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CH,80,- Concentration of sulfuric acid
at standard conditions, dry
basis, lb./cu. ft. 1.08 X 10+- Conversion factor including the
number of grams per gram equivalent of sulfuric acid (49 g./g.-eq.), 453.6 g./lb., and
1,000 ml./1., lb.-1./g.-ml. V. Volume of barium perchlorate
titrant used for the sample,
ml. V..- Volume of barium perchlorate
titrant used for the blank, ml.
, equation 8-2 N=Normality of barium perchlorato
titrant, g.-eq./1. V. Total solution volume of sul
furic acid (first impinger and
trated, ml. Vm.ca - Volume of gas sample through
the dry gas meter (standard conditions), cu. ft., see Equation 8-1.
6.3 Sulfur dioxide concentration.
where: Cso. Concentration of sulfur dioxide
at standard conditions, dry
basis, lb./cu. ft. 7.05 x 10-6= Conversion factor including the
number of grams per gram equivalent of sulfur dioxide (32 g./g.-eq.) 453.6 g./lb., and
1,000 ml./1., lb.-1./g.-ml. V, -Volume of barium perchlorate
titrant used for the sample,
ml. V =Volume of barium perchlorate
titrant used for the blank, ml. N-Normality of barium perchlorate
titrant, g.-eq./1. V =Total solution volume of sulfur
dioxide (second and third im
pingers), ml. V.- Volume of sample aliquot ti
trated, ml. V a-Volume of gas sample through
the dry gas meter (standard conditions), cu. ft., see Equa
tion 8–1. 7. References.
Atmospheric Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Manufacturing Processes, U.S. DHEW, PHS, Division of Air Pollution, Public Health Service Publication No. 999-AP-13, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1965.
Corbett, D. F., The Determination of so, and so, in Flue Gases, Journal of the Institute of Fuel, 24:237–243, 1961.
Martin, Robert M., Construction Details of Isokinetic Source Sampling Equipment, Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Control Office Publication No. APTD_0581.
equation 8-3 Patton, W. F., and J. A. Brink, Jr., New Equipment and Techniques for Sampling Chemical Process Gases, J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 13, 162 (1963).
Rom, Jerome J., Maintenance, Calibration, and Operation of Isokinetic Source Sampling Equipment, Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Control Office Publlcation No. APTD-0576.
Shell Development Co. Analytical Departo ment, Determination of Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfur Trioxide in Stack Gases, Emeryville Method Series, 4516/59a. METHOD -VISUAL DETERMINATION OF THE
OPACITY OF EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES 1. Principle and applicability.
1.1 Principle. The relative opacity of an emission from a stationary source is determined visually by & qualified observer.
1.2 Applicability. This method is applicable for the determination of the relative opacity of visible emissions from stationary sources only when specified by test procedures for determining compliance with the New Source Performance Standards,
2.1 The qualified observer stands at approximately two stack heights, but not more than a quarter of a mile from the base of the stack with the sun to his back. From a vantage point perpendicular to the plume, the observer studies the point of greatest opacity in the plume. The data required in Figure 9-1 is recorded every 15 to 30 seconds to the nearest 5% opacity. A minimum of 25 readings is taken.
3.1 To certify as an observer, a candidate must complete a smokereading course conducted by EPA, or equivalent; in order to certify the candidate must assign opacity readings in 5% increments to 25 different black plumes and 25 different white plumes, with an error not to exceed 15 percent on any one reading and an average error not to exceed 7.5 percent in each category. The smoke generator used to qualify the observers must be equipped with a calibrated smoke indicator or light transmission meter located in the source stack if the smoke
generator is to determine the actual opacity
Air Pollution Control District Rules and
Kudluk, Rudolf, Ringelmann Smoke Chart, U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Information Circular No. 8333, May 1967.
Figure 9-1. Field data. [36 FR 24877, Dec. 23, 1971, as amended at 38 FR 13562, May 23, 1973] PART 61—NATIONAL EMISSION STAND. Sec. ARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS 61.07 Application for approval of construc
tion or modification. Subpart A-General Provisions Sec.
61.08 Approval by Administrator.
61.09 Notification of startup. 61.01 Applicability.
61.10 Source reporting and waiver request. 61.02 Definitions.
61.11 Waiver of compliance. 61.03 Abbreviations.
61.12 Emission tests and monitoring. 61.04 Address.
61.13 Waiver of emission tests. 61.05 Prohibited activities.
61.14 Source test and analytical methods. 61.06 Determination of constructon or 61.15 Availability of information. modification.
