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sany. By the Abbé D. SESTINI, Vols. I. II. III. 8vo Florence. 1780. The objects that are attentively paffed in review, in these Letters, are the natural hiftory, antiquities, cuftoms, arts, and commerce of the countries from whence the ingenious Traveller writes, and his relations are compofed with fimplicity, candour, and accuracy. Thefe three volumes carry the Reader no further than Sicily. The eleven first letters contain an account of the Author's voyage from Florence to Catana, of the inhabitants and curiofities of this latter city, and more especially of the celebrated collection of antiquities and narural hiftory belonging to the prince Bifcaris, who has chofen our Abbé for his library keeper and antiquarian. The twelfth and thirteenth letters, which conclude this volume, treat of the amber and grain in Sicily.-The fecond volume contains eleven Letters, in which, among other things, the Author treats of the cultivation of the pistachio-nut, of its commerce, of the moft remarkable plants that grow in the environs of Taormina, Camerino, and Centorbi, of the afh trees and the manna they yield, as alfo of the olive-trees, and the manner of making oil. We find, likewife, in this volume a differtation of Dr. Tozzetti, on two publications of Father Cupani, the titles of which are Orto Catolico, and Pamphyton.—The principal contents of the third volume are a relation of two voyages to Mount Etna, accompanied with feveral obfervations on that famous volcanoan account of the Kali of Sicily, of its almond-trees, mulberrytrees, faffron, filk-worms, and other natural productions of that ifland, as alfo of the antiquities of Syracufe. The Public may expect to be entertained, fome time hence, with letters written by this learned Abbé from other parts of the world, as he is actually travelling upon an extenfive plan, defigning, after having pafled through Walachia, and Crim Tartary, to vifit several provinces of Afia and Africa.

X. Storia della Letteratura Italiana; i. e. An Hiftory of Ita lian Literature. By JEROME TIRABOSCHI, Librarian to the Duke of Modena, and Profeffor in the Univerfity of that City. Vol. VIII. 4to. Modena. 1780. This eighth and laft volume of the Abbé TIRABOSCHI's ample work contains the literary hiftory of the feventeenth century, and is not inferior in merit to the preceding volumes, which have been mentioned in the course of our Journal..

Rifleffioni imparziali sopra l'umanita degli Spagnuoli, &c. i. e. Impartial Reflexions upon the HUMANITY of the Spaniards in the Weft Indies, defigned to refute fome pretended Philofophers and political Writers, and to clear up feveral Things in the Hiftories of the Abbé Raynal, and Dr. Robertfon. By the Abbé Don JUAN NUIX, 12mo. Venice. 1781.We remember to have read, feveral years ago, an elaborate and fpirited DEFENCE of


the maffacre that was perpetrated in France on St. Bartholo mew's day, and which, in the joint opinion of all fects and parties in fucceeding times, has been confidered as one of the moft execrable fcenes that ever difgraced human nature. The defender of this maffacre was the Abbé Caveyrac; and the exiftence of his book fhews, that things in appearance impoffible, have really happened, and may happen again. This confideration modifies, fomewhat, the inexpreffible aftonishment we fhould have otherwife felt, in feeing the eighteenth century. produce à vindication of the HUMANE conduct of the Spaniards in the West Indies, by a fecond Abbé de Caveyrac, under the denomination of JUAN NUIX. It is true (and candour obliges us to acknowledge it), that the enterprize of M. NUIx is much lefs indecent than that of M. Cavevrac; for the latter acknowledged the French murder, and justified it: whereas the former puts a negative on the records of hiftory, and pretends that the cruelty of the Spaniards has been exaggerated even by Dr. Robertfon. This, however, is a new matter of furprize; for, if we are not mistaken, the Do&or has been accufed, by others, of rather foftening by gentle fhading, than expreffing with strong colouring the Spanith exploits of conqueft and converfion. Be this as it may, M. Nux, who is a knowing man, and a writer of uncommon merit with refpect to ftile and energy, maintains, with a brazen intrepidity, the five following points:-ift, that the cruelties imputed to the Spaniards are falfe, or have been exaggerated by relations and witneff's that deferve but little credit, 2dly, that the violent encroachments of the Spaniards upon the liberty and poffeffions of the Indians are groundiefs calumnies: (bravo!)-3ly, that the acts of violence committed by the Spaniards (we thought from the preceding article that they had committed none) were much lets confiderable than might have been expected in their circumstances, and than thofe which had been practifed by other nations:- 4 bly, that these acts of violence were the crimes of particular prons, and were always condemned by the government, and by the nati 5thly, that all the fufferings of the Americans were urdantly compenfated by the fignal advantages they enjoy den fu the dominion of the Spaniards. We do not recollect, ir tad courfe of our reading, any thing like thefe five audacious s here given to the faith of hiftory. It is true, they rebo: 1 againit himfelf, and it were to be wifhed, that he felt them; int a man must scarcely be fufceptible of any ingenuous feeling, who, to juftify the ungrateful conduct of Ferdinand, King of Spain, to Columbus, covers the latter with invectives, and frys that he was rather the oppreffor, than the difcoverer of Starrica. The Abbé Nuix has parts and talents, but he ploys txm Strangely.

