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Will those anthracite beds ever be exhausted? If the estimate is fair-437 square miles with an average thickness of 15 feet—they cannot last always. The past year has abstracted six of our great cubes. At that rate 700 years would scoop the beds about clean. But the consumption will very soon be doubled. For the next one hundred years, it is not extravagant to set the annual consumption at twenty of our cubes (20,000,000 tons) which would exhaust the mines in a little more than two hundred years.

CANNEL 00AL AND ITS PRODUOTS-IMPROVEMENT OF COAL RIVER.

A proposition is now before the Legislature for an increase of the capital stock of the “Coal River Navigation Company,” in the additional sum of $100,000. One hundred and twenty-two thousand dollars have already been expended by the Company in the improvement of the river; and it is now asserted, after the most careful estimates, that by a further expenditure of one hundred thousand dollars, the entire work can be completed." The “Western Mining and Manufacturing Company” own immense, and we might say, practically, exhaustless fields of cannel coal bordering this stream, at a distance of thirty-six miles from its mouth, and, as a matter of course, are deeply interested in the progress of this improvement. To facilitate the completion of it, they now propose to purchase of the State her bonds to the amount of sixty thousand dollars (three fifths of the increase asked for by the Navigation Company), thereby investing the State with the funds necessary to pay her proportion. They further propose to subscribe the remaining forty thousand dollars at once, so there may be no delay in the prosecution of this great work.

It is estimated that 5,000,000 bushels of coal will be shipped annually over this improvement to the Big Kanawha, thence to the Ohio River. The tolls accruing to the company will be about one cent per bushel, which would be $50,000 on the aggregate amount. The tolls on shipments of coopers' stuff, sawed lumber, &c., &c., and upon return trips, will not fall short of $15,000. If these estimates are verified-and from the data before us we doubt not they will be fully—the work will be a profitable one to the stockholders, while, at the same tiine, it will develop the rich mineral treasures of the section of country it traverses. The coal fields of Pennsylvania are taxed in some instances as high as four hundred dollars per acre, pouring anuually into the treasury of the State immense sums of revenue. It is but fair to infer that, with equal facilities of transportation, this commonwealth would find in the coal fields of Kanawha and Boone Counties equally as prolific sources of wealth. The Covington and Ohio Railroad, which is but a continuation of the great Central route, crosses Coal River near its confluence with the Kanawha. At an early day after the completion of these improvements, it is not unreasonable to assume that the great superiority of the cannel coal over all other, as an article of fuel and a producer of light and heat, will bring it into general use in the eastern cities. Three fourths of the cannel coal yet discovered in the United States lie in Western Virginia, constituting one of the richest mines of wealth that has ever been developed in any country, not excepting the auriferous streams and hills of California.

From this coal is extracted, at a cost not exceeding 16 cents per gallon, a valuable lubricating and burning oil. Probably some of our readers may have noticed, a few evenings since, upon the clerk's table of the House of Delegates, a lamp containing this oil. The clear, bright flame emitted actually made the candles around it look dull and dim. It burns free from all offensive odor and smoke, and this fact, in connection with its cheapness, must insure for it an extensive and general use. The yield is forty gallons per ton. It also yields thirty gallons of benzole per ton, which is easily convertible into gas, and must eventually supersede the gas at present in use in our cities. From twenty to twenty-five pounds of clean, wbite wax are also produced from a ton of cannel coal, which are made into candles of adamantine firmness.

Some fine specimens of this coal, from the mines of the Western Mining and Manufacturing Company," have been exhibited here during the session, by J. E. Peyton, Esq. À lump has been upon the clerk's table, in the Hall of Delegates, for the past week or two. It has been very justly admired for its firm and beautiful texture, and its freedom from dirt.

We hope it will be the pleasure of the present Legislature to extend its aid to the Coal River Company, and place them in a condition to develop the treasures of our State. The operations of the mining companies interested in the improvement of Coal River will be greatly retarded if something is not done before the adjournment.-Richmond Dispatch.

CALLAWAY MINING COMPANY.

Extract from a letter dated St. Louis, August 5. “Within a couple of weeks past, the coal cars of the Callaway Mining Company have been actively engaged in transporting the products of their valuable

mines to the company's landing on the Missouri River.

“These mines are reached by a railroad 6 3-4 miles in length, just completed, and well equipped, with all the necessary rolling stock, and an additional' first-class locomotive, manufactured expressly for the company by Messrs. Norris & Sons, of your city.

“This coal is said to be of a superior quality-not much unlike the celebrated Boghead Cannel of Scotland; it extends over the greater part of the company's property, in veins of over twenty-five feet in thickness. The miners quarry it out (so to speak) in blocks of immense size, and the quantity presented full to view, in the biuff they are now working, would seem to prove the supply positively inexhaustible.

* The demand at the landing for the Callaway coal must become very great, both up and down the river, supplying it from Št. Louis to New Orleans, since for gas, steam purposes, or household use, it has no rival, apart from the recently discovered oleaginous properties it possesses, which give it an increased value."