61.16 State authority.
Subpart B-National Emission Standard for
Asbestos Sec. 61.20 Applicability. 61.21 Definitions. 61.22 Emission standard. 61.23 Air cleaning. 61.24 Reporting. Subpart C-National Emission Standard for
Beryllium 61.30 Applicability. 61.31 Definitions. 61.32 Emission standard. 61.33 Stack sampling. 61.34 Air sampling. Subpart D-National Emission Standard for
Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing 61.40 Applicability. 61.41 Definitions. 61.42 Emission standard. 61.43 Emission testing-rocket firing or pro
pellant disposal. 61.44 Stack sampling. Subpart E-National Emission Standard for
Mercury 61.50 Applicability. 61.51 Definitions. 61.52 Emission standard. 61.53 Stack sampling. Appendix A-Compliance Status Information. Appendix B-Test Methods. Method 101-Reference method for determi
nation of particulate and gaseous mercury emissions from stationary sources (air
streams). Method 102–Reference method for determi
nation of particulate and gaseous mercury emissions from stationary sources (hydro
gen streams). Method 103-Beryllium screening method. Method 104—Reference method for determi
nation of beryllium emissions from sta-
SOURCE: 38 FR 8826, Apr. 6, 1973, unless otherwise noted.
Subpart A-General Provisions § 61.01 Applicability.
The provisions of this part apply to the owner or operator of any stationary source for which a standard is prescribed under this part. 8 61.02 Definitions.
As used in this part, all terms not defined herein shall have the meaning given them in the act:
(a) “Act” means the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857 et seq.).
(b) "Administrator” means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency or his authorized representative.
(c) "Alternative method” means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant which does not meet all of the criteria for equivalency but which has been demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction to, in specific cases, produce results adequate for his determination of compliance.
(d) “Commenced” means that an owner or operator has undertaken a continuous program of construction or modification or that an owner or operator has entered into a contractual obligation to undertake and complete, within a reasonable time, a continuous program of construction or modification.
(e) “Compliance schedule" means the date or dates by which a source or category of sources is required to comply with the standards of this part and with any steps toward such compliance which are set forth in a waiver of compliance under $ 61.11.
(f) “Construction” means fabrication, erection, or installation of a stationary source.
(g) "Effective date" is the date of promulgation in the FEDERAL REGISTER of an applicable standard or other regulation under this part.
(h) "Equivalent method” means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant which has been demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction to have a consistent and quantitatively known relationship to the reference method, under specified conditions.
(i) "Existing source" means any stationary source which is not a new source.
(j) "Modification" means any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a stationary source which increases the amount of any hazardous air pollutant emitted by such source or which results in the emission of any hazardous air pollutant not previously emitted, except that:
(1) Routine maintenance, repair, and replacement shall not be considered physical changes, and
(2) The following shall not be considered a change in the method of operation:
(i) An increase in the production rate, if such increase does not exceed the operating design capacity of the stationary source;
(ii) An increase in hours of operation.
(k) "New source' means any stationary source, the construction or modification of which is commenced after the publication in the FEDERAL REGISTER of pro
posed national emission standards for dressed to the appropriate regional office hazardous air pollutants which will be of the Environmental Protection Agency, applicable to such source.
to the attention of the Director, Enforce(1) "Owner or operator" means any ment Division. The regional offices are as person who owns, leases, operates, con follows: trols, or supervises a stationary source. Region I (Connecticut, Maine, Massa
(m) "Reference method” means any chusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, method of sampling and analyzing for Vermont), John F. Kennedy Federal an air pollutant, as described in ap- Building, Boston, Mass. 02203. pendix B to this part.
Region II (New York, New Jersey, (n) "Startup” means the setting in Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands), Federal operation of a stationary source for any Office Building, 26 Federal Plaza (Foley purpose.
Square), New York, N.Y. 10007. (0) "Standard” means a national Region III (Delaware, District of Coemission standard for a hazardous air lumbia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virpollutant proposed or promulgated under ginia, West Virginia), Curtis Building, this part.
Sixth and Walnut Streets, Philadelphia, (p) "Stationary source” means any Pa. 19106. building, structure, facility, or installa Region IV (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, tion which emits or may emit any air Mississippi, Kentucky, North Carolina, pollutant which has been designated as South Carolina, Tennessee), Suite 300, hazardous by the Administrator.
1421 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Ga.
30309. 8 61.03 Abbreviations.
Region V (Illinois, Indiana, MinneThe abbreviations used in this part sota, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin), have the following meanings:
1 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, Ill. °C–Degrees Centigrade.
60606. cfm-Cubic feet per minute.
Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New ft-Square feet.
Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas), 1600 Paterft_Cubic feet.
son Street, Dallas, Tex. 75201. 'F_Degrees Fahrenheit.
Region VII (Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, in-Inch.
Nebraska), 1735 Baltimore Street, Kan1-Liter.
sas City, Mo. 64108. ml-Milliliter.
