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the pronoun, or the passage must be construed and translated thus: The just by his fuiih, the man who is just by his faith, shall live. For otherwise translated, this quotation is no proof of the apostle's assertion, that Habakkuk hath written of a righteousness by faith.
Ver. 19. That which may be known of God is manifest in them. According to this translation, the apostle's meaning is, That the knowledge of God, attainable by the light of nature, was manifest in the minds of the Grecian philosophers. But to say, that knowledge is manifest in any one's mind, merely because it exists there, is very improper. Knowledge in the mind cannot be manifest, except it be shewn either by words, or by actions. That the heathen philosophers did not manifest the existence of the knowledge of God in their minds by their actions, is plain from their public institutions of religion, in which they shewed the grossest ignorance of God. As little did they manifest that knowledge, in their discourses to the common people. They rather unrighteously concealed it from them, as the apostle affirms, ver. 18. By their writings only, they manifested their knowledge of God to the few who could read them. This therefore being the apostle's meaning, to express it, the word €9, instead of being translated in, as in our bible, ought to have been translated among, as in the new translation. That which may be known of God, is manifest among them, for God hath manifested it to them.
Ver. 20. For the invisible things of him, from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, 80 that they are without excuse. The phrase, from the creation of the world, is ambiguous : for it may signify either, by the creation of the world, or since the creation of the world. The latter is the apostle's meaning ; because clearly seen by the creation of the world, is precisely the same in sense with the clause which follows it ; namely, being understood by the things that are made; which thus becomes a tautology. But both the ambiguity and the tautology will be removed, if the preposition aro is translated since, as it is Luke ii. 36. thus: His invisible things, even his eternal power and Godhead, ano, since the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, so that they are inexcusable, &c.
Ver. 21. Because that when they knew God, they glorified him not ar God, neither were thankful. The apostle's meaning is not, that at what time they knery God, they glorified him not, &c. but
that although the legislators and philosophers knew the true God, they neither glorified him as God, by making him the object of the people's worship, nor appointed any public thanksgivings to be offered to him, as the author of all the good things mankind enjoy. These ideas the common translation does not express distinctly: but in the new version, they are suggested with sufficient plainness, by rendering the words » ev xaisyrer literally, neither gave him thanks, and by giving the participle you les its adversative sense, thus: Because although they knew Gods, they did not glorify him as God, ncither gave him thanks, but became foolishi by their own reasonings ; those reasonings, by which they pretendcd to justify polytheism and idolatry, as the most proper religion for the vulgar.
Ver. 32. Who knowing the judgment of God, that they who conmit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but take pleasure in them that do them. The new translation of this verse is more accurate and emphatical. Who though they knew, to dirclayot, the law of God, that they who firactise such things are worthy of death, not only do them, but even are well pleased with those who practise them. The heathen legislators, instead of pmishing, were well pleased with their people, when they practised the enormities mentioned in the preceding part of this chapter.
There are other variations in the new translation of this chapter, by which it is brought more close to the original than the version in cominon use: but it is needless to mention them, as thic examples produced may suffice to shew, that even the smallest alterations in the translation, when conformable to the original, make a great change in the meaning of the passages. It is of more importance to observe, that from the above examples, the reader may justly conclude, that the minute alterations in the other chapters of the Romans have the same effect, as they likewisc have in all the chapters of the other epistles, where they are introduced; consequently, that they should not be passed over slightly, but considered with attention, that their importance may be understood. It is necessary also to observe, that notwithstanding so much has been said to shew the value of these uninute alterations, the reader must not therefrom conclude, that all, or even the greatest part of the alterations in this translalion, are of the minute kind. In every epistle, there are many of much greater magnitude, than those in the first chapter to the Romans. But there is no occasion to shew this by examples.
They will strike the reader at first sight. Neither is it necessary here to point out, in what respects they alter the meaning of the passages where they are introduced. In the notes, the propriety of many of them is sufficiently illustrated : and for the rest, they will recommend themselves to the learned by their exact agreement with the original.
By this time, the reader no doubt understands, that the alterations and corrections, concerning which so much hath been said in this premonition, are those which, in the following translation, are made on the English version commonly used. But the principles on which these alterations are founded, having been explained at great length in different parts of the General Preface, no farther information concerning them is requisite, except to put the reader in mind, that they consist in the following particulars. 1. In substituting modern English words and phrases in place of such as are now become obsolete.-2. In correcting the language of the common version, where it is ungrammatical.-3. In rejecting ambiguous expressions, of which there are many in our English bible.-4. In placing the words of the translation in the order which the corresponding words hold in the original, as often as either the meaning, or the perspicuity of any passage depends on that order.-5. In supplying the elliptical expressions properly: and for the most part, either from what goes before, or from what follows in the text.-6. In excluding all such words and clauses as have been added by our translators unnecessarily. Of this kind, there are a number in their version, which hurt the sense.—7. In accurately marking those words, which in the common translation are added to the text, without being marked as added; but which being retained in this, as necessary to complete the sense, it was fit to distinguish them from the original words, that the reader may judge of their propriety.-8. In rightly construing the Greek text, where it requires to be construed; and in translating the passages according to that right construction.-9. In translating the Greek words and phrases according to their true literal meaning, both where they have been mistranslated, and where they have been paraphrased : because, in general, the literal will be found to agree better with the context, and to be more emphatical and beautiful, than any free translation whatever.-10. In not varying the translation of the same words and phrases in the same sentence, unless they are evidently used in different senses : a rule which our translators have often transgressed, to the darkening of the meaning of many passages. 11. In altering the pointing of some sentences, for the purpose of rendering their meaning more consonant to the context.-12. In translating the Greek particles properly, according to that variety of meaning, in which they are used by the sacred writers.
