« PreviousContinue »
Using this procedure, concentration estimates for both so, and particulate matter may be made on a regional basis. These predicted air quality concentrations may be used to establish region classification.
Point Model. The ambient air quality concentrations that result from the emissions of a single point source have a large degree of variability depending upon the meteorological conditions. Because of this, the shortterm air quality concentrations are of more concern than the long-term. In many cases, the short-term maximum concentrations occur when the plume is trapped in a mixing layer of limited depth. In these cases, the 1-hour ground level concentration from a single point source may be estimated from the following equation::
The values of the meteorological parameters must be based on the meteorological conditions in the vicinity of the source. Multiplying the estimated maximum 1-hour concentration by 0.25 may be used to estimate a maximum 24-hour concentration. This factor is deemed appropriate for the meteorological conditions to which the above equation applies. The factor implies that the meteorological conditions persist 6 hours of a 24-hour period. During the remaining 18 hours, wind direction and other meteorological parameters are such that the source has no impact upon the location subjected to contamination during the 6-hour period. The estimated maximum 24-hour concentration may be compared to the maximum 24-hour national standards. This procedure may be used in Priority 1A regions to estimate the existing air quality levels for developing a control strategy.
Under certain source and meteorological conditions, the above equation may not be appropriate; however, other equations are available that may be used.
2 Turner, D. B., "Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates", Public Health Servico Publication No. 999-AP-26, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, National Air Pollution Control Administration, Cincinnati, Ohio. Revised 1969.
APPENDIX B EXAMPLES OF EMISSION LIMITA
TIONS ATTAINABLE WITH REASONABLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY
This appendix sets forth emission limitations which, in the Administrator's judgment, are attainable through the application of reasonable available emission control technology. The statements presented herein are not intended, and should not be construed, to require or encourage State agencies to adopt such emission limitations without consideration of (1) the necessity of imposing such emission limitations in order to attain and maintain a national standard, (2) the social and economic impact of such emission limitations, and (3) alternative means of providing for attainment and maintenance of a national standard. Fallure of a State agency to adopt any or all of the emission limitations set forth herein will not be grounds for rejecting & State implementation plan is that implementation plan provides for attainment and maintenance of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards within the time prescribed by the Clean Air Act. Nor will State adoption of any or all of these emission limitations be grounds for approval of an implementation plan that does not provide for timely attainment and maintenance of the national standards. In preparing implementation plans, State agencies should tallor their control strategies to deal with the particular problems and meet the particular needs of their own States,
1.0 DEFINITIONS "Air pollutant" means dust, fumes, mist, smoke, other particulate matter, vapor, gas, odorous substances, or any combination thereof.
"Effiuent water separator" means any tank, box, sump, or other container in which any volatile organic compound floating on or entrained or contained in water entering such tank, box, sump, or other container is physically separated and removed from such water prior to outfall, drainage, or recovery of such water.
"Emission" means the act of releasing or discharging air pollutants into the ambient air from any source.
"Fuel-burning equipment" means any furnace, boiler, apparatus, stack, and all appurtenances thereto, used in the process of burning fuel for the primary purpose of producing heat or power by indirect heat transfer.
"Fugitive dust" means solld, airborne particulate matter emitted from any source other than through a stack.
"Opacity" means & state which renders material partially or wholly impervious to rays of light and causes obstruction of an observer's view.
"Particulate matter" means any material, except water in uncombined form, that is or has been airborne and exists as a liquid or & solld at standard conditions.
"Ringelmann chart" means the chart published and described in the U.S. Bureau of Mines Information Circular 8333.
"Source" means any property, real or personal, which emits or may emit any air pollutant.
"Stack" means any chimney, fiue, conduit, or duct arranged to conduct emissions to the ambient air.
"Standard conditions" mean & dry gas temperature of 70° Fahrenheit and & gas pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute.
"Submerged fill pipe" means any fill pipe the discharge opening of which is entirely submerged when the liquid level is 6 inches (15 cm.) above the bottom of the tank; or when applied to a tank which is loaded from the side, means any fill pipe the discharge opening of which is entirely submerged when the liquid level is 18 inches (45 cm.) above the bottom of the tank.
"Volatile organic compounds" means any compound containing carbon and hydrogen or containing carbon and hydrogen in combination with any other element which has a vapor pressure of 1.5 pounds per square inch absolute (77.6 mm. Hg) or greater under actual storage conditions.
2.0 CONTROL OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS 2.1 Visible emissions. The emission of visible air pollutants can be limited to a shade or density equal to but not darker than that designated as No. 1 on the Ringelmann chart or 20 percent opacity except for brief periods during such operations as soot blowing and startup. This limitation would generally eliminate visible pollutant emissions from stationary sources.
