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word or letter. Amongst many other valuable remarks, reafons are affigned to fhew, that the Chaldee verfe in Jerem. x. 11. was originally Hebrew. It fhould be added, that the parts of Daniel, now Chaldee, are in this edition given alfo in Hebrew. The advantages of hemiftically printing the poetry are not more clear, from any inftances, than from the 25th, 34th, and 37th Pfalms; where the eye at once difcovers fome very material corruptions. The Book of Job receives alfo great light from this arrangement; and fome important obfervations are here made on chapter xxvii. and on chapters xl. to xlii.

As it is out of our power to afford any other than a general view of a Differtation which contains fuch a variety of new and interefting matter, we can only take notice, that answers are given beforehand to the following queftions-Why is not this work more copious? And why it is not lefs copious? As to the first demand, fatisfactory reafons are affigned, why more manuscripts, why the points, and why the ancient verfions, &c. &c. are not collated. With regard to any general complaint that may be urged against the amplitude of the work, equally fatisfactory replies are made to the following queries; Why is it encumbered with a Text? Why with a Samaritan Text, and that fo fpacious? Why infert part of words, and pieces of letters, and errors the most clear and certain? One good reafon here alleged for noting many manifeft errors in the manufcripts is, the more eafily to induce a belief, that fome manifeft errors may have crept from manufcripts into the printed copies. Of this fort feveral decifive inftances are given from Gen. v. and xli.; Numb. i.; Jof. xvii.; Jud. i. and vii.; Ruth i.; 2 Sam. xii. and xix. and xxiv.; 1 Kings vii. and viii.; 2 Chron. xxi.; Ezra i.; Job i. and ii.; Pfal. xlii.; Dan. iii.

Dr. Kennicott, having recommended that any perfon, who entertains doubts concerning the difficulty of fuch a work as the prefent, would try it for a few years; and having remarked, how often the fame Greek manufcripts have been collated, and recollated, by the beft fcholars; fubjoins a lift of errata in his own edition and Diflertation. And indeed it proves, that furprifing care has been taken by the correctors, if the whole Text (Hebrew and Samaritan) contains not many more errata than the eight which are here fpecified. The lift of errata is followed by three hundred and fifty various readings, which could not be inferted fooner.

After this Catalogue, are specified all fuch Hebrew manufcripts as are at present known, but which have not been used for this undertaking. And, that nothing might be omitted which could be of effential fervice towards a farther elucidation of the Old Teftament, a catalogue is added of the best manufcripts of the Greek, Syriac, Arabic, and Vulgate verfions, and alfo of the


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Chaldee Paraphrafe. For it is now proved, that thefe verfions, even as they are at prefent printed, will greatly affift in correcting the Hebrew Text. It is likewife ftill farther proved, that the older manufcripts of these verfions will correct a variety of miftakes in the printed editions of them; and of course render them much better qualified for correcting the Hebrew Text. It is, therefore, greatly to be wifhed, that a proper ufe may be made of these manufcripts, whether at home or abroad, which are now pointed out by our indefatigable Editor.

