do they derive their authority from the right fource? For, if there be no ftandard of rightful authority; and the ideas of right and justice, in refpect of the original title of the reigning powers,' are to be totally difregarded, a door will be perpetually open to ambitious intrigue and violence, whenever any one can hope to cut his way to a throne by the fword, or by any means remove those who ftand in his way. Nay, if fuccefsful bloodshed and ufurpation' is inftantly to entitle the ufurper to our fubjection (as the Dean contends, p. 425), although he were to abolish parliaments, juries, elections, and every other conftitutional barrier againit arbitrary power; if, we fay, this be a fufficient title to our fubjection, our allegiance, and the command of our purfes (75 and 417), then, had the Dean of Glocefter himself, or any other perfon in the fecret of the true basis of civil government,' put himself at the head of the rioters in June 1780, and, diverting their attention from papifts, prisons and plunder, had, by their affiftance, murdered the Royal family, extirpated the nobles, and established himself in the fovereign power, his government-mark, O Reader!-would inftantly have been

ordained of God,' provided only that he protected his good fubjects, punished the bad, and defended the community from external violence, p. 86; for thefe three particulars would effectually cure any defect of title that could be imputed to him, P. 426.


In p. 114, our Author concludes, that freedom in this country is fecure, becaufe, A man may fay or do, may write or print, a thousand things with the utmoft fecurity, for which his libery and property, and even his life itself, would be in the most imminent danger, were he to do the like in America, I want no other proofs, that Englishmen are still a nation of freemen, and not of flaves.” But perhaps this reafoning may not be quite conclufive; becaufe, fuppofing any defign againít our liberties fhould ever take place, it is probable that the freedom of speech and writing might not be the first to be attacked. Of a fubject, who was reported to have used his tongue too freely, a certain celebrated monarch faid, "He is welcome to talk, provided he leave me but the command of my armies."

When we arrived at the 2d Part of this work, which is entitled The true Bafis of Civil Government,' we confefs that, notwithstanding our great diffatisfaction with the foregoing part, we yet expected something folid and conclufive from the reputed ability of our Author. How great was our disappointment, can

⚫ King of Pruffia.


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