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ously to suffer evil jointly with him for the gospel, through the assistance of God, ver. 8.-who hath saved both Jews and Gentiles; having called both into his kingdom by the gospel, not on account of their good works, as the Judaizers affirmed concerning their own calling, but merely from God's free grace, bestowed on them through Christ, agreeably to the promise of pardon and salvation made to the first parents of mankind at the fall, long before the Jewish dispensation began, ver. 9.This promise, the apostle observed, was now published to all, through the appearing of Christ in the flesh; in so much that the Gentiles, by the gospel, had obtained a clear knowledge of the immortality of the soul, and of an eternal state of happiness hereafter for good men of all nations, who, before the gospel was published, had no certain knowledge of these great truths, ver. 10.-Farther, the apostle assured Timothy, that to publish these joyful doctrines, he was himself appointed a herald, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles, ver. 11.-And that for preaching these doctrines to the Gentiles, and not for any Grime, he now suffered the miseries of a jail. Nevertheless, he was not ashamed of his imprisonment, because he knew in whom he had believed, that he is the Son of God, and Governor of the world, ver.'12.-He therefore ordered Timothy, to hold fast the form of sound words, in which he had delivered the doctrines of the gospel to him, as well as these doctrines themselves, which had been revealed to him by Christ, ver. 13. -Then mentioned the desertion of the Judaizing teachers in Asia, ver. 15.And spake with the warmest gratitude of the kindness of Onesiphorus, who had gone among the different prisons of Rome seeking him; and when he found him, had ministered to him with the greatest affection, as he had done to him formerly in Ephesus, as Timothy well knew, ver. 16,

17, 18.

NEW TRANSLATION.

COMMENTARY. CHAP. I. 1 Paul an

CHAP. I. 1 Paul an apostle of apostle of Jesus Christ Jesus Christ, by the will of God, on (see 1 Tim. i. View.) by account of publishing the promise of the will of God, (1 Cor. i. eternal lifc, which being made to 1. note 1. x«t', 228.) on ac- believers of all nations in the covecount of the promise of nant with Abraham, is to be obtainlife 1 which is by Christ ed not by obeying Moses, but Christ Jesus,

Jesus,

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2 To Timothy, my dear- 2 Τιμοθεω αγαπητω τεκly beloved son : Grace, νω, χαρις, ελεος, ειρηνη απο mercy, and peace, from Θεου σατρος, και Χριςου ΙηGod the Father, and Christ

σου του Κυριου ημων. Jesus our Lord.

3 I thank God, whom I 3 Χαριν εχω τω Θεω, ω serve from

my
forefathers

λατρευω απο προγονων
with pure conscience, that καθαρα συνειδησει, ως αδια-
without ceasing I have re-

λειπτον εχω την περι σου membrance of thee in my

μνειαν εν ταις δεήσεσι μου prayers night and day;

νυκτος και ημερας, 4 Greatly desiring to

4 Επιπoθων σε ιδειν, μεμsee thee, being mindful νημενος σου των δακρυων, of thy tears, that I may iva zapas aanpwda. be filled with joy ;

5 When I call to re- 5 Υπομνησιν λαμβανων membrance the unfeign- της εν σοι ανυποκριτου σιςεed faith that is in thee,

Ver. 1.-1. On account of the promise of life which is by Christ Jesus. The preposition κατα, in this verse, as in Tit. i. 1. denotes the end for which Paul was made an apostle ; namely, to publish to Jews and Gentiles the promise of eternal life, which is to be obtained through Christ Jesus. The law of Moses did not promise eternal life to them who obeyed its precepts. It promised nothing but a long and happy life in Canaan. See Rom. x. 5. note. The promise of eternal life was made, first at the fall, and after that more explicitly in the covenant with Abraham. See Titus i. 2. note 1.

