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theless accomplished much towards this end, and one could easily point out how his labors have already paid the State in actual capital, threefold more than they cost it."

Here we have another instance of State parsimony—the incubus imposed by legislative ignorance, upon the very elements of the State's power and force. Prof. Safford says, “we offer no apology for any defects that may be detected, our task has been an arduous one, and the means placed at our disposal for prosecuting it very limited. We have been compelled to work without assistance, except where it has been gratuitously afforded us.And, with the modesty of true science, he ventures to suggest," with reference to the future, that it is very desirable, that at least a small appropriation should be made to enable us to employ some one to assist and accompany us in our excursions. We shall, however, in any event, though it may be under difficulties, faithfully carry on the survey as far as the means given will justify." In this extract from Prof. Safford's preface to his report, we have the whole development of the antagonisms between the extremest modesty of true science and its kindred influences, and the narrow, contracted views of a great State Legislature. It does seem as if some Legislatures, when engaged on the subject of State surveys, or educational matters, conscientiously surrender all pretensions to common sense and the ability to apprehend the sources of the commonest values, and with a firm determination to appreciate no values except it may be those that make and build up some political shamble, it resolves to distribute State patronage among favorite partisans, and sympathizing po. litical plunderers only. Tennessee has really carried the prize for parsimony, and among all her Western sisters, may inscribe on her flag, "I am the richest in natural resources, and the meanest in the payment of talent to develope those resources.” She is the very incorporated conscience of parsimonious profundity:

Let us present an impersonation of the respective parties to this survey. First, we see a lofty figure whose feet are of iron, whose legs are of coal, body of the elements of gold, and whose head is made of unknown material, for it wears a mask. With the proud assumption of conscious power it beckons to its presence another figure quietly passing by in the shade, a figure of beautiful proportions distinguished by no predominant feature, yet beautifully symmetrical and harmonious in all its parts; its composition most elaborate from study, and although not made up in any one member or part of any particularly valuable or precious metal, yet the elements of the most precious values appear in subdued and harmonious proportions on every part of the system. A mosaic where the general effect was produced by the perfect adjustability and concinnity of each piece in detail

. The emanations from the figure were like moss on the bucket, speaking of fertility, or the bloom on the grape, telling of ma. turity; it imparted some of its own riches to kind touches, and

by a sort of magnetic influence discovered and assimilated with itself, consentaneous elements of wealth and beauty and harmony, no matter where or how deeply buried from common sight. Intuitively comprehending the wants of the figure in mask, it most cheerfully, and with its natural love for analytical and inductive beauties (for its name was "Science"), submitted to its dictation to explore and survey the country where the masked figure dwelt. The masked figure was of Borbdignagian proportions, and undertook to direct by its largest finger the points or places of greatest importance, forgetful that science, from its very elemental composition and atomic sympathy, instinctively, like the hound upon the trail, was most capable of reaching the best point first, and in the least difficult way. But, like all figures ashamed to show their faces, and that wear masks, its pathways were (to it) strewed with stumbling-blocks of lofty mountains, numerous rivers, or crooked and unbridged streams. Some of the most valuable elements of prosperity and success lay on the very surface, or clogged up the pathways on the country of the lofty figure: but to the figure all invisible—because of the mask which limited the field of vision. Science, on hopeful wings, thinks it may get over the obstacles, and attempts the exploration with the very reasonable and common sense notion that the masked figure will, at least, furnish a companion on the lonely exploration, at least, to hold up the telescope of observation, or jot in a note book what science may note while holding the telescope. The crossing of perilous streams, scaling mountains, piercing caverns, threading lonely valleys, scarfing mountain-sides, unearthing out-crops, digging and delving into the bowels of mother earth, co-operating in analyzing the contents of those bowels; all these and many other items of labor, toil, and wearisome responsibility might suggest the necessity of an assistant or helping hand. But no, the mask, significant of some disreputable emotion, obscured alike the light of common sense, common justice, and the appreciation of unquestioned values. The mask, that above all others (especially when matters of science or education are to be seen through it) obscures the vision, produces stolidity and an inability to realize the most palpable objects of value; this mask, we say, is parsimony, a feature in a State's character as reprehensible as its opposite qualityextravagance.

Unaided and alone (except when individual hospitality and appreciation of intellectual worth lent a helping hand) we find Prof. Safford plodding his devious way amid the stony records of the past, disturbed by dislocations, cramped up by plications and foldings, or undergoing a mental decortication, as he beholds the denudations and drifts around him; but no sympathizing or helping hand is near-he is every thingthe first and the last

, principal and stake-driver-observer and chain-bearer-and why?

because the great State of Tennessee wishes to save five or ten dollars a day-the pay of a few assistants.

We wish to be understood in this matter. We bave in for mer numbers animadverted upon this parsimony of a great sovereign State which will squander thousands upon political profli. gacy and begrudge a pittance--the smallest livelihood—to the science, the learning, the talent, which elucidates and eliminates the most valuable and important elements of that State's prosperity.

And while we reprehend parsimony, we shall always and with equal earnestness denounce extravagance in expenditures for such purposes, and in a future number shall give an exhibition of wicked wastefulness that will tell at least in one quarter. Our mining habits and cross-cuttings lead us in contact with all sorts of developments, and so long as we can hold a mining hammer we shall hammer away at all abnormal formations that protrude themselves in the paths of true science and practical knowledge, we care not whether the formation is that of a State or of stone.

The natural formations of Tennessee (unlike her political) are rich and varied, and resolvable from their topography and mineral constituents into seven divisions, and which singularly enough determine the three great political divisions of the State into West, Middle, and East Tennessee. The Unaka, or Eastern outlying division, comprises the group of wild mountain ridges flanking the base of the great Appalachian system and marks the line of demarcation of North Carolina. Many of these ridges are covered with open woods, affording unobstructed pas. sage to the traveller for miles and the finest pasturage grounds. Some, again, are entirely bald and locally termed “ Balds," attaining in some points an elevation of 6,000 feet.

