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prize fugar into the British market, would have operated to the ruin of the fugar plantations; and would of course have been severely felt by the manufactures at home.

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Art. 25. An Enquiry into the Advantages and Difadvantages re fulting from Bills of Inclosure, in which Objections are ftated and Remedies proposed; and the whole is humbly recommended to the attentive Confideration of the Legislature, before any more Bills (for that Purpose) be enacted into Laws. 8vo. 1 s. Cadell.


The object of this fenfible and well-written tract is to correct the mifchiefs apprehended by the Author from the indifcriminate admiffion of inclosure bills, by pointing out the defects, and indeed the grofs injustice, with which most of them are attended. He endeavours to establish fome general principles, that are well worthy to be enforced by a legislative fan&tion, to obviate these evils in future; as well as to ferve for a line of difcrimination between fuch commons as ought, and fuch as ought not, to be inclofed. The former he deferibes as large barren heaths, and wide fwampy moors, the inclofure of which he thinks beneficial both to individuals and to the Public: whereas the inclosure of fmall commons produces, as he contends, all the partial ills, without the general good: and are ufually fet on 1 foot to gratify the avarice and rapacity of a few lordly and powerful men, at the expence of their poor and friendless neighbours.

Whoever the Writer be, we admire the spirit, and esteem the philanthropy, which breathes through this performance. We hope, however, he has depicted the abufes to which inclosure bills are liable in colours too ftrong, and in figures larger than life. But while we beg leave to think more highly of the country gentlemen of England, than to believe that the cafes he fuggefts are frequent, we admit that the call upon the Legislature, to guard against fuch abuses in the remoteft poffibility, is not the less forcible: and we must obferve, with a juft degree of commendation, that the Lords have, of late, fet a very laudable example to preferve the fountains of legiflation pure and untainted-in private bills, at least. PHILOSOPHICAL.

T. Art. 26. Philofophical Inquiries into the Laws of Animal Life. Chapter the Third. Preparatory to the Laws of Refpiration. By Hugh Smith, M. D. 4to. 18. L. Davis.

Our philofophy-in fhort, every body's philofophy-and that of the Author, are fo widely different; and we find ourselves fo very little edified by the perusal of this his third chapter; that we think it fufficient barely to announce its publication and price. Thofe who may have approved the doctrine, and manner, of the two first chapters, will naturally pay very little attention to any thing we fhould fay refpecting the third.


L A W.

Art. 27. An Abridgment of the Excife Laws, and of the Cuftom Laws therewith connected, now in force in Great Britain. Methodically arranged, with Notes and Obfervations. By Henry Mackay, Supervisor of Excife. 8vo. 75. Boards. The utility of an abridgment of this kind, or (as modeftly, though rather quaintly, expreffes it) its


Mr. Mackay very tendency of ufefulness'

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Fulnefs' to perfons concerned with the revenue-laws, is fufficiently ob-
vious. These persons are principally the revenue-officer; the manu-
facturer, or fair trader; and the smuggler; whose respective business
it is to enforce, to conform to, or evade them. The work before us
appears to be executed with great accuracy and knowledge of the
fubject, and these qualities will no doubt recommend it to the diffe-
rent parties we have enumerated: of whom the laft is commonly a
man of lefs literature than the rest, but, in his studies to evade the re-
venue-laws, he is far more acute and successful than the first is in in-
forcing them.
In this respect the fmuggler wants not the aid of
Ariftotle or of logic. He is often too powerful for the Legislature it-
felf, watchful as it is to interpofe from time to time with new regu-
lations, framed to defeat all his wiles and ftratagems, to overpower
fubtilty with ftrength, and deaden the spirit of enterprise by the
dread of penalties. But, alas! one confequence of this very circum-
ftance is, that no compiler or writer on the custom and excife-laws
can expect a long continued reception for a fingle work. New fta-
tutes are yearly fupervening, that shove the old ones out of ufe: the
"vite fumma brevis", that is too generally the fate of modern au-
thors, is from this caufe rendered still shorter to authors of Mr. Mac-
kay's description, unless, indeed, he hopes for the popularity of
Burn's JUSTICE, which, by the frequency of the editions, keeps pace
in its improvements with the rapidity of the Legiflature. Mr. Mac
kay informs his readers, that he has been ten years compiling and di-
gesting this work! and lo! fince its publication a new ftatute hath
been paffed † containing regulations in the Excife of a very import-
ant kind; for the want of which this work will lofe much of its
value, and fome inferior compiler that comes after (velut unda fuper-
wenit undam) will injure, and probably fupercede its fale!



