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The very ingenious modification by which M. Warocque has applied this plan to the raising of wagons of coal as well as laborers, does not appear to have been as yet put in practical operation any where, though there would seem to be no reason why it should not be. The wagon loaded with coal is caught up by hooks on one rod at the bottom, raised its allotted distance and handed over to hooks on the other rod, and so on until it einerges at the top, whilst a new load has been caught up below, at every stroke of the machine.
812,354 79.555 85,190
LEHIGH COAL AND NAVIGATION 00. The Board of Managers submit to the Stockholders the following Report:
In the spring of the year 1855, the Company's navigation having been, during the preceding winter, greatly improved and thoroughly repaired, was ready for business on the Lower Section by the middle of March, and on the Upper Section on the 25th of that month.
In consequence, however, of the protracted cold weather, and of the obstruction of some of the pools and levels with ice, the actual opening did not take place at Mauch Chunk before the 30th of March ; and at White Haven, at the head of slack-water navigation, not until the 14th of the following month.
A partial beginning in the shipment of coal by the Company from Mauch Chunk was made on the 4th of April; but the business did not exhibit much animation until about the middle of the month.
With few and unimportant exceptions the navigation continued without interruption to the close of the season on the first day of December last.
For the year 1855, the shipments of coal from the region were 1,275,051 tons; showing an excess of about 25,000 tons over the estimate contained in the last annual Report, and an actual increase of 28,633 tons over the shipments for the year 1854. The coal was from the following sources of supply:
Tons From the Company's Summit Mines
427,899 Beaver Meadow Mines
88,538 East Sugar Loaf
51,451 Spring Mountain
88,454 New York and Lehigh Mines
88.855 German Pennsylvania
4,195 French American
10,309 Council Ridge
1,757 Buck Mountain
86,079 Wilkesbarre Coal Co.
2,446 Beaver Meadow Pea Coal *
604 A. Lathrop's
2.845 Total shipments in 1855
1,275,051 In addition to the above, 22,413 tons were taken, during the year, from the Company's F. vein, leased to the Messrs. J. & R. Carter.
The Company's Tamaqua mines are not quite ready for business, the breaking machinery and fixtures being as yet unfinished.
The lessee, Mr. William Levan, is of opinion that his preparations will be completed in the course of a couple of months. The prospects are very encouraging for an abundant and increasing production of coal from this portion of the Company's property.
From the East Lehigh mines, Mr. Lentz, the lessee, calculates upon a large increase upon the production of last year. The coal is of excellent quality, and in great abundance.
The distribution of the coal from the region was as follows:
Tons. Consnmed on the line of the Lehigh Canal
229,056 Passed into the Morris Canal
290,780 Entered the Delaware Division
765,265 Of the last named quantity, 545,480 tons reached Bristol ; 156,340 tons passed, by the outlet lock at Wells Falls, into the navigable feeder of the Delaware and Raritan Canal; the remaining 35,445 tons were required for consumption on the line of the Delaware Canal.
The shipments of lumber for the year 1855 reached 54,587,567 feet, showing an increase of about four and a half millions over the shipments for the preceding year.
Freight of all kinds for the year amounted to:
1,543,646 being an increase over that for the year 1854 of 24,364 tons. The freight list for 1855 is as follows:
Freight transported on the Lehigh Canal in 1855.
Notwithstanding that the sales of coal from the Lehigh region were very sensibly interfered with by the exceedingly low rates at which Schuylkill coal, much of it of inferior quality, was forced upon the market, the business of the year was by no means of an unsatisfactory character, as will be made apparent by the following abstract from the more detailed statements herewith submitted.
The profits for the year 1855 were, from ground and water rents and from lots sold $31,224.71 ; from coal, $252,768.83; and from tolls, $735,278.09; making a total of $1,019,271.63.
The balance, at the close of the year, to the credit of profit and loss, after providing for State tax, interest, repairs, improvements and expenses, was $711,249.58; exhibiting an excess of $37,588.78 over the corresponding balance at the end of the year 1854.
The assets of the Company comprise at this date, April 30, the following items constituting the contingent fund, held in trust, and subject to the orders of the Board, viz. Pennsylvania State Fives
10,000 00 City Sixes
74,000 00 Pennsylvania Railroad, 24 Mortgage Bonds
200,000 00 Lehigh Valley Railroad, 1st Mortgage Bonds Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company's Sixes
288,877 89 Amounting to
$988,877 39 During the year 1855, the capital stock was increased by $1,300; the funded debt was diminished by $195,400; the floating debt lessened by $56,655; and the general indebtedness of the Company reduced by $556,328.23.
