Emotions Across Languages and Cultures: Diversity and Universals

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, Nov 18, 1999 - Juvenile Nonfiction - 349 pages
In this ground-breaking new book, Anna Wierzbicka brings psychological, anthropological and lingusitic insights to bear on our understanding of the way emotions are expressed and experienced in different cultures, languages, and culturally-shaped social relations. The expression of emotion in the face, body and modes of speech are all explored and Wierzbicka shows how the bodily expression of emotion varies across cultures and challenges traditional approaches to the study of facial expressions. This book will be invaluable to academics and students of emotion across the Social Sciences.
 

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Contents

Introduction feelings languages and cultures
1
2 Breaking the hermeneutical circle
7
3 Experiencenear and experiencedistant concepts
10
4 Describing feelings through prototypes
12
disruptive episodes or vital forces that mould our lives?
17
6 Why words matter
24
7 Emotion and culture
31
8 The Natural Semantic Metalanguage NSM as a tool for crosscultural analysis
34
15 Conclusion
166
Reading human faces
168
2 From the psychology of facial expression to the semantics of facial expression
172
3 Social does not mean voluntary
175
4 What kind of messages can a face transmit?
177
5 Messages are not dimensions
178
6 The face alone or the face in context?
180
7 Analysing facial behaviour into meaningful components
182

sadness in English and in Russian
38
10 The scope of this book
45
Defining emotion concepts discovering cognitive scenarios
49
1 Something good happened and related concepts
50
2 Something bad happened and related concepts
60
3 Bad things can happen and related concepts
72
4 I dont want things like this to happen and related concepts
87
5 Thinking about other people
97
6 Thinking about ourselves
108
7 Concluding remarks
121
A case study of emotion in culture German Angst
123
2 Heideggers analysis of Angst
126
3 Angst in the language of psychology
128
4 Angst in everyday language
130
5 Defining Angst
134
6 The German Angst in a comparative perspective
137
7 Luthers influence on the German language
139
8 Eschatological anxieties of Luthers times
141
9 The meaning of Angst in Luthers writings
143
10 Martin Luthers inner life and its possible impact on the history of Angst
148
11 Luthers possible role in the shift from Angst affliction to Angst anxietyfear
151
12 The great social and economic anxieties of Luthers times
158
13 Uncertainty vs certainty Angst vs Sicherheit
159
14 Certainty and Ordnung
163
8 Summing up the assumptions
185
9 In what terms should facial behaviour be described?
186
a unified framework for verbal nonverbal and preverbal communication
191
11 The meaning of eyebrows drawn together
195
12 The meaning of raised eyebrows
201
13 The meaning of the wide open eyes with immobile eyebrows
206
14 The meaning of a downturned mouth
208
15 The meaning of tightly pressed lips
211
the what the how and the why in the reading of human faces
213
Russian emotional expression
216
2 Emotion and the body
219
3 Conclusion
234
Comparing emotional norms across languages and cultures Polish vs AngloAmerican
240
2 The scripts of sincerity
241
3 The scripts of interpersonal warmth
251
4 The scripts of spontaneity
255
5 Conclusion
271
Emotional universals
273
2 A proposed set of emotional universals
275
3 Conclusion
305
Notes
308
References
318
Index
338
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