Ver. 3.-1. I give thanks to God, whom ano mgogorov, from my forefathers, I serve. Because the Jews affirmed, that in preaching eternal life to the Gentiles through obedience to Jesus Christ, and not through obedience to the law, the apostle had apostatized from the faith of his forefathers, he said to Timothy, in thus preaching I serve God with a pure conscience, because I preach according to the knowledge of the scriptures which I received from my forefathers, to whom the salvation of the Gentiles through faith was made known in the covenant with Abraham.-Or, the clause may be translated, after my forefathers, after their example.

2. With a pure conscience. By mentioning a pure conscience, as maintained by him in his. preaching salvation through faith, the apostle obliquely condemned the Judaizing teachers as having put away a good conscience, 1 Tim. i. 5, 6. when they preached that salvation could be had only by obeying the law of Moses.

3. Night and day. Benson says, the evening and morning are pointed out by nature for our devotions ; “ for what more reasonable than that in

1

2 To Timothy, my belov- 2 To Timothy my beloved son in the ed son : Grace, mercy, faith : May gracious dispositions, merAND peace, from God the 'ciful deliverances, and inward peace, Father, and FROM Christ be to thee from God the Father of Jesus our Lord.

Jews and Gentiles, and from Christ

Jesus our common Lord. 3 I give thanks to God, 3 I give thanks to God, (whom, (whom from MY fore- according to the knowledge receivfathers I serve with a ed from my forefathers, I serve with a pure conscience,2) that I pure conscience, when I preach to all have unceasing remem- the promise of life through Christ) brance of thee in my , That I have unceasing remembrance of prayers night and day;3 thee in my prayers evening and morn

ing, as a faithful minister of Christ. 4 Remembering thy 4 Remembering thy tears I greatly tears i I greatly desire to desire to see thee, that I may,

be filled see thee, 2 that I may be with joy in conversing with thee, filled with joy:

and in giving thee my dying charge

and blessing 5 Calling to

5 This desire is increased by my brance

the un- calling to remembrance also the unfeigned faith which is in feigned faith in the gospel which is in thee, which dwelt first in thee since I instructed thee, which thy grandmother Lois, 1 dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and in thy mother Eu- ' and in thy mother Eunice, and I am

remem

ALSO

“ the morning men should commit themselves to the divine direction ; and “ in the evening greatfully review God's goodness, and recommend them“ selves to his care."

Ver. 4.-1. Remembering thy tears. Lardner thinks these tears were shed by Timothy on the occasion mentioned Acts xx. 37. But there it is said that the Ephesian elders, and not Timothy, wept-sore.--Others think the apostle refers to the tears which Timothy shed when he left him in Ephesus to go into Macedonia.- I think the tears spoken of, were shed when the apostle first instructed Timothy in the Christian faith. Thereby this pious youth shewed that he was deeply affected with the doctrines of the gospel, and that he felt the warmest gratitude to his spiritual father, while communi. cating these joyful doctrines to him.

2. I greatly desire to see thee. The common translation of verses 3, 4. seems to represent the apostle as greatly desiring to see Timothy, only while he was praying to God. But as that cannot be the apostle's meaning, the verse must be construed, and translated as I have done. See chap. iv. 9. note.

Ver. 5.–1. Which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, &c. In scripture language, to dwell, signifies to abide permanently. Here it is insinuated, to

4

also.

το

which dwelt first in thy ως, ήτις ενωκησε πρωτον εν grandmother Lois, and thy τη μαμμη σου Λωιδι, και τη mother Eunice, and I am

μητρι σου Ευνικη πεπεισμαι persuaded that in thee δε ότι και εν σοι. 6 Wherefore I put thee

6 Δι' ην αιτιαν αναμιμin remembrance, that thou

νησκω σε αναζωπυρειν stir up the gift of God which is in thee, by the χαρισμα του Θεου, ο εςιν εν

σοι δια της επιθεσεως των putting on of my hands.

χειρων μου. 7 For God hath not 7 Ου

γαρ

εδωκεν ημιν και given us the spirit of fear, Θεος πνευμα, δειλιας, αλλα but of power, and of love, δυναμεως και αγαπης και σωand of a sound mind.