Many remarks, offered by Dr. Kennicott, appear to us decifively to confute certain objections, which have been made by Profeffor Eichorn, Father Fabricy, and Profeffor Michaelis; but for these we must refer our Readers to the Differtation itself. We cannot, however, omit our Author's animated exhortations, at the conclufion, which relate to two points: The firft is, the great ufe to be derived from the Hebrew manufcripts and ancient verfions, for amending the printed Hebrew Text: and the fecond is the duty incumbent on men in power, to render fuch corrections fubfervient to the public good, by procuring a more correct and more intelligible English Tranflation, or rather' Revifal of the prefent English tranflation, of the Old Teftament. As to the first, he reminds his readers, that the Hebrew manufcripts will lead us back to the year of Chrift 1000, and upwards. And as thefe manufcripts ftrongly confirm the ancient verfions, by their help we afcend to the times of Jerom, of the Apoftles, and even of Ptolemy Philadelphus. With respect to the last point, he fays-that it now remains to be seen in what kingdom or country, through Europe, will be manifefted the greater zeal, for correcting the modern tranflations of the Old Teftament. Dr. Kennicott's conclufion is in these words: • Honorificum fane eft quòd REX Sueciæ auguftiffimus, primus omnium, illuftre pofuit exemplum; facto mandato, ut inchoaretur Veteris Teftamenti examinatio, et accuratiffima verfionis Suecica recenfio: quò parata effet ea verfio, ut in fe admittat commoda, quotquot adminiftraverit hæc variarum lectionum editio. MAGNAM BRITANNIAM officio fuo defuturam effe, nefas foret fufpicari: Magnam, dico, Britanniam! quam per fecula ditavit, atque adhuc ditare vult, DEI PROVIDENTIA donis è cœlo pretiofiffimis ! Regionem illam ipfam-in quâ, fub tutelâ, fere ultra fidem, munificâ, et fub REGIS PIENTISSIMI AUGUSTISSIMIQUE patrocinio, hoc opus (recenfionem fore utiJiffimam demonftrans, et fubfidia neceffaria fimul oflentans) non folùm aufpicatiffimè inceptum fuit, et per labores fere infinitos extenfum, fed etiam (DEO O. M. fic volente) ad finem tandem perductum eft.'

We have fo often given our opinion concerning the nature of this noble undertaking, and the integrity and ability with which Rev. Aug. 1781.



it hath been conducted, that it is needlefs to add any farther teftimony on the fubject. The work reflects no fmall credit on the prefent age: and the name of Dr. Kennicott, who has fo honourably and happily begun and completed it, will be tranfmitted with great reputation to pofterity. The defign was in itself highly proper to be carried into execution; fince the regard we owe to the facred writings undoubtedly requires that they fhould be carefully examined, that the beft copies of them fhould be brought to light, and that they fhould be exhibited to the utmost advantage. But the ufefulness of the prefent undertaking will be more and more difcernible, the more accurately the various readings of the Old Teftament are inveftigated and compared. Its utility will be most of all apparent, when there fhall be a public and authoritative new Translation of the Bible, or, at leaft, an effectual revifion of the common verfion. It is eminently to the honour of the King of Sweden, that he has been the first prince in Europe who hath iffued his royal commands for executing a purpose of this kind. Dr. Kennicott thinks it would be criminal to fuppofe that Great Britain, which has enjoyed fuch diftinguifhed bleffings of Providence, should be backward in fo pious a defign. We fincerely with that his fentiment may be well founded; and we would willingly cherish the hope that he will not be disappointed in his expectations. If it be criminal to imagine that Great Britain will refufe to pay this teftimony of gratitude to the Divine Goodnefs, it must be highly criminal for those in whom the power of doing it lies, to neglect fuch a proof of their regard to the Scriptures. It is the duty of the governors of the church to urge the point with his Majefty, and the Minifters of State. It is a duty they owe to their high ecclefiaftical stations, to the honour of the facred writings, and to the interefts of revelation, which are continually fuffering from the abfurd and perverted fenfe that is often given to paffages of the Old and New Teftament, through the medium of talfe tranflations. Every man who is acquainted with the world must be fenfible, that infidelity is spreading itfelf through all ranks of the community; and nothing can fo effectually ftop the progrefs of it, as the difplay of our holy religion in its genuine purity, evidence, and luftre. We are not in the number of those who are difpofed to entertain any fufpicion that the venerable Bench of Bishops will be defective in a zeal to promote fo important a defign. We expect better things from their known characters, abilities, and learning and we are the more encouraged in our hopes, when we reflect that Dr. Lowth, to whom Dr. Kennicott's undertaking is fo greatly indebted, sustains such an elevated rank in the church. We trust that it will be that eminent Prelate's laft and fupreme glory, not to die in peace, till in conjunction with his most reverend and right


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reverend brethren, he hath obtained a new public Tranflation of the Bible, or fuch a correction of the old one as fhall anfwer the fame valuable ends.