Art. 28. Reports of the Humane Society for the Recovery of Perfons apparently drowned: for the Years 1779 and 1780. 8vo. 2 s. Rivington, &c.

The publication of annual reports of this benevolent inftitution having been found expensive to the Charity, the occurrences of two years are here comprifed in one pamphlet. If fuch publications do not really pay their charges, we cannot but think that it would be better to drop them altogether, and only print a sheet Lift of Subscribers, &c. with a general view of the fuccefs, as is done at the hofpitals. We prefame the Public are now fufficiently convinced of the poffibility of effecting, in a confiderable degree, what the humane intentions of the Society are directed to. The cafes occurring are fo fimilar that, in a medical view, little information can be expected from the perufal of them at least, among the number published, fcarcely one in twenty deferves attention on this account. This we feel ourselves obliged to fay as Reviewers: in any other light, we concur with

• We muft obferve, that Mr. Mackay's book was published in 1779; though, by fome accident, it did not, till very lately, come under our notice.

tIn the clofe of laft Seffions.


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every friend to humanity in wishing all imaginable fuccefs to fo welldirected a Charity. Art. 29. A Treatife on Sympathy, in Two Parts. Part I. On the Nature of Sympathy in general; that of Antipathy; and the Force of Imagination; and on their extenfive Importance and Relation to the Animal Oeconomy: with many interefting Observations on Medical Sympathy. Part II. On Febrile Sympathy and Confent; and on the Balance and Connection of extreme Vessels; illustrated with practical Remarks; and a new Explanation of the various Affections of the Stomach and Skin in Fever. In which is attempted a full Refutation of the Doctrine delivered on the fame Subject from the Practical Chair at the University of Edinburgh. By Seguin Henry Jackson, M. D. Member of the Royal College of Physicians, London; and of the Royal Medical Society, Edinburgh; and Physician to the Westminster. General Difpenfary. 8vo. 4s. Boards. Murray. 1781.


A young Author has here got hold of an extremely abrufe and difficult fubject of fpeculation, which it would require the mot ex-tenfive knowledge of facts, and the most cautious reasoning upon them, to difcufs in a fatisfactory manner. Whether the Writer be•fore us be fo qualified, we must leave to his Readers to determine for themfelves; as it is utterly impoffible for us to give any abridged view of do&rines which we confess we do not clearly comprehend. Some facts refpe&ting fympathy, with practical inferences from them, communicated by Mr. John Hunter, will be thought curious and worthy of attention by those who may not be interested in the general theory of the book. With respect to the new doctrine of fever, which the Author advances against that of Dr. Callen, it appears to us only one gratuitous hypothefis against another, fo valeat quantum valere poteft.


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La Decence dans l'Exterieure confideré comme un Devoir. Sermon fur 1 à Timothée . 9, 10. Dedié au Beau-Sexe des Provinces Unies. Par un Hollandois. A Londres. 1780." Decency in external Appearance confidered as a Duty, A Sermon on 1 Tim. ii. 9, 10. Dedicated to the Fair Sex in the United Provinces. By a Native of Holland."

This ferious lecture, like many others, might do good, if it could obtain an hearing: but how could our Author be fo vain, or fo ignorant of the world, as to expect that his fermon would be admitted upon the toilet-unless to furnish Monfieur Frizer with papillotes ? E.

Mr. Hill's Remarks on Thelyphthora, and the Conclufion of the Account of the Bishop of Worcester's Sermons, intended for this Month, must, in confequence of an accident, be deferred till. O&tober.

+++ The Single Sermons in our next.

Letters from feveral Correfpondents have been received, which, on account of our Editor's absence, on a journey of health, to diftant parts of the kingdom, cannot, at prefent, be more particularly acknowledged.

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ART. I. The Private Life of Lewis XV. CONCLUDED.-See laft
Month's Review.