The emission of visible air pollutants from gasoline-powered motor vehicles can be eliminated except for periods not exceeding 5 consecutive seconds. The emission of visible air pollutants from diesel-powered motor vehicles can be limited to a shade or density equal to but not darker than that designated as No. 1 on the Ringelmann chart or 20 percent opacity except for periods not exceeding 5 consecutive seconds.
2.2 Fugitive dust. Reasonable precautions can be taken to prevent particulate matter from becoming airborne. Some of these reasonable precautions include the following:
(a) Use, where possible, of water or chemicals for control of dust in the demolition of existing buildings or structures, construction operations, the grading of roads or the clearing of land;
(b) Application of asphalt, oll, water, or suitable chemicals on dirt roads, materials stockpiles, and other surfaces which can give rise to airborne dusts;
(c) Installation and use of boods, fans, and fabric Alters to enclose and vent handling of dusty materials. Adequate con
tainment methods can be employed during sandblasting or other similar operations;
(d) Covering, at all times when in motion, open bodied trucks, transporting materials likely to give rise to airborne dusts;
(e) Conduct of agricultural practices such as tüling of land, application of fertilizers, etc., in such manner as to prevent dust from becoming airborne;
(f) The paving of roadways and their maintenance in a clean condition;
(g) The prompt removal of earth or other material from paved streets onto which earth or other material has been transported by trucking or earth moving equipment, erosion by water, or other means.
2.3 Incineration. The emission of particulate matter from any incinerator can be limIted to 0.20 pound per 100 pounds (2 gm/kg.) of refuse charged. This emission limitation is based on the source test method for stationary sources of particulate emissions which will be published by the Administrator. This method includes both a dry filter and wet impingers and represents particulate matter of 70° F. and 1.0 atmosphere pressure.
2.4 Fuel burning equipment. The emission of particulate matter from fuel burning equipment burning solid fuel can be limited to 0.30 pound per million B.t.u. (0.54 gm/105 gm-cal) of heat input. This emission limitation is based on the source test method for stationary sources of particulate emissions which will be published by the Administrator. This method includes both & dry filter and wet impingers and represents particulate matter of 70° F. and 1.0 atmosphere pressure.
2.5 Process industries-general. The emission of particulato matter for any process source can be limited in a manner such as in table I. Process weight per hour means the total weight of all materials introduced into any specific process that may cause any emission of particulate matter. Solid fuels charged are considered as part of the process weight, but liquid and gaseous fuels and combustion alr are not. For & cyclical or batch operation, the process weight per hour is derived by dividing the total process weight by the number of hours in one complete operation from the beginning of any given process to the completion thereof, excluding any time during which the equipment is idle. For & continuous operation, the process weight per hour is derived by dividing the process weight for a typical period of time.
31. 19 120,000
33. 28 160,000
34. 85 200,000
36. 11 400,000
46. 72 Interpolation of the data in table I for the process weight rates up to 60,000 lbs./br. shall be accomplished by the use of the equation:
E=3.59 po.ca P$30 tons/hr. and interpolation and extrapolation of the data for process weight rates in excess of 60,000 lbs./hr. shall be accomplished by use of the equation:
E=17.31 po.us P>30 tons/br. Where: E=Emissions in pounds per hour.
P=Process weight rate in tons per
hour. Application of mass emission limitations on the basis of all similar units at & plant is recommended in order to avoid unequal application of this type of limitation to plants with the same total emission potential but different size units. 3.0 CONTROL OF SULFUR COMPOUND
EMISSIONS 3.1 Fuel combustion. It is not possible to make nationally applicable generalizations about attainable degrees of control of sulfur oxides emissions from combustion sources. Availability of low-sulfur fuels varies from one area to another. In some areas, severe restrictions on the sulfur content of fuels could have a significant impact on fuel-supply patterns; accordingly, where such restrictions are necessary for attainment of national ambient air quality standards, adoption of phased schedules of sulfur-in-fuel limitations is recommended. Stack gas cleaning is feasible at large industrial combustion sources and steam electric power plants. Technology has been demonstrated which will allow 70 percent removal of sulfur oxides from combustion gases of most existing fuel burning units.
Alternative means of meeting requirements for the control of sulfur oxides emissions from fuel combustion sources include: Use of natural gas, distillate ou, low-sulfur ooal, and low-sulfur residual oll; desulfurtzation of oil or coal; stack gas desulfurization; and restricted use, shutdown, or relocation of large existing sources.