We are glad to learn these facts, for it must be confessed that the operations and prospects of the company have for a long time been seemingly strnggling under a cloud, while the company have been quietly building their road and bending every energy for the promotion of its best interests for ultimate success and profit. --Evening Journal.

QOAL LOCOMOTIVES IN THE WEST.

A report has been presented by James C. Clark, Division Superintendent on the Illinois Central Railroad, describing the economic results of using coal in locomotives in comparison with wood as fuel. He fitted up a wood-burning locomotive for burning coal, and he made twenty-one trips with it, running 2310 miles. The expense for converting the engine into a coal-burner was only $275, and the results have been gratifying. A wood-burning engine, running with it on alternate days, consumed 894 cords of wood in running 2310 miles, the cost of which was $289.32; the fuel for the coal burner amounted to only 381 tons, and cost $115.50-less than one third that of wood. The cost of wood for all the other engines used on the railroad was in the same proportion.

The fire-box of the coal-burner did not appear to be the least injured by the twenty-one trips, and the grates were not warped in the least. The fuel was bituminous coal-that belonging to the Illinois coal fields. All of our railroads will yet be driven to the use of coal for fuel; it is the cheapest they can use now, and the sooner they institute measures for its universal adoption 80 much the better for themselves.

THE AUBURN AND ALLENTOWN RAILROAD-THE NEW JERSEY CENTRAL, &O.

As every thing which refers to the proposed Auburn and Allentown Railroad is, at this juncture, interesting, we ask_attention to the annexed notices of this important line, contained in the last Report of the Central Railroad of New Jersey. In the Report, which is dated June 1st, but which has just been published in New York, the paragraph we extract is found under the head of " connecting lines "-in which category, we might remark, the Reading and Lehigh Road is not referred to. The Auburn Road is thus noticed :

“The link of road from Allentown westward, to connect with the Pennsylvania Central Railroad, and thus form an air line of unbroken gauge from New York to Pittsburg, still remains to be supplied. Important as this enterprise is to the country through which it will pass, a country rich in soil, in cultivation, in minerals, in every thing but avenues to a market; to the city of New York and the Western States, brought by this channel into more intimate connection; and to the Central Railroad of New Jersey, which it will supply with an entire new source of traffic; it cannot be much longer delayed. Little as the public are disposed to embark in new railroad enterprises till the results of previous investments are more certainly ascertained, the advantages of these links are so obvious to all concerned, and especially to the business classes of New York, that there can be but little hesitation in furnishing the comparatively small amount required for its construction."

The importance of the Auburn and Allentown Railroad to the trade of this section of Pennsylvania is not questioned. It is a fact readily admitted. The most interesting query has been, how are the grades of the Central Jersey, Railroad, a road which forms so important a portion of our preferred coal route to the harbor of Nero York? The Report from which the above extract is made, relieves all doubts on that score. For the gratification of this community, which is warmly interested in this route, we make the following extract, which proves that on the score of grades, not to mention distances, this proposed continuous coal route to a favorable shipping point is the best to which the attention of the people of this region has yet been directed. The extract in regard to grades, &c., of the Central Jersey Railroad is as follows:

“Many small variations in the grades of the older part of road below Somerville have been corrected, and the reduction of the heavy grade at Scotch Plains, from 45 to 21 feet per mile, has been finally effected. It is a matter of some credit to our efficient superintendent and engineer that this reduction, involving, as it did, the entire reconstruction of three miles of road, raising or lowering the track in some as much as 16 feet, and extending over a period of two years, has been completed without accident to trains or interruption to the business of the road; the regular passenger and freight trains having been run over it during the whole time. There is now no grade on the road over 21 feet to the mile against the trade."

In the Report we also find the following relative to the coal port at Elizabethport, N. J. It is interesting, affording as it does an idea of the improvements which have recently been made at that important shipping point:

“At Elizabethport the construction of track, wharves, and buildings has been continued, and a large amount of grading and filling at moderate cost. An additional and very valuable tract of land, including the water-front, and lying east of the company's land, has been secured; and immediately contiguous to this, the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad Company have purchased a large tract, and established there their coal depot. All coal, lainber, &c., from the Lackawanna region are brought to Hampton in their cars, hauled over our road by our engines, and delivered on their grounds. All wharves, tracks, &c., required, are furnished by them. These arrangements, by relieving this company from a large outlay for cars and a terininus, enable us to do a very large business from the Lackawanna region, with a trifling

additional investment after the second track and the third rail on the two tracks are provided.

“It also facilitates very much the necessary separation of the broad gauge business from that of the Central road and the Lehigh Valley railroad and its connections, which is done on the narrow gauge."

