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was made of the seed of
γενομενου εκ σπερμαίος Δαβίδ David, according to the
κατα σαρκα, flesh,
4 And declared to be the 4 Του οισθεντος του Θεου Son of God with power, ac- εν δυναμει, κατα πνευμα αγιωcording to the spirit of ho
συνης, εξ αναςάσεως νεκρων liness, by the resurrection Ιησου Χριςου του Κυριου ημων. from the dead : 5 By whom we have re
5 Δι’ & ελαβομεν χαριν και ceived grace and apostle- απος ολην εις υπακοην πιςεως ship, for obedience to the
εν πασι τοις έθνεσιν, υπερ του faith among all nations for his name. 6 Among whom are ye
6 Εν δις εςε και υμεις, κληalso the called of Jesus του Ιησου Χριςου Christ. 7 To all that be in Rome,
7 Πασι τοις ουσιν εν Ρωμη, beloved of God, called to δε αγαπητοις Θεου, κλητοις, αγι
2. Who was born of the seed of David, with respect to the flesh. Lass flesh, sometimes denotes the human body, 1 Cor. vii. 28. sometimes the human mind, Rom. vii. 19. 2 Cor. vii. 7. and sometimes the whole man, John iii. 6.—Here being opposed to the spirit of boliness, it signifies our Lord's body. For, it cannot be thought, that he derived his human soul from his mother, because that would imply the divisibility of the soul of the parent. Beza, in his note on this verse, supposing that the word gevojleros denotes the forma. tion of our Lord's body, says, the Holy Ghost took of the substance of Mary's body, and formed it into a body for our Lord. He adds, that the ancients urged this text against Valentinus, Marcion, and the rest : some of whom affirmed, that our Lord's body was only imaginary ; others, that it was formed of celestial matter, and sent into the body of his mother from heaven. But although the apostle, in this place, speaks only of our Lord's body, it does not follow, that he had nothing of the human nature but a body. The passages in which he is called a man, and the man Jesus Christ and our brother, and in which his sufferings are described, imply that he had a real human soul also. .
Ver. 4.–1. Declared, ogroJeta. The original word signifies to fix the boundaries of a thing, consequently to make it appear what it is.
2. With power. Locke understands this of the miraculous power, described Eph. i. 19, 20. whereby Jesus was raised from the dead. I rather think power denotes the strength of the evidence by which he was demonstrated to be the Son of God.
3. By bis resurrection from the dead. Here I have supplied the pronoun his, because the scope of the reasoning requires it to be supplied. Jesus being put to death as a blasphemer, for calling himself Cbrist the Son of the blessed, God would not have raised him from the dead, if he had been an of David, avith respect to foretold, was born of a woman de. the flesh,
scended from David, the king of Is
rael, with respect to his flesh, 4 But was declared the 4 But was declared the Son of God, Son of God with power, with great power of evidence, with with respect to the spirit of respect to his holy spiritual nature, by holiness, by his resurrec- his resurrection from the dead, after he tion FROM the dead 3: EVEN had been crucified by the Jewish ruJesus Christ our Lord. lers for calling himself the Son of
God, even Jesus Christ our Lord. 5 (Ai' 121.) From whom 5 From whom, since his resurwe have received grace, rection, I have received miraculous and apostleship, in order powers and apostleship, in order that to the obedience of faithe through my preaching him as the Son among all the Gentiles, (uteg) of God, the obedience of faith may be on account of his name ;3 given to him, among all the Gentiles,
on account of his being the Son of God. 6 Among whom, are 6 Among the number of which Genalso ye, the called of Jesus tiles, are also ye the called disciples of Christ :
Jesus Christ. 7 To all who are in 7 Being thus commissioned, I Rome,' to the beloved of write this letter to all who are in
impostor ; especially as he had often foretold his own resurrection, and ap. pealed to it as a proof of his being the Son of God, John ii. 19. His resurrection therefore was a public testimony, borne by God himself, to the truth of our Lord's pretensions, which put the matter beyond all doubt. See Heb. i. 5. note 1.