φρονισμου. 8 Be not thou, there- 8 Μη ουν επαισχυνθης fore, ashamed of the testi- το μαρτυριον του Κυρίου ημων, mony of our Lord, nor of μηδε εμε τον δεσμιoν αυτου" me his prisoner: but be

αλλα συγκακοπαθησον τω thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel, accord- ευαγγελιω κατα δυναμιν Θεου, ing to the power of God;

the great praise of Timothy's grandmother Lois, that having embraced the Christian faith herself, she persevered in it, and, persuaded her daughter Eunice to do the same; and that the instructions and example of these pious women prepared their son for receiving the gospel when it was preached to him by the apostle.—The pains which these worthy persons took to impress the mind of their son in his childhood with sentiments of piety and virtue, is a fit example for the imitation of all mothers, who if they take the same pains with their children, may hope, that by the blessing of God, their care will be followed with the same happy effects.

Ver. 6.-1. Stir up the spiritual gift of God. For the meaning of this ex: hortation, sec 1 Thess. v. 19. note. Timothy was here directed to lay hold on the opportunities, which his station at Ephesus afforded him, for improving his spiritual gifts, by boldly exercising them in confirming and defend. ing the doctrines of the gospel; as is plain from the next verse.

Ver. 7.-1. And of love. The ministers of the gospel were not animated with the selfish and bigotted spirit of the Jews and Judaizing teachers, who hated all mankind but those of their own nation and religion, and confined salvation to the disciples of Moses.

2. And of self government. "Ewopovious. Scapula translates this by the word castigatio, correction : Estius, by moderatio, government. It comes from

nice, and I am persuaded persuaded that it dwelleth firmly fixed that IT DWELLETH in thee in thee also, through the instructions also.

of thy pious parents, as well as

through my care. 6 For which cause I put 6 Because I believe thy faith to be thee in mind to stir up the unfeigned, I frut thee in mind to stir spiritual gift of God which up the spiritual gift of God which thou is in thee through the impos8e88est through the imposition of my position of my hands. (See hands : Improve thy gift by boldly 1 Tim. iv. 14. note 3.) exercising it in preaching and de

fending the doctrines of the gospel,

against all false teachers. 7 For God hath not 7 For God hath not infused into us given us a spirit of cowar- a spirit of cowardice which shrinks dice, but of power, and of at danger, but of courage, such as love, and of self-govern- becometh those who possess the ment.

gifts of inspiration and miracles, and of benevolence, which disposes us to communicate the gospel to all mankind, and of self-government, to behave

with prudence on every occasion. 8 Wherefore, be not 8 Wherefore be not thou, like

many thou ashamed of the testi- in this city, ashamed of testifying the mony 'of our Lord, nor of things which concern our Lord Jesus, me his prisoner : But do neither be thou ashamed of me who thou jointly suffer evil FOR am a prisoner on his account : But do the gospel, 2 according to thou come and jointly suffer evil with the power (see ver. 7:) of me for the grosprel which I preach to God,

the Gentiles, according to the power of God bestowed on thee;

2

rapporizw, ad sanam mentem reduco; consequently it signifies a habit of self government acquired by frequently restraining our passions. See Tit. ji. 12. note 3.

Ver: 8.-1. The testimony of our Lord.--This is the genitive of the object, Ess. iy. 24.-The great business of the first preachers of the gospel was, to testify to the world the things concerning the Lord Jesus, of which they had been eye-witnesses, or which had been reported to them by the eye-witnesses : Such as, the doctrines which he preached, and the miracles.which he wrought in proof of his being the Son of God: his calling himself Christ the Son of God, even in presence of the chief priests and elders of the Jews ; his condemnation and crucifixion on that account; his resurrection from the dead, whereby he was demonstrated to be the Son of God : his ascension

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VOL. IV.

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