Next in order moving westward is the valley of East Tennessee, consisting of a series of small troughs and narrow straight parallel ridges, and very forcibly impressing the traveller with the notion that when he is crossing them from south-east to the north-west, that he is in a rolling country of "wave on wave succeeding."

Next in order is the Cumberland Table-land, comprising the Cumberland Mountains, and is in reality a table-land with welldefined rocky escarpments, and its sandstone top would furnish a noble high way from Kentucky to Alabama.

The Highland River of Middle Tennessee, [encircling] the Central Limestone Basin, the slopes of West Tennessee, and the Western outlier, the Mississippi Bottoms, make up the seven divisions. A particular analysis of each of these divisions requires more space than we can spare, but Prof. Safford has very neatly summed up the sketch : "Thus ends our brief sketch of the physical divisions of Tennessee. Mark the contrasts they afford! How unlike are the “Balds” of the Unaka, and the

Bottoms of the Mississippi ; the fluted valley of the East, and the river-veined slope of the West; the wooded plains of the Tableland, and the rich rolling fields of our Central Basin. Surely there is no lack of marked variety in favored Tennessee." Of the mineral wealth we may enumerate almost every

element essential to the economics of American life. Iron ores, found under the most favorable associations, abound in the Limonite, Hematite, Dyestone, and Magnetic ores, scattered in inexhaustible profuseness.

Copper ore is found in Polk County, in the Unaka division, and when first found was supposed to be gold, but when ascertained to be only red copper ore was considered of no account. The sulphuret of lead (galena), carbonate of lead (cerusite), sulphuret of zinc (blende or black jack), carbonate and silicate of zinc (calamine), are all found in the State, but as yet little worked or valued. "The sulphuret of silver has been found in the Cumberland mountains, but judging by the amount passing between the Legislature and State Geologist, we should think it a scarce article, and not easily parted.

The portion of the great Appalachian coal field is found underlying the Cumberland table-land before alluded to, and covers about 4,400 square miles. The varieties of coal are numerous, but most semi-bituminous and dry burning. Nearest the seat of greatest disturbance, (the eastern escarpment of the tableland,) the coals exhibit a spumose structure, and become more laminate towards the central and western portions of the track.

Tennessee has her marbles, and of beautiful texture, variety and color; specimens of some will be introduced in the new extension of the National Capitol. Green sand, marl, salt, nitre, alum, epsom salts, and peroxide of manganese, are found. “We have hundreds of caves and 'rockhouses' in Tennessee, especially along the limestone slopes and in the gorges of the Cumberland table-land, which afford materials-nitrous earth-for the manu. facture of nitre."

The efficient principle of the nitrous matter in the earth of these caves has undoubtedly been derived from the decomposi. tion of animal matter brought in by wild animals during past ages, and as nitric acid has united with the lime and potash of the earth.

Hydraulic limestone, burrstone, roofing-slate and flagstones, are among the other useful products developed or classified by Prof. Safford's industry.

It is a matter of regret that each State Geological Corps finds it expedient to adopt its own nomenclature, and for local reasons generally. We concede the necessity of localizing by subdivi. sions, when the details of a classification are required, but is it not too often the case that other views than merely illustrative ones enlarge divisions and classifications unnecessarily? New

York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, has each its system. In New York' the upper silurian has been called Oneida, Medina, Clin. ton, Niagara, Onondaga, &c. groups; in Pennsylvania and Virginia, Formations IV, V, VI, and Levant series; in Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky, it is called Cliff limestone ; in Tennessee Gray limestone or Harpeth_Tennessee River group; in Iowa and Wisconsin, Formation III., Upper magnesian, &c. &c. Again the lower silurian has it synonyme in Stone River group and Nashville group.

The analogies of the New York and Tennesseean systems are such as to afford the conclusion, that the rocks of the whole silurian basin of Tennessee correspond to the lower silurian lime. stones of New York.

The synonima of the various systems are ascertained only by patient study, and by being kept constantly posted up with every new survey and exploration.

Our hope is that the Report of Prof. Safford will be read by those good citizens of Tennessee who know how to read, that they will thereby enlarge and enrich their hearts, and send to their Legislature delegates who can appreciate the great and varied blessings the State possesses in her scientific men and mineral resources, and by a liberal and judicious expenditure, prosecute with energy the exploration of her buried treasures, and give to her citizens and the world the benefit of her exploration in vol. umes that may alike instruct the mind and adorn the library as works of art.

ART. IV. – THE IRON MANUFACTURE OF GREAT BRITAIN

THEORETICALLY AND PRACTICALLY CONSIDERED. By Wm.
Truran, C. E. No. 7.

(Continued from page 391. Vol. 6.)

COAL.

The consumption of coal to smelt a ton of crude iron, varies with its richness in carbon and general quality; but is also in. fluenced by the ore, flux, and blast. Measured by their richness in carbon, and estimating that a given quantity of the anthracite coal is capable of reducing 1,000 lbs. of iron, an equal quantity of the best of the Dowlais coals would reduce 954; Pontypool bituminous, 878; and Scotch, 835 lbs.

In no operation connected with the manufacture of iron, has there been a greater reduction made in the consumption of material than in the coal for smelting. The rigid economy of fuel practised in several Welsh works, has resulted in a saving of nearly two thirds of the quantity formerly considered necessary. In 1791, the consumption of coal to the ton of crude iron aver. aged 6 tons, 6 cwts. ; in 1821, it had diminished to 4 tons; and

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