Ver. 5.-1. From whom we have received grace and apostleship. That is, the grace or favour of apostleship. See Gal. ii. 9. Eph. iii. 2. where the apostolic office is styled grace. Or, if grace and apostleship are taken separately, apostleship may signify the office, and grace the supernatural endow. ments bestowed on Paul, to fit him for that office.
2. In order to the obe:lience of faith. 'Either obedience from a principle of faith, or faith itself, called obedience simply, chap. xvi. 19.
3. On account of his name. Name here signifies the character of Christ, as the Son of God and Saviour of the world This name, Paul was appointed to bear, or publish before the Gentiles and kings, and the children of Israel, Acts ix. 15. And it is on account of this name or character, that all men are bound to obey him.
Ver. 7.-1. Unto all who are in Rome. This epistle being written to persuade the unbelieving Jews and Gentiles to embrace the gospel, as exhibit. ing the only effectual method of salvation, it was fitly addressed to the whole inhabitants of Rome, to the heathens as well as to the Jews and Christians. Scc ver. 13, 14, 15.
saints : Grace to you, and oις Χαρις υμιν και ειρηνη απο peace from (GolourFather, Θεα πατρος ημων, και Κυριου and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Ιησε Χριςου. 8 First, I thank my God
8 Πρωτον μεν ευχαριςω τω through Jesus Christ, for
Θεω μου δια Ιησου Χριςου you all, that your faith is
υπερ παντων υμων, ότι η πιςις spoken of throughout the whole world. .
υμων καταγγελλεθαι εν όλω
τω κόσμω. 9 For God is my wit
9 Μαρτυς γαρ μου εςιν ο ness, whom I serve with Θεος, ώ λατρευω εν τω πνευmy spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceas
μαζι μου, εν τω ευαγγελια ing I make mention of you του γιου αυτου, ώς αδιαλειπλως always in my prayers,
μνειαν υμων ποιουμαι.
2. To the beloved of God, to the called, (see Rom. ix. 7. note,) to the saints. See Ess. iv. 48. These are the honourable appellations which God anciently gave to the Jewish nation, as his people and church. But they now belonged to the disciples of Christ, as the visible church of God, substituted in place of the Jews. By these honourable appellations, therefore, the Christians at Rome were distinguished from the idolatrous inhabitants of the city, and from the unbelieving Jews; the whole being comprehended in the general description, All who are in Rome.
3. Grace to you. In the apostolic benedictions, grace signifies the influences and fruits of the Spirit, the favour and protection of God, the pardon of sin, the enjoyment of eternal life; all which are called grace, because they are gratuitously bestowed by God.
4. And peace. The usual salutation among the easterns was, Peace be to you, by which they meant every kind of worldly felicity. But in Paul's writ. ings, peace signifies that satisfaction which results from being in friendship with God. Thus Rom. v. 1. Being justified by faith, we have peace with God. It also signifies the happiness of heaven, called, Philip. iv. 7. The peace of God, which passeth all comprehension. In this sense, I think, it is used in the apostolic benedictions, and Rom. ii. 9.–Because most of the Roman brethren were unacquainted with Paul, 'he judged it necessary, in the inscription of his letter, to assure them that he was an apostle called by Jesus Christ himself, and that he was separated to preach the gospel to the Gentiles, in fulfilment of the promises which God had made by the prophets in the scriptures, that the gospel should be preached to them. These circumstances he mentioned, to remove the prejudices of the believing, as well as of the unbelieving Jews, who he knew were displeased with him for preaching the gospel to the Gentiles. Withal, because the church of Rome had not been planted by any apostle, he instructed them in some particulars concerning the nature God, to the called, 2 to the Rome ; and more especially to those saints : grace be to you, 3 who are the beloved of God, on acand peace
4 from God our count of their faith, to the called seed Father, and the Lord Jesus of Abraham, to the saints by profesChrist.