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XI. Caggio

XI. Saggio Orittografico, &c. i. e. An Oryographical Effay, or Obfervations on the Nautilitic and Ammonitic Earths of Tuscany, together with a philofophical Table of small teftaceous Animals and other Marine Foils found in that Duchy, to illuftrate the Work. By Father Don AMBROZE SOLDANI. 4to. 146 Pages, enriched with 25 Plates. Florence. 1780. One of the principal objects which the learned Author of this work has in view, is, to make known the natural productions which exift in feveral parts of Tufcany, more efpecially thofe ftones and earths, which contain the remains of a prodigious number of marine bodies, teftaceous, cruftaceous, and zoophytical. Among the various Strata obfervable in the province of Sienna, there is a remarkable difference, with respect to the quantity of marine infects and fhell-fith, which they contain. The cornua ammonis (called fnake-ftones by the common people) are fo numerous, that Janus Planeus counted above 6700 in fix ounces of mud taken from the borders of the fea of Rimini: this, however, is but little in comparison with the difcovery of our Author, who, in in a tufa-earth of the fame weight counted 8000, befides a multitude of fmall teftaceous infects, whofe numbers could not be reckoned without the affiftance of a microscope. After having divided into twelve portions, the remainder of the earth from which he had extracted the larger cornua ammonis, the Abbé SOLDANI found in one of these portions nautilufes, and fmaller cornua, amounting together to 1200; and the refult of his calculation comes to this, that the fix ounces of tufa-earth already mentioned, must have contained above 22400 of these little animals. How furprifing foever this calculation may appear, it will not feem incredible to those who confider, what a prodigious quantity of thefe minute beings pafs through a paper in which holes have been made with a needle of the fmalleft kind. One of the moft natural and evident confequences, that the Abbé SOLDANI deduces from his obfervations and experiments, is, that this whole country was formerly covered by the fea.

XII. Nuove Sperienze Idrauliche, &c. i. e, New Hydraulic Experiments, made on Canals and Rivers, in order to ascertain the principal Laws and Phenomena of running Water. By the Abbé LEONARD XIMENES, Mathematician to his R. H. the Grand Duke of Tufcany, Correfpondent Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris, &c. In 4to. 324 Pages. Sienna. 1780. This work is defigned to throw new light on the theory of hydraulics, which has hitherto been principally founded on hyptheles. Experience is our Author's guide. To know the velocities with which fluids move from their furface to their bottom (in which motion there are feveral variations) is abfolutely neceffary, in order to take with accuracy, the dimenfions of running waters. If, in the whole mafs of the fluid, its motion