On the first of January last the aggregate of the Company's liabilities, including capital stock, funded debt, and obligations of every kind, and including also their own loans held in trust, was $6,774,472.37.
Excluding the item last named, the amount was $6,485,594.98.
The accounts herewith submitted present a detailed exhibit of the financial condition of the Company, which can scarcely fail of being satisfactory to the Stockholders.
During the year the regular semi-annual dividends, of 3 per cent. each, were made upon the capital stock. A distribution of scrip, not entitled to dividend, was also made among the Stockholders to the amount, at par, of $494,650; and an equal amount of the six per cent. loans of the Company cancelled. For the present season the production of coal from the Lehigh region will
, as heretofore, depend upon the activity of the market, the extent of the demand, upon the boating force, and upon the trade being exempt from casualties and interruptions.
The supply of boats and boatmen is good; and, should the demand warrant it, the Company, as well as many of the other operators in the region, are in a position materially to increase their production. Thus far the aspect of the market, notwithstanding the introduction of some disturbing elements, is favorable; and there seems to be good reason to anticipate an active business with improving prices.
From the Company's Canal there will be some diversion, by the Lehigh Valley Railroad, of the trade from the second coal field; but it is not supposed that it will be to an extent greater than will be compensated by the increased shipments on to the canal from other quarters, and especially from the Wyoming Valley, by the way of the Company's Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad and White Haven.
The indications are distinct and strongly significant of the approaching rapid development and growth of a large and valuable trade by this feeder to the Company's navigation. To accommodate this expected expansion in the business of the road, additions have been made to the rolling stock upon the line, and valuable improvements effected in the working of the planes; whilst further changes, intended to afford increased facilities to the trade, are projected.
From the accompanying Report of the Company's Engineer, it will be noticed that the important and very desirable improvements in augmenting the depth of water in the canal; in the rebuilding and enlarging of old locks and the construction of new ones; in the substitution of drop gates for swing gates; in raising and strengthening the canal banks; and in the construction on the berm bank of a second towing path, referred to in last year's Report as having been begun, have been zealously prosecuted during the past season and winter.
Lock No. 10, on the Upper Section, has been rebuilt of the full width of 22 feet. On the Lower Section several new locks, including an outlet lock into the pool of the Lehigh River at South Easton, have been begun, some of
them completed, and the remainder soon will be; the bridge over the pool of dam No. 8, intended for the accommodation of the boatmen and their teams, is about to be finished and brought into use; twenty-one miles of new towing path have been made ; the deepening of the canal to not less than six feet water has, with the exception of a very few miles on the Upper Section, been accomplished; and a new weigh scale, of improved construction, of great sensitiveness and accuracy, and not liable to accident and injury from fire, has been put up
These, with minor improvements, all of which are described in the Engineer's Report hereto appended, have necessarily involved a considerable expenditure; but, on the other hand, the capacity of the canal has been thereby greatly enlarged, and the transit of freight very much expedited.
The Managers are gratified at being able to report that an appropriation for the improvement of the Delaware Division has at last been made by the Legislature, which, however small in reference to the magnitude of the interests involved, will yet, if judiciously and economically applied, accomplish much towards securing the additional depth of water indispensable to a successful competition with rival avenues to market.
It is hoped, too, that this Act of the Legislature may be regarded as initial in its character, and as indicative of an intention to persevere in a policy thus happily begun until this most productive portion of the State works has been brought into a condition, in some adequate degree, commensurate with the wants of the trade and with the capacity of the canals, of which the Delaware Division forms the connecting link.
The Morris Canal, furnishing a very valuable outlet to the trade of the Lehigh, with a steadily growing business, and under an intelligent administration, is improving from year to year in its capacity and in the facilities offered to those who use this ronte to market.
About the first of April of the present year the repairs to the Company's Canal were completed, and the Lower Section ready for the admission of the water; and the Upper Section was ready very soon after. But, in consequence of the extreme severity of the past winter, the depth of the frost in the canal banks, and the prolonged obstructions from ice, the navigation did not actually open from Mauch Chunk before the 14th, and from White Haven not until the 18th of the same month.
Shipments of coal from the former place began on the 14th of April; but were again suspended for several days by a rise of water from frequent rains, and froin the melting of the snow at that time still remaining in the mountains; subsequently they became more regular, and have since then been steadily on the increase.