Before closing our notice of the Report of the Central Jersey Railway, we feel compelled to make another extract in reference to the two New York coal lines lately opened from other regions. That they have seriously injured our coal trade this year, cannot be denied. That it will yet be more seriously damaged in the future, if we pause in the construction of the Auburn and Allentown road, is equally evident. We are now placed in a position which demands prompt action, for the building of that road is likely to be the only salvation for the business of Schuylkill County. The Report speaks of the Lehigh Valley Railroad and Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad as follows:

"The Lehigh Valley Railroad was opened through from Easton to Mauch Chunk, 46 miles, in September last, thus giving a continuous line from the Lehigh coal fields to Elizabethport, 109 miles; to New York, 121 miles. The mines are about 17 miles above Mauch Chunk. As yet this road has done little business, baving a very insufficient equipment, and laboring under some other disadvantages; but when these difficulties are removed it cannot avoid doing a large and profitable business, as it has all the advantages derived by the Reading road from a level or decending grade throughout its entire length; is likely to be without a rival in its location, and will have the benefit of many outlets for its coal and many feeders for its business. When its main line is extended from Perryville, 6 miles below Manch Chunk, to Tamaqua, where it intersects the Catawissa road, a distance of 16 miles only, a large through business from the Sunbury and Erie road will be brought over to the Central railroad of New Jersey. This work is entirely within the ability of the Company to complete, as soon as their business is developed.

“The Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad and the Warren Railroad, together forming the line from Hampton Summit to Scranton, in the Lackawanna coal basin, the youngest in charter and latest in commencement among the coal roads, was opened throughout its entire length on the 27th May just passed, and is now in successful operation. Already the passenger, freight, and coal business of this road begin to develop, and it is believed by its friends that its success will be immediate. Every effort has been made and is making, by the Central, to give them every facility consistent with proper economy, and it is hoped that the relations of the companies will be as friendly as their business connections will be intimate. This is the more likely, as the large stockholders in each are generally interested in the other also. If one fourth of the anticipations of managers of this company are fulfilled, the addition of this business alone to that of the Central New Jersey road cannot fail to make it highly remunerative. This Report has been delayed beyond the regular time to announce this opening.”- Pottsville Jour.

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IRON AND ZINC.

IRON SEAMS OF MONTOUR RIDGE, PENN. A correspondent who has recently visited Montour County, Pennsylvania, sends us the following interesting particulars of that valuable iron region :

The veins of iron ore in Montour Ridge are uniform in their strike and dip, but throughout the region, though the formations are regular, they undulate in the same manner as the coal veins of Shamokin, or Schuylkill County, and may be easily traced by the form of the hills in which they are found. Rolls or contortions are occasionally found, and as in the mines of Tamaqua and many other places often when least expected; but though the miner is sometimes at a loss to find his clue, or when found, to discover the best means of following it, the quantity or quality of the ore is not materially affected. As a general rule, the quantity of ore will not be increased or decreased on an average, by an inconsistency in the veins which may be at variance with their general size in any certain locality. The same may be said of the veins of coal, though we are aware that the fact will not be generally admitted.) Up to the present time three veins have been discovered and worked in the Ridge near Danville, the upper one being, what is generally known as fossiliferous, the outcrops of which are soft and easily mined, whilst the lower portions, or that which is found deep beneath the surface, is imbedded in limestone, in which the impressions of fossil remains are plainly discernible. This is very hard, and not so easily mined. The upper vein will average about from eighteen to twenty inches in thickness, and is supposed to be the same vein as that which is worked at Blooinsburg. In fact I should say there can be but little doubt on that subject, since the stratification in which the vein is found is the same, and its nature and the appearance of the ore are synonymous, therefore it would be consistent to argue that the same quantity of ore exists at Bloomsburg as there does at Danville, for there can be no reason that I am acquainted with, to doubt the existence of the underlying veins there more than here. Yet I would like to hear what those who are more acquainted with the formation, may know of the matter, before I should be willing to state positively my opinions. Geologists are often mistaken in their theories, which are so boldly given as facts, of what the mysterious chambers of the earth may contain.

Mr. Roberts made a report of the Irondale Company of Bloomsburg, which I have not seen, neither have I any thing on the subject on hand.

Yet I can state that one of our most eminent geologists (not Roberts) made some strange blunders in his examinations near Bloomsburg, which resulted in material loss to some, whilst it has been, or may be the means of enriching others.

The second or middle vein, which is worked in the Montour Ridge, is known as the black ore.” This vein is situated about one hundred yards across the measures, or strata, below the upper or fossiliferous ore, and is on an average about twenty-four inches in thickness. This ore is very rich, and breaks in square fractures, and is the most productive and reliable vein in the region. On this vein, if I am not mistaken, the Montour Iron Company have sunk a shaft to some depth, and a slope—the latter, however, is not yet in order for operation. These works are rather extensive, and as systematical in their construction as our most improved collieries in the coal region.

The lower, or third vein of ore, which was discovered by the Messrs. Groves in 1854, is generally known as the bottom bed, but there are indications of other veins existing still below it. This vein is very hard and peculiar in its appearance, the ore being highly carbonized. It is not as thick as either of the overlying ones, but perhaps equally as rich if not more so. It ranges from ten to twelve inches in thickness. The three veins will average

VOL. VII.-6

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