It is technically feasible to produce or desulfurize fuels to meet the following specifications: Distillate oll-0.1 percent sulfur (though it should be noted that distillate oll containing less than 0.2 percent sulfur is not generally available at this time); residual
oll-0.3 percent sulfur; bituminous coal0.7 percent sulfur. Availability of significant quantities of such low-sulfur fuels in any region where they do not naturally occur or have not been imported from other domestic or foreign sources will require planning for the timely development of new sources of such fuels. Because residual oil generally is obtained from overseas sources, its use ordinarily is restricted to areas accessible to waterborne transportation. There are limited tonnages of 0.7 percent sulfur coal produced at the present time, primarily in the western United States; large reserves of such coal exist but are not now being mined.
The flaring or combustion of any refinery process gas stream or any other process gas stream that contains sulfur compounds measured as hydrogen sulfide can be limited to a concentration of 10 grains per 100 standard cubic feet (23 gm/100scm) of gas. This limitation on combustion of process gas relates to the control of sulfur oxide emissions that would result from burning untreated process gas from refinery operations or coke ovens containing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide emissions can be controlled by requiring incineration or other equally effective means for all process units. Approximately 95 to 99 percent of the sulfur compounds must be removed from the process gas stream to meet this emission limitation. It may be appropriate to consider exemption of very small units which economically may not be able to achieve this level of control.
3.2 Sulfuric acid plants. The emissions of sulfur dioxide from sulfuric acid plants can be limited to 6.5 pounds per ton (3.26 kg./metric ton) of 100 percent acid produced. This emission limitation is equivalent to an overall so, to so, conversion efficiency of 99.5 percent or a stack gas concentation of about 250 to 550 p.p.m. of sulfur dioxide, by volume, depending on the strength of the feed gas.
3.3 Sulfur recovery plants. The emission of sulfur oxides, calculated as sulfur dioxide, from & sulfur recovery plant can be limited to 0.01 pound (kg.) per pound (kg.) of sulfur processed. Approximately 99.5 percent of the sulfur processed must be recovered to meet this limitation. Existing plants typically recover 90 to 97 percent of the sulfur. This emission limitation corresponds to a sulfur dioxide concentration of about 1,300 p.p.m., by volume.
3.4 Nonferrous smelters. Technology is available to limit emission of sulfur oxides, calculated as sulfur dioxide, from primary nonferrous smelters according to the following equations:
Copper smelters: Y=0.2X.
Lead smelters: Y=0.98X0.77.
X=Total sulfur fed to smelter (1b./hr.).
Y=Sulfur Dioxide Emissions (1b./hr.). These emission limitations are equivalent to removal of about 90 percent of the input-sul
fur to the smelter for most copper smelters and somewhat higher for most lead and zinc smelters. Technology capable of achieving such emission limitations may not be applicable to all existing smelters. In such cases, less restrictive control can be coupled with restricted operations to achieve air quality standards.
3.5 Sulfite pulp mills. The total sulfite pulp mill emissions of sulfur oxides, calculated as sulfur dioxide, from blow pits, washer vents, storage tanks, digester relief, and recovery system, can be reduced to 9 pounds per air-dried ton (4.5 kg./metric ton) of pulp produced. This emission limitation has application only to those sulfite mills that install waste liquor recovery systems for water pollution control or other purposes. The installation of a recovery system can result in signifi. cant sulfur oxides emissions 11 not properly designed. For sulfite mills with existing recovery systems, & sulfur oxides emission limitation of 20 pounds per air-dried ton (9 kg./metric ton) of pulp may be more reason. able due to economic considerations. 4.0 CONTROL OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
EMISSIONS The following emission limitations are applicable to the principal stationary source of organic compound emissions. Reducing total organic compound emissions will reduce photochemical oxidant formation. Such control of organic compound emissions mav appropriately be considered in areas where application of the Federal motor vehicle emission standards will not produce the emission reductions necessary for attainment and maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for photochemical oxidants. These emission limitations emphasize reduction of total organic compound emissions, rather than substitution of "nonreactive" or "less reactive" organic compounds for those already in use, because there is evidence that very few organic compounds are photochemically nonreactive. Substitution may be useful, however, where it would result in a clearly evident decrease in reactiv. ity and thus tend to reduce photochemical oxidant formation. The extent to which application of these emission Imitations would reduce photochemical oxidant formation in a given air quality control region will depend on the "mix" of emission sources in the region. These limitations are separable, i.e., one or more portions can be considered, as necessary.
