## An Introduction to Modern CosmologyAn Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observational situation. This fully revised edition of a bestseller takes an approach which is grounded in physics with a logical flow of chapters leading the reader from basic ideas of the expansion described by the Friedman equations to some of the more advanced ideas about the early universe. It also incorporates up-to-date results from the Planck mission, which imaged the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation over the whole sky. The Advanced Topic sections present subjects with more detailed mathematical approaches to give greater depth to discussions. Student problems with hints for solving them and numerical answers are embedded in the chapters to facilitate the reader’s understanding and learning. Cosmology is now part of the core in many degree programs. This current, clear and concise introductory text is relevant to a wide range of astronomy programs worldwide and is essential reading for undergraduates and Masters students, as well as anyone starting research in cosmology. |

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### Contents

1 | |

5 | |

7 | |

Newtonian Gravity | |

Observational Parameters | |

The Cosmological Constant | |

The Age of the Universe | |

The Cosmic Microwave Background | |

The Inflationary Universe | |

The Initial Singularity | |

Advanced Topic 1 General Relativistic Cosmology | |

Distances | |

Advanced Topic 4 Baryogenesis | |

Advanced Topic 6 Constraining cosmological models | |

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### Common terms and phrases

acceleration equation Advanced Topic angular diameter distance anisotropies assuming atoms baryon number centre Chapter clusters of galaxies comoving comoving coordinates coordinate corresponding cosmic microwave background cosmological constant cosmological principle cosmologists critical density curvature dark matter deceleration decoupling density parameter derivation described discussed distribution electromagnetic electrons energy density estimate evolution example expansion rate flat geometry fluid equation Friedmann equation galaxy cluster given gives gravitational attraction helium-4 homogeneity Hot Big Bang Hubble constant Hubble parameter Hubble’s law inflation inflationary interactions ionization isotropy known luminosity distance mass—energy material matter density mean measured megaparsecs metric non-relativistic nuclei nucleosynthesis number density observable Universe particle physics peculiar velocity photons possible predicted present Universe Problem properties protons and neutrons Qtot quarks radiation dominated radius redshift region relativistic relativity scale factor shown in Figure solution stars structure formation supernovae surface survey temperature theory thermal equilibrium topology typical Universe expands wavelength