Very nearly the whole of the probable production of coal from the Company's mines for the current season has been disposed of at prices which would seem to insure its being promptly and regularly called for; whilst the barrenness of the market, and the condition of trade and manufacturing industry generally, appear to warrant the expectation of a healthy and remunerating business for the year. By Order of the Board of Managers.
JAMES COX, President.
COAL MEASURES AND AGGREGATES. In statistics of coal, when the number of tons reaches millions, the mind receives no definite impression, or very slight; as is the case in speaking of planetary and siderial distances. A larger measure than the ton seems desirable, and an image of form which may be easily and definitely conceived. The receipts at Philadelphia by the Reading Railroad, for the year ending December 1st, are stated to be 2,205,281 tons, an advance of about 12 per cent. on the receipts of the preceding year. The common reader understands the latter circumstance,—the advance, —but of the former--the tons—he has
the idea only of a huge quantity, which might as well have been any larger number.
The average weight of a cubic foot of coal is exactly 96 lbs., and prosimately in miners' language, 100; and a cubic vard, containing 27 cubic feet, weighs 2,240 to 2,715, mean 2.601 lbs.; but at the mines a yard is estimated at a ton of 2,240 lbs. These differences, though important in the city market, are not regarded at the mines when speaking of excavation, and they will not seriously atřect our present purpose. Let, then, a cubic foot weigh 100 lbs. and a cubic yard a ton.
Now, a cube of coal measuring 10 linear yards, or 30 feet in diameter, will contain 1,000 cubic yards or tons of coal; and if we cut it into four prisms, and place them coincidently, one above another, we shall have a prism of 15 feet square by 120 high-a base as large as an ordinary sized room in a dwellinghouse, and a height about that of the dome of the State House in Boston. Such a prism contains 1,000 tons of coal, and almost any one can form a clear conception of its magnitude.
Again, a square acre contains 160 square rods, and one side measures 12 2-3 linear rods. If within this area we erect 100 of our prisms with spaces of six feet between them on each side, as we may, we shall have on one acre 100,000 tons of coal. On ten acres we might erect 1,000 prisms—1,000,000 tons of coal; and this cohort of black towers may be as easily conceived as the company of 100 prisms on the one acre, or the unit prism with which we started. 1 cubic foot of coal
100 lbs. " yard "
1 ton. priem"
1,000 tons. facre contains 100 prisms 1,000
1,000,000 tons. We may now proceed more intelligibly in speaking of aggregates. The consumption of Boston, or rather the receipts at Boston for the year 1853, were 426,998 tons; for 1855 probably 500,000 tons. This would require for its 500 prisms, placed as above, 5 acres-1-15 part of Boston Common. The receipts at Philadelphia by the Reading R.R. for the past year, 2,205,281 tons, would require for its 2,205 prisms, 22 acres—nearly one third the common. The anthracite beds of Pennsylvania, and they are the only beds of that specie in the United States, all lie east of the Susquehanna. The production of these mines for 1854 was 7,273,750 tons, which would require 72 3-4 acres for its prisms—a space as large as the whole common. Moreover, the total production of these mines since the first shipment in 1820 of 365 tons, is 57,228,639 tons, which would cover a space eight times as large as Boston Cominon. Once more, these anthracite beds cover an area of 437 square
miles (see “Statistics of Coal,” by R. C. Taylor) of workable coal-meaning by workable, veins not less than three or four feet in thickness. Taylor estimates the thickness of vein for the whole coal field of Pennsylvania, both anthracite and bituminous, at from 10 to 15 feet. But as the anthracite much exceeds in thickness the bituminous, it is probable the average of the anthracite is at least 15 feet-many being 40, and some 50 and even 60 feet thick. Now, an acre of coal with a vein one foot thick, is found to yield 1,000 tons—one of our prisms. Hence, a vein of 15 feet will give 15,000 tons to the acre.
But 437 square miles equals 279,680 acres, which, multiplied by 15,000, gives the incomprehensible number of 4,247,700,000 tons. But apply the prismatic upit, and reduce the tons to cohorts of black towers, one hundred to the acre as before, and we shall get them upon an area of 66 square miles—a township of a little more than eight miles square.
Or to take a larger unit. If we consolidate a thousand of our prisms 1,000,000 tons, into a cube, that cube will be 300 feet high; and there will be 4,247 such cubes, each occupying an area of two acres : and the whole, an area of 13.7 square miles with no spaces between. With them a wall might have been built around ancient Nineveh, whose circumference was 60 miles, 600 feet high and 600 thick. Placed contiguously in a straight line they would extend 960 miles.