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were uniform and permanent, thefe dimenfions would be at-
tended with no fort of difficulty; but the different velocities that
have been observed in different parts of the current, have, more
or lefs, embarraffed this matter. It is true, laws and curves
have been employed by learned men to exprefs, more effectually,
the degrees and proportions of thefe velocities; but as thefe laws
and curves, according to our Author, require the confirmation
of experience, that fo theory may agree with practice, he has
conftructed a machine which is adapted to convey just ideas of
the different velocities in running waters; this machine he calls
ventola Idraulica, on account of its refemblance of the weather-
vanes, that indicate the direction of the wind: as it yields with
facility to the action of the fluid, it affifts the obferver in making
a juft eftimate of the force and degree of impulfions, whether di-
rect or oblique; and, when plunged at different depths it fhews
the degrees and variations of velocity in the whole mafs of a
river or a canal. The defcription of this machine, and an enu-
meration of the experiments which the Author made on three
different currents, occupy the first part of this work; the fecond
contains an explication of thefe experiments; the third treats
of all the questions, relative to the theory of hydraulics, and the
application of this theory to practice,


XIII. Oeuvres de M. Etienne Falconet, Statuaire, &c. i, e. The Works of STEPHEN FALCONET, Statuary, 6 Vols. in 8vo. Laufanne. 1781. Price 15 Livres (or 14 Shillings), This Author is the ingenious Artift, whom the Empress of Ruffia employed to model and caft the equeftrian ftatue of PETER the Great. Though more recommendable as an artist than as an author; he is far from being contemptible in the latter quality; but also far from being a first-rate writer, The, collection he here prefents to the Public, contains Differtations on several branches of the fine arts, Some of these pieces were published before, at different times, fuch as his Reflexions on Sculpture-his Obfervations on the Horfe of the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Antoninus, and his Translation of Three Books of Pliny's Natural Hiftory, relative to the arts, which he partly illuftrated, and partly criticized in a multitude of elaborate notes. He was criticized in his turn, and that feverely. His tranflation of Pliny, and his notes upon that author, laid him more particularly open to cenfure; as the former betrayed a very confiderable ignorance of the Latin language, and the latter difcovered, in many places, a want of judgment, a petulane, fpirit of fingularity and contradiction, and an arrogant tone of fuperiority and felf-fufficiency. The critical rod feemed, however, not to have administered its correction in vain:he acknowledged the turpitude of his tranflation, and vamped, X 4


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or got it vamped up anew, and gave it again to the Public, which received it with indulgence, and judged it tolerable in its new form. He corrected alfo his notes, and foftened the afperity of his critical tone. All these publications make a new appearance in the collection now before us, and are farther revised, corrected, and improved. They contain, certainly, a multitude of entertaining and inftructive facts, anecdotes, and obfervations, relative to the fine arts, and therefore deserve a place in the libraries of the virtuoft. Subjoined to this collection, we obferve a work of a different nature, which is now published for the first time. Its title is, Letters to Pofterity, and it contains the fubftance of a correfpondence that paffed between our Author, and the loquacious philofopher Diderot, concerning the regard which is due to the judgment of pofterity. Whether the two writers will appear before that tribunal, or not, is a queftion we do not pretend to determine ;-'tis probable they will, as the one is mounted on the equeftrian ftatue of Peter the Great, which is compofed of hard metal, and the other has nestled his name in the enormous encyclopedie, which will naturally roll down, by its immenfe weight, to future ages,


For OCTOBER, 1781.


Art. 11. Brief Confiderations on the Expediency of a Plan for a Corps of Light Troops, to be employed on Detached Service in the East Indies. By James Kirkpatrick, Efq; Lieutenant Colonel in the East India Company's Service. 8vo. 1 s. Debret, &c. 1781. HIS propofal was firft published about 12 years ago, without the Author's name; and was mentioned in the 41ft volume of our Review, p. 396. Colonel Kirkpatick informs us, in the Advertifement prefixed to the prefent edition, that it would ftill have remained in the oblivion to which it has long fince been configned, if certain recent events on the Coast of Coromandel, which in fome measure seem to have been predicted in it, had not made its republication as appofite to the prefent, as its first appearance was to the past, period.'-Indeed, the ingenious Author (who, we find, underftands the use of the pen as well as the fword) feems to have written almost prophetically in the year 1769; as events have fince happened, in the Eaftern world, which ftrongly evince the expediency of his plan, by way of preventing fuch mischiefs as have been done in the Carnatic, by the depredations of Heider Ally Kawn: and which, according to


It appears, that our difcerning Author was well aware, even so long ago as the year 1769, of the true character of Heider Ally


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