The corrections comprehended under this last class, are so numerous, and, though minute, make such a change in the sense of the apostolical writings, that any version, in which the Greek particles are properly translated, may well be accounted new. For it is certain, as was observed before, (page 109.) from B. Lowth, that upon the right rendering of the connective parts of sentences, depends the relation which the different members of the discourse have to each other : and that by the mutual relation of these members, the train of thought, the course of reasoning, and the whole progress of the mind in continued discourse, are laid open. Accordingly it will be found, that, in the following translation, the scheme of the apostle's reasoning is oftentimes entirely changed, from what it appears to be in the common version, merely by giving the particles their proper Old TRANSLATION.
GREEK Text. CHAP. I. 1. Paul a ser- 1 Παυλος δουλος Ιησου ΧριTant of Jesus Christ, called S8, κλητος αποςολος, αφωρισto be an apostle, separated
μενος εις ευαγγελιον Θεου, , unto the gospel of God.
2 (Which he had promis- 2 Ο προεπηγγειλατο δια των ed afore by his prophets spoonlov å vlov ev ypapais in the holy scriptures.)
αγιαις, 3 Concerning his son Je
3 Περι του γιου αυτου, του sus Christ our Lord, which
Ver. 1.-1. Paul, a servant. The original word 889G, properly signifies a slave. Here it is a name of honour. For in the East, the chief ministers of kings were called 88201, slaves. In this sense, Moses is called
898 Jes, the slave or servant of God, Josh. i. 1. This honourable name, therefore, denotes the high authority which Paul possessed in the kingdom of Christ, as one of his chief ministery.
2. A called apostle. The name apostle was given to different orders of men, Rom. xvi. 7. note 4. But in its highest sense, it was appropriated to the twelve, whom Christ appointed to be with him, Mark iii. 14. and whom, after his resurrection, he sent forth to preach the gospel. Sce Prel. Ess. p. 48.
3. Separated unto the gospel of God We are told, Acts xü. 2. That the Holy Ghost said, separate me Barnabas and Saul, for the work cohereinto I
signification. But if the alterations comprehended under one class only, make such a change in the train of the apostles reasonings, as to entitle this to the appellation of a new translation, the numerous corrections comprehended under the other classes, must set it at a still greater distance from the common version, and fully justify the author in calling it A new trunslation from the original, of all the apostolical epistles.
It only remains to request the learned reader, to examine the translation of the epistles, the commentary, and the notes, all now submitted to the public, by the principles laid down in the General Preface, and to judge of the whole with that candour, which is due to an attempt sincerely meant to exhibit the divinely inspired writings, in the genuine simplicity of their meaning, that being rightly understood, they may not be applied, as they sometimes have been, for supporting opinions destructive of piety and morality.
N. B. The NUMBERS in the new translation, following the Greek words, mark the paragraphs of Essay IV. where the translation of the quord is supported by proper proofs.
COMMENTARY. CHAP. I. 1. Paul a I. 1. Paul a servant of Jesus Christ, servant 1 of Jesus Christ, and an apostle called expressly as the a called apostle, separated 3 other apostles were, and separated by to the gospel of God. him to preach the good news from God,
2 Which he promised be. 2 Which he promised before by his fore, by his prophets, in the prophets in the holy scriptures, should holy scriptures,
be preached to the Gentiles, 3 Concerning his Soni, 3 Concerning the coming of his who was born of the seed Son to save the world, who, as it was
have called them. But this being nothing but a separation of Paul, from the teachers at Antioch, to go and preach to the Gentiles, the bigher separation, mentioned Gal. i. 15. is here meant.
4. Gospel of God. See ver. 15. note. The gospel is said to be God's, be. cause it is good news from God; than which a greater commendation of the gospel cannot be conceived.
Ver. 2. Which he promised before by his prophets, &c. The promise in the scriptures, that the gospel should be preached to the Gentiles, is taken notice of by the apostle, to convince the unbelieving Jews that in preaching to the Gentiles, Paul did not contradict, but fulfil the ancient revelations.
Ver. 3.-1. Concerning his Son. The gospel is good news from God, concerning the coming of his Son to save the world. Wherefore the Son of God is the subject of the gospel, as well as its anthor.