ART. VIII. An Examination of Dr. Price's Essay on the Population of
England and Wales; and the Do&rine of an increafed Population in
this Kingdom. By the Rev. John Howlett, A. B. To which is
added, an Appendix: Containing Remarks on Dr. Price's Argu-
ment of a decreafed Population, deduced from the decreafed Pro-
duce of the hereditary and temporary Excife. 8vo.
2 s. 6 d.

T. Payne.



HIS accurate Examiner informs us in his Preface, that his work was more than half written before he faw Mr. Wales's inquiry into the same subject *: and that it was a fortunate circumftance, fo far as they adopted the fame mode of investigation, that their researches had been directed to different quarters. By this means the evidence accumulated, and the near coincidence in the refult, gives additional weight to the general argument.

The caufes of depopulation affigned by Dr. Price, are,

The increase of our army and navy; and the conftant supply of men neceffary to keep them up.

A devouring capital, too large for the body that fupports it. Three long and deftructive continental wars, in which we have been involved during the present century.

The migrations to our fettlements abroad; particularly to the Eaft and West Indies.

Engroffing of farms.

Inclofing of commons and wafte grounds.
The high price of provifions.

The increase of luxury, and of our public taxes and debts. Mr. Howlett confiders the operation of each of thefe affigned caufes very acutely in diftinct fections, with a view to fhew, that moft of them are far from having a tendency to reduce population; and that fome of them, in certain degrees, and in certain fituations, actually promote it.

With regard to our army and navy, the Author obferves, that it is far from certain that they are greatly, if at all, injuri ous to population. Soldiers and failors, if they do not generally marry themselves, are remotely the cause of marriage in others, by the conftant employ and maintenance they afford to thoufands, who but for that refource would be idle and starving. But if our naval and military force have increased, have not those of our neighbours increased alfo? And it would be strange

See Review for April laft, p. 253.

ly unfortunate, if their depopulating influence should be wholly confined to Great Britain!

Under the fecond head, Mr. Howlett charges Dr. Price with an obvious inconfiftency. After having very ftrenuously laboured to prove, that our metropolis, like the reft of the kingdom, has greatly decreased fince the revolution, he affigns, as a ftill increafing caufe of depopulation, an overgrown capital.' But without ftopping to infift on this advantage over his antagonist, he supposes the fact, that London is fo enormous,' that the utmost exertion of the adjacent country fhould be infufficient to furnish the neceffary fupplies for this immenfe capital; what would be the confequence? Why it would gradually dwindle till it shrunk to a fize adequate to its foreign fupports.' Indeed those politicians who reiterate the old obfervation, that the kingdom is like a rickety body, with a head too big for the other members, err greatly in comparing political diforders with those which affect the human body. There is in the latter a principal feat of life and action on which all the reft of the body depends for exiftence, and a disorder may take root in fome one part fo as to deftroy the whole; whereas the political body is like the polypus, the principles of life being diffused throughout. Cut off a man's head, you inevitably deftroy the whole body; the total swallowing up of a metropolis by an earthquake, is a privation that would in a fhort time be naturally fupplied by fome other convenient town rifing to the eminence of a new metropolis. As a body of water, however difturbed, will find its proper level, fo most political evils naturally work their own cure; which is fufficient ground for the ancient maxim, never to defpair of the commonwealth.

This tempts us to indulge a digreffion to another fpecious, but perhaps erroneous, pofition. The rife, meridian profperity, and decay of empires, have been affumed as the certain regular progress of political life, founded on analogy with human life, and fanctified by the known inftances of Affyria, Greece, Rome, &c. In the infancy of the world, or more properly of the present state of the world (for we know not what viciffitudes the general face of it may have undergone), while civilization and power were limited to fome one empire, which afpired to extend its dominion over all its neighbours, it must neceffarily be exhausted int the course of such precarious contefts. Thus fell those empires that formerly, in fucceffion, awed all the rest of the known world. The feveral provinces of the Roman empire are now more fecurely established on the broad bafis of independence, reciprocally knit together, however, by mutual treaties: the occafional infraction of fuch treaties not being extenfive enough intheir effects to overturn the affertion. Modern empires dependmore on internal cultivation and manufactures; in which re


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