T is not often feen, that the private character of Kings reflects a luftre upon their public ftation. That fuperior ftrength of understanding, acutenefs of penetration, elevation of fentiment, and greatnefs of foul, by which alone the regal dignity can be fupported and adorned, da neither belong to Kings, jure divino, nor pafs by inheritance from father to fon, with the fceptre and the crown. The hiftory of the private life of Kings is frequently adapted to excite ridicule and contempt, and fometimes to create difguft and abhorrence, but feldom to command. the tribute of fincere respect and veneration.


We need not have recourfe to the black catalogue of the Roman Cæfars, to confirm the truth of this remark. The hiftory of France prefents us with a long feries of characters under the name of Kings, which it is impoffible to review, without feeling the emotions of rifibility (if they be not fuppreffed by the more serious emotions of indignation), on the recollection that fuch men have swayed the rod of empire, and received homage as the Lord's Anointed. To this lift the narrative before us obliges us to add the name of Lewis XV.

The following is the fketch which the Author gives of the character of this Prince when he entered the age of adolefcence:

His contemporaries defcribe him as being handfome, of a proper ftature, with a leg perfectly well made, a noble mien, his eyes large, his look rather mild than fierce, his eye-brows dark; and his appearance all together feeming to bespeak that delicate habit of body, which he afterwards fortited fo much by exercife, that he was able to bear the greateft fatigues. It is to this tardy progreis of nature in VOL. LXV.



him, that we are undoubtedly to attribute the calmness of thofe paffions which are fo active at that age in moft individuals of strong conftitutions, and efpecially among Princes, with whom every thing contributes to awaken thefe paffions early. He then appeared indif ferent for women, for play, and for high living, all of which he was much addicted to after. Hunting was his only pleasure; whether it were that a fecret inflinct led him to this falutary exercife, or that want of employment prompted him to it, from the apprehenfion of that tædium, which already began to embitter his best days for his education having been much neglected, from the fear of fatiguing him in his infancy, his mind was but little embellifhed, and he had not acquired that taste for ftudy, which is of fo great refource at all times, and in every flation. He had an invincible averfion for bufinefs, fo that he could fcarce bear to hear it spoken of. Having no thirft of glory, he wanted that energy, which, in his great grandfather, had corrected the defects of education, and made up for his ignorance. In a word, being of an eafy, indolent, and timid difpofition, he was calculated to be governed by the first person who should gain an afcendant over him. This circumftance the Preceptor of the Prince foon perceived, and he availed himself of it, to lay the foundation of his grandeur.'

The manner in which the King paffed his moments of retirement from the public eye, in this early period of his life, may be gathered from the following paffage:

Fortunately, the King's inclinations induced him to attach himfelf to the Count de Clermont, who had been brought up with him, and who was almost of his own age; heavy Prince, of weak understanding, and addicted to nothing but feftivals, pleasures, and women; and to the Count of Touloufe, a Prince not of bright parts, but of exquifite judgment, of very regular manners, not moved by any ftrong paffion; he was moreover very circumfpect, and too much afhamed of his difproportionate marriage, the declaration of which he had obtained, to fet himself against the Cardinal who governed.

'The Princeffes who deferved the Monarch's attachment at that time, did not appear more dangerous to the Prime Minifter. The Queen was at the head of them. She was in intire poffeffion of the heart of her auguft hulband; fhe alone delighted him, and defired no other happiness. She had already given herself up to devotion, but of a mild kind, without fanaticifm, fo that the Priefts who might have been difpofed to intrigues, acquired but little afcendant over her. Befide, he was under the direction of a Jefuit, and their fociety was devoted to the Cardinal, who encouraged all their fury against the Janfenifts. Lewis XV. tafted alfo the fweets of a tender friendship with Mademoiselle de Charolois, and the Countess of Touloufe. Though Mademoiselle de Charolois was fifter to the Duke of Bourbon, and daughter to the Grand Duchefs, his mother, she was not of their cabals. Formed for pleasure from her youth, by the beauty and graces the poffeffed, fhe was endowed with an exquifite fenfibility, which turned itself entirely to love: fhe had had a number of admirers, and brought forth children almost every year, with little more fecrecy than an opera-girl; though, to keep up appearances, it was faid he was ill, during the fix weeks of her confinement; and


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