4.1 Storage of volatile organic compounds. The storage of volatile organic compounds in any stationary tank, reservoir or other container of more than 40,000 gallons (150,000 liters) can be in a pressure tank capable of maintaining working pressures sufficient at all times to prevent vapor or gas loss to the atmosphere. If this cannot be done, the tank can be equipped with a vapor loss control device such as:
(a) A floating roof, consisting of a pontoon type, double deck type roof or internal
floating cover, which will rest on the surface vapor loss control devices, properly installed of the liquid contents and be equipped with in good working order and in operation: a closure seal or seals to close the space be (a) A container having all openings sealed tween the roof edge and tank wall. This con and totally enclosing the liquid contents. All trol equipment may not be appropriate it gauging and sampling devices can be gasthe volatile organic compounds have & vapor tight except when gauging or sampling is pressure of 11 pounds per square inch abso taking place. iute (568 mm. Hg) or greater under actual (b) A container equipped with a floating storage conditions. All tank gauging or sam. roof, consisting of a pontoon type, double pling devices can be gas-tight except when deck type roof, or internal floating cover, tank gauging or sampling is taking place. which will rest on the surface of the con
(b) A vapor recovery system, consisting of tents and be equipped with a closure seal or a vapor gathering system capable of collect- seals to close the space between the roof edgo ing the volatile organic compound vapors and container wall. All gauging and sampling and gases discharged, and a vapor disposal devices can be gas-tight except when gauging system capable of processing such volatile or sampling is taking place. organic vapors and gases so as to prevent (c) A container equipped with a vapor retheir emission to the atmosphere and all covery system consisting of a vapor gathering tank gauging and sampling devices can be system capable of collecting the organio gas-tight except when gauging or sampling vapors and gases discharged and a vapor disis taking place. These emission limitations posal system capable of processing such orare not intended for application to under ganic vapors and gases so as to prevent their ground tanks used for long-term storage, emission to the atmosphere and with all conwhere alling operations occur frequently. tainer gauging and sampling devices gas
The storage of any volatile organic com tight except when gauging or sampling is pound in any stationary storage vessel more taking place. This emission limitation will than 250-gallon (950 liter) capacity can be reduce organic compound emissions from un. in a vessel equipped with a permanent sub controlled waste water separator units apmerged All pipe or fitted with a vapor re proximately 95 to 100 percent. covery system. This emission limitation will 4.4 Pumps and compressors. All pumps reduce volatile organic emissions 90 to 100 and compressors handling volatile organic percent from uncontrolled sources of storage compounds can be equipped with mechaniin vessels 40,000 gallon capacity or greater cal seals or other equipment of equal and approximately 40 percent from uncon efficiency. trolled sources of storage in vessels 250 gal 4.5 Waste gas disposal. Any waste gas ion capacity or greater.
stream containing organic compounds from 4.2 Volatile organic compounds loading any ethylene producing plant or other ethfacilities. The loading of volatile organic ylene emission source can be burned at compounds into any tank, truck, or trailer 1,300° F. (704• C.) for 0.3 second or greater having a capacity in excess of 200 gallons (760 in & direct-flame afterburner or an equally uiters) can be from a loading facility effective device. This does not apply to emerequipped with & vapor collection and disposal gency reliefs and vapor blowdown systems. system. Also, the loading facility can be The emission of organic compounds from a equipped with a loading arm with a vapor vapor blowdown system or emergency relief collection adaptor, pneumatic, hydraulic or can be burned by smokeless flares, or an other mechanical means to force & vapor equally effective control device. This emistight seal between the adaptor and the hatch. sion limitation will reduce organic compound A means can be provided to prevent drainage emissions approximately 98 percent. of liquid organic compounds from the load 4.6 Organic solvents. The emission of ing device when it is removed from the hatch organic compounds of more than 3 pounds of any tank, truck, or trailer, or to accom (1.3 kg.) per hour or 15 pounds (6.8 kg.) per plish complete drainage before the removal. day from any equipment can be reduced by When loading is effected through means other at least 85 percent. This can be accomplished than hatches, all loading and vapor lines by: can be equipped with Attings which make (a) Incineration, provided that 90 percent vapor-tight connections and which close or more of the carbon in the organic comautomatically when disconnected. This emis
pounds being incinerated is oxidized to carsion limitation will result in 55 to 60 percent bon dioxide, or reduction in volatile organic emissions from (b) Carbon adsorption. uncontrolled sources in gasoline marketing This limitation can be applied to a variety and other organic transfer operations.
of solvent users including industrial surface 4.3 Volatile organic compounds water coatings, dry cleaning, degreasing and printseparation. Single or multiple compartment ing operations. Surface coating operations volatile organic compounds water separators may appropriately be exempted from this which receive effluent water containing 200 limitation when the coating's solvent makegallons (760 liters) & day or more of any up is water-based and does not exceed 20 volatile organic compound from any equip percent of organic compounds by volume. ment processing, refining, treating, storing or Organic solvents which have been shown to handling volatile organic compounds having be virtually unreactive in the formation of s Reid vapor pressure of 0.5 pound or greater oxidants, e.g., saturated halogenated hydrocan be equipped with one of the following carbons, perchlorethylene, benzene, acetone,