Region VIII (Colorado, Montana, M–Molar,
North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wym-Cubic meter.
oming), 916 Lincoln Towers, 1860 Linnm-Nanometer.
coln Street, Denver, Colo. 80203. OZ-Ounces.
Region IX (Arizona, California, V/V—Volume per volume.
Hawaii, Nevada, Guam, American yd-Square yards.
Samoa), 100 California Street, San w.g.-Water gage.
Francisco, Calif. 94111. inHg-Inches of mercury.
Region X (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, inH20 Inches of water.
Alaska), 1200 Sixth Avenue, Seattle, g-Grams.
Wash. 98101. mg—Milligrams.
8 61.05 Prohibited activities. N—Normal. 'RDegree Rankine.
(a) After the effective date of any min-Minute
standard prescribed under this part, no sec-Second.
owner or operator shall construct or modavg.-Average.
ify any stationary source subject to such I.D.-Inside diameter.
standard without first obtaining written O.D.-Outside diameter.
approval of the Administrator in accordMg—Micrograms (10-6 gram).
ance with this subpart, except under an %-Percent.
exemption granted by the President Hg—Mercury.
under section 112(c) (2) of the act. Be-Beryllium.
Sources, the construction or modification
of which commenced after the publica$ 61.04 Address.
tion date of the standards proposed to All requests, reports, applications, sub- be applicable to such source, are subject mittals, and other communications to to this prohibition. the Administrator pursuant to this part (b) After the effective date of any shall be submitted in duplicate and ad- standard prescribed under this part, no
owner or operator shall operate any new 8 61.08 Approval by Administrator. source in violation of such standard ex
(a) The Administrator will, within 60 cept under an exemption granted by the
days of receipt of sufficient information President under section 112(c) (2) of the
to evaluate an application under $ 61.07, act.
notify the owner or operator of approval (c) Ninety days after the effective date
or intention to deny approval of conof any standard prescribed under this
struction or modification. part, no owner or operator shall operate
(b) If the Administrator determines. any existing stationary source in viola
that a stationary source for which an tion of such standard, except under a
application pursuant to $ 61.07 was subwaiver granted by the Administrator in
mitted will, if properly operated, not accordance with this subpart or under
cause emissions in violation of a standan exemption granted by the President
ard, he will approve the construction or under section 112(c) (2) of the act.
modification of such source. (d) No owner or operator subject to
(c) Prior to denying any application the provisions of this part shall fail to
for approval of construction or modificareport, revise reports, or report source
tion pursuant to this section, the Admintest results as required under this part.
istrator will notify the owner or operator $ 61.06 Determination of construction making such application of the Adminor modification.
istrator's intention to issue such denial, Upon written application by an owner together with: or operator, the Administrator will make (1) Notice of the information and a determination of whether actions taken
findings on which such intended denial or intended to be taken by such owner
is based, and or operator constitute construction or (2) Notice of opportunity for such modification or the commencement
owner or operator to present, within such thereof within the meaning of this part.
time limit as the Administrator shall The Administrator will within 30 days specify, additional information or arguof receipt of sufficient information to
ments to the Administrator prior to final evaluate an application, notify the owner
action on such application. or operator of his determination.
(d) A final determination to deny any
application for approval will be in writ8 61.07 Application for approval of
ing and will set forth the specific grounds construction or modification.
on which such denial is based. Such final (a) The owner or operator of any new
determination will be made within 60 source to which a standard prescribed days of presentation of additional inforunder this part is applicable shall, prior
mation or arguments, or 60 days after to the date on which construction or the final date specified for presentation, modification is planned to commence, or if no presentation is made. within 30 days after the effective date (e) Neither the submission of an apin the case of a new source that already plication for approval nor the Adminhas commenced construction or modifi- istrator's granting of approval to concation and has not begun operation, sub struct or modify shall: mit to the Administrator an application (1) Relieve an owner or operator of for approval of such construction or legal responsibility for compliance with modification. A separate application shall
any applicable provision of this part or be submitted for each stationary source. of any other applicable Federal, State, (b) Each application shall include:
or local requirement, or (1) The name and address of the ap (2) Prevent the Administrator from plicant.
implementing or enforcing this part or (2) The location or proposed location taking any other action under the act. of the source.
(3) Technical information describing 8 61.09 Notification of startup. the proposed nature, size, design, operat (a) Any owner or operator of a source ing design capacity, and method of oper- which has an initial startup after the ation of the source, including a descrip effective date of a standard prescribed tion of any equipment to be used for under this part shall furnish the Admincontrol of emissions. Such technical in- istrator written notification as follows: formation shall include calculations of (1) A notification of the anticipated emission estimates in suficient detail to date of initial startup of the source not permit assessment of the validity of such more than 60 days nor less than 30 days calculations.
prior to such date.