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15 Which in his own 15. Which appearing in his own season, the blessed (1 Fim. season, the season which he himself i. 11. note 2.) and only hath fixed, the blessed and only PoPotentate, will shew, ? tentate in the universe will shew, Even the King of kings, even the King of kings, and Lord of and Lord of lords : 3 lords ; the King and Lord who rules

with irresistible power all other

kings and lords. 16 Who alone hath im- 16 Who alone hath life without mortality,' and dwelleth either beginning or cnding, and dwellin light inaccessible, (see 2 eth in light inaccessible to mortals, Pet. i. 17. note 1.) whom which therefore no man hath seen or no man hath seen, 2 nor can see in this mortal body; To can see, to whom BE ho- whom be ascribed honour and might nour and might 3 everlast- everlasting. And to shew that this ing. Amen.

is the truth concerning the nature

of God, I say Amen.' 17 Charge the rich in 17 Though riches often prove a the present world I not to great snare to the possessors, they be elated in mind,

may be retained innocently: Theretrust in uncertain riches, 3 fore, charge the rich in the present

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nor to

2. Whom no man bath seen, nor can sec. In the commentary I have explained this, of men's not being able in the present life to look on the light in which God dwells. Yet I am not certain whether the apostle does not mean, that although in the life to come men shall see that light, they shall not see God. God is absolutely invisible, and will always remain so. if this is the apostle's meaning, the seeing of God, promised to the pure in heart, must mean no more but their seeing the light in which God dwells, which may as properly be called the seeing of God, aš our seeing the bodies of our acquaintance in which their souls reside, is called the seeing of them. From this text, some of the ancient fathers inferred, that the Divine person who appeared to the patriarchs, and to the Israelites in the wilderness, was not the Father, but the Son. Yet that notion is confuted by Augustine, De Trinit. Lib. ii. c. 18.

3. And might, Keto. This word signifies the inight necessary to the governing of the world, rather than the act of governing.

Ver. 17.-1. The rich in the present world. By adding the words, in the present world, the apostle lessens the value of riches. We can enjoy them only in the present world. We can carry no part of them out into the other world. And though we could, they would have no influence to make us happy there. Besides, as the apostle observes in the following clause, our possession of them is uncertain ; and without the blessing of God, they will give us little satisfaction even here. 2. Not to be elated in mind. The word, ifnao govev, signifies to have an VOL. IV.


riches, but in the living ναι εσι πλουτου αδηλοτητι, God, who giveth us rich- αλλ' εν τω Θεω τω ζωντι, ly all things to enjoy ;

των παρεχοντι ημιν πλουσιως

παντα εις απολαυσιν 18 That they do good, 18 Αγαθοεργειν, πλουτειν that they be rich in good εν εργους καλους, ευμεταδοworks, ready to distribute, τους ειναι, κοινωνικους willing to communicate;

19 Laying up in store 19 Αποθησαυριζοντας εαυfor themselves a good τοις θεμελιον καλον εις το ' foundation against the time μελλον, ένα επιλαβωνται της

to come, that they may lay αιωνιου ζωης. hold on eternal life.

20 Ο Timothy, keep 20 Ω Τιμοθεε, την παραthat which is committed καταθηκην φυλαξον, εκτρεto thy trust, avoiding pro- σομενος τας βεβηλους κενοfane and vain babblings,

high opinion of one's self, in comparison of others, and to bave no regard to their happiness. To this bad temper of mind the rich are often led, by the court which their inferiors pay to them on account of their riches. The ministers of religion, therefore, ought frequently to caution the rich to be. ware of being elated with pride.

3. Nor to trust in uncertain riches. Those who place their happiness in the enjoyment of sensual pleasures, naturally trust to their riches for their happiness, because by their money they can procure every pleasure of that kind ; and so they lose all sense of their dependence on God and his providence, for their happiness, Prov. x. 15. xviii. 11. To check this impiety, the apostle ordered Timothy to charge the rich to employ themselves constantly in working good, and to be rich in praise worthy works; a kind of riches more honourable, and more satisfactory to the possessors, than all the gold and silver in the universe.

4. But in God who liveth. God alone, who liveth always, can continue the rich in the possession of their riches, and in their capacity of enjoying them. Besides it is God alone who can bestow on the rich the happiness of the life to come ; which is the only valuable and abiding happiness, a happiness which no riches whatever can purchase. Here the apostle insinuates, that dead idols cannot bestow on any one the happiness either of the present, or of the future life.

Ver. 18.–1. To work good, to be rich in lovely works, &c. This charge, which Timothy was ordered to give to the rich at Ephesus, shews that the community of goods among the disciples mentioned in the history of the Acts, was confined to Judea ; and that even there it lasted only for a short time, .


but in , God who liveth, 4 world, to beware of pride, and of seek-
AND who supplieth to us ing their happiness from riches, the
richly, all things for er- possession of which is so uncertain.
joyment :

But to trust in God, who ever liveth
to make them happy, and who sup-
plicth to us plentifully all things really

necessary for enjoyment.
18 (Αγαθοεργειν)