sion. May grace be multiplied to you, and peace from God our Father, and
from the Lord Jesus Christ. 8 (Ilgatov Mev, 238.) And 8 And first, I thank my God through first, I thank my God Jesus Christ, on account of all of you, through Jesus Christ for who have embraced the gospel, that all of you,' that your faith your faith in Jesus Christ is so conis spoken of throughout spicuous, that it is spoken of throughthe whole world.
out the whole Roman empire. 9 For God is my wit- 9 In saying, I am thankful for ness, 1 whom with my spirit your conversion, I speak the truth; I serve in the gospel of for I call God to witness, whom, with his Son, that continually I the utmost earnestness, I serve in the make mention of you. ministry of the gospel of his Son, that
constantly I make affectionate men
tion of you.
and character of Christ, which it was of great importance for them to know.
Ver. 8.-1. I thank my God, through Jesus Christ, for all of you. In the be. ginning of his epistles, Paul generally subjoined to the apostolic benediction, a solemn thanksgiving for the faith, charity, patience, and other virtues of the brethren to whom he wrote, to make them sensible of their happy state, and to lead them to a right improvement of the advantages which they enjoyed as Christians.
2. That your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world. The faith of the Romans, which occasioned so much discourse, was their turning from idols. An event of this kind could not fail to be spoken of with wonder through the whole empire, as there were multitudes of strangers continually coming to Rome from the provinces, who on their return home would report what they had seen. For this the apostle thanked Gud, because the conversion of the Romans encouraged the inhabitants of other cities to forsake the established idolatry. Besides, Rome being the metropolis of the world, the conversion of so many of its inhabitants, brought no small credit to the evidences of the gospel. ·
Ver. 9.-1. For God is my witness. The Roman brethren being mostly Jews, this solemn asseveration concerning the mention which the apostle made of them in his prayers, was intended to convince them that their conversion was as much the subject of his thanksgiving to God, as the conversion of the Gentiles.
10 Making request (if by 1ο Πανθο7ε επι των προσευany means now at length I
χων μου δεομενος, ει πως ηδη might have a prosperous
ποτε ευοδωθησομαι εν τω 8εjourney by the will of God)
λημαθι του Θεου, ελθειν προς to come unto you.
υμας. 11 For I long to see you,
γαρ that I may impart unto you ένα τι μεταδω χαρισμα υμιν some spiritual gift, to the
πνευματικον, εις το σηριχθηναι end you may be establish
μας ed; 12 That is, that I may be
12 Τουτο δε εςι, συμπαραcomforted together with κληθηναι εν υμιν δια της εν αλyou, by the mutual faith ληλοις πιςεως, υμων τε και εμε. both of you and me. 13 Now I would not have
15 Ου θελω δε υμας αγνοyou ignorant, brethren, that
ειν, αδελφοι, οι πολλακις προoftentimes I purposed to
εθεμην ελθειν προς υμας, (και come unto you, (but was let hitherto,) that I might εκωλυθην αχρι του δευρο) ένα have some fruit among you καρπον τινα σχω και εν υμιν, also, even as among other καθως και εν τοις λοιπους εθGentiles. .
νεσιν" 14 I am debtor both to
14 Ελλησι τε και βαρβαthe Greeks, and to the bar
ροις, σοφοις τε και ανόητοις barians, both to the wise,
οφειλετης ειμι and to the unwise.
15 So, as much as in me 15 Ούτω το κατ' εμε προis, I am ready to preach
Ver. 11.-1. That I may impart to you some spiritual gift. That many of the brethren at Rome were already possessed of spiritual gifts, is evident from Rom. xii. where directions are given them concerning the exercise of these gifts. A number of the Roman brethren having been converted in the cast, may have received spiritual gifts from one or other of the apostles; and with respect to the rest, St. Paul proposed to enrich some of them with these gifts on his coming to Rome.
Ver. 12.-1. Mutual faith both of you and me. As often as the apostles communicated spiritual gifts to their disciples, it was a new proof to themselves of the dis presence with them, and an additional confirmation of their mission from God in the eyes of others, both of which, no doubt, gave them great joy.
Ver. 14.-1. To the Greeks and to the barbarians. Under the name of Greeks, the Romans were comprehended, because they were now become a learned