To 18 And instead of employing their work good; to be rich riches merely in gratifying their (spyous modoss, see 1 Tim. senses, rather to use them in doing iii. l. note 3.) in lovely good works, and to be rich in those loveworks,' (Eupetadores) ready ly works, whereby the happiness of to distribute, (xstvwvIx85) society is promoted: To be ready to communicative,

distribute a part of their riches to the
poor, communicative of their time
and pains for advancing the interests

of truth and virtue in the world.
19 Providing for them- 19 Providing for themselves, not
selves a good foundation ? money, which can be of no use to
for hereafter, that they them in the other world, but what is
may lay hold on eternal infinitely better, a good foundation to

stand on in the day of judgment, that
they may lay hold on the prize of eter-

nal life.
20 O Timothy, guard 20 0 Timothy, preserve the doctrine,
the thing committed in trust! committed in trust to thee, avoiding the
TO THEE, avoiding pro- impious, noisy, senseless talking of the
phane vain babblings, Judaizers, and the oppositions to the


Ver. 19.–1. Providing for themselves a good foundation. Atofnoaup Soutes EX UTOS. Because treasuring up a foundation is an unusual manner of speaking, Le Clerc proposes, instead of Jeusalov, to read xeluencov, a treasure. But as no reading ought to be introduced into the scriptures on conjecture, I think the Greek words may be translated, providing for themselves : a sense which Juodupuzels, evidently hath, Rom. ii. 5. Treasurest up to thyself, that is, providest for thyself wrath, against the day of wrath.Benson thinks Jeue2.10v, here hath the signification of Sepede, a deposite ; and that the apostle alludes to Tobit iv. 9. LXX.

Ver. 20.–1. Guard the thing committed in trust to thee. That this is the proper translation of any Trol pel vectifnunv, see 2 Tim. i. 12. note 2. The thing committed in trust to Timothy, which the aposựle was so anxious that he should guard, and deliver to faithful men, able to teach it to others, 2 Tim. ii. 2. was, the true account of our Lord's character as the Son of God, his

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and oppositions of science φωνιας, και αντιθεσεις την. falsely so called : ψευδωνυμου γνωσεως"

21 Which some profes- 21 Hν τινες επαγγελλοng, have erred concern

μενοι, περι την πιςιν ησoχηing the faith. Grace be

σαν. , Η χαρις μετα σου. with thee. Amen.


descent from Abraham and David, his birth of a virgin, his doctrine, miracles, death, resurrection, and ascension into heaven, and his return to the earth to raise the dead and judge the world. Now as these things, at the time the apostle wrote this epistle, were all faithfully recorded in the writ. ings of the evangelists, and were foretold in the writings of Moses and the prophets, these inspired writings were without doubt a principal part of the deposite committed to Timothy, to be kept by him and delivered to faithful men able to teach others. Farther, as the apostle in his sermons and conversations had explained to Timothy many passages both of the ancient scriptures and of his own writings, these interpretations were to be kept by him and followed, in all his discourses and exhortations to the Ephesians and others. This injunction to Timothy, is an injunction to the ministers of the gospel in every age, to keep the writings of Moses and the prophets, and of the evangelists and apostles uncorrupted, as containing the whole of the gospel doctrine : and implies that nothing is to be added to them nor taken from them, by any human authority whatever. Councils, therefore, whether general or particular, have no power to establish any new article of faith. The only thing such assemblies, however numerous or respectable, can do, is to express their opinion that such and such articles of faith are contained in the scriptures. And if they should happen to err, the inspired writings being preserved pure and entire, the errors of councils, as well as of individuals, are to be corrected by these infallible standards.

2. Avoiding propbane vain babblings. The word revoqerias, signifies, the emptiness of words ; the noisy empty talking of the false teachers.-The Vulgate version has here vocum novitates ; the novelties of words ; the copy from which that version was made, reading, perhaps, xatvo@crices; as some MSS. do at present.

and oppositions of know- gospel, founded on wrong interpreledge 3 falsely so named: tations of the Jewish scriptures,

which they dignify with the appellation of knowledge ; but it is falsely 80

named. 21. Which some pro- 21 Which knowledge of the scripfessing, have erred with tures, some teachers professing to respect to the faith. Grace have attained, 1 Tim. i. 6, 7. have be with thee. 1 Amen. erred with respect to the true Chris(Ephes. vi. 24. note 2.) tian faith. But, May the grace of

God be with thce to preserve thee from error.


3. And oppositions of knowledge. In the enumeration of the different kinds of inspiration, bestowed on the first preachers of the gospel, 1 Cor. xii. 8. we find the word of knowledge mentioned ; by which is meant, that kind of inspiration which gave to the apostles and superior Christian prophets, the knowledge of the true meaning of the Jewish scriptures. This inspiration the false teachers pretending to possess, dignified their misinterpretations of the ancient scriptures, with the name of knowledge, that is inspired knowledge: for so the word knowledge signifies, 1 Cor. xiv. 6.-And, as by these interpretations, they endeavoured to establish the efficacy of the Levitical atonements, together with the perpetual and universal obligation of the rites of the law of Moses, the apostle very properly termed these interpretations, oppositions of knowledge, because they were framed to establish doctrines contrary to and subversive of the gospel.— Withal, to destroy their credit, he affirmed that the knowledge, from which they proceeded, was falsely called, inspired knowledge. The Judaizers, who gave these interpretations, were not inspired with the knowledge of the true meaning of the scriptures, but falsely pretended to that gift.

Ver. 21.-1. Grace be with thee. This epistle being chiefly designed for Timothy's own use, no salutations were sent to any of the